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Introduction to Micronaut - JBCNConf 2019

Introduction to Micronaut presentation delivered by Micronaut creator Graeme Rocher at JBCNConf in Barcelona on the 27th of May 2019

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Introduction to Micronaut - JBCNConf 2019

  1. 1. Introduction to Micronaut
  2. 2. About Me • Graeme Rocher • Creator of Grails and Micronaut • Principal Engineer at Object Computing • Oracle Groundbreaker Award Winner • Based in Pais Vasco
  3. 3. Agenda • Challenges Facing Java and Software in General • Microservces and Serverless vs. Traditional Models • Micronaut Demos! • Q & A!
  4. 4. Serverless Challenges • Challenges to using Java in Serverless / Microservices scenarios • Existing Tools and Frameworks Not Optimized for Cold Starts / Low Memory • Go, Node etc. better in this regards • Tim Bray (Amazon/AWS) and others not recommending Java
  5. 5. Adapting to Serverless • Optimize for cold starts • Forget about connection pools • Don't bother with local caches • Choose technology based on your cold start requirements
  6. 6. Adapting to Microservices • Cold starts less important, but still important • The Container is the deployment unit • Containers and Java require special memory management • Optimization for memory usage required
  7. 7. Traditional Frameworks Spring is an amazing technical achievement and does so many things, but does them at runtime. • Reads the byte code of every bean it finds • Synthesizes new annotations for each annotation on each bean method, constructor, field etc. to support Annotation metadata • Builds Reflective Metadata for each bean for every method, constructor, field etc.
  8. 8. What to do, What to do? 1. Tough technology decisions ahead 2. Choose appropriately tool for the job 3. Traditional frameworks often not the best choice
  9. 9. The Micro Reality • Frameworks based on reflection and annotations become fat • But we love the programming model and productivity so we live with it • So ... why should we be more efficient?
  10. 10. Java's Problems for Frameworks • Limited Annotation API • Type Erasure • Slow Reflection • Reflective Data Caches • Classpath Scanning • Slow Dynamic Class Loading
  11. 11. Imagine if Kubernetes or Docker had been written in Spring or Jakarta EE instead of Go?
  12. 12. Why is Reflection a Problem? • Today the JDK is OpenJDK! • Just take a look... share/classes/java/lang/ • All Reflective data initialized on first access and held in soft references (yes every field, method etc.) • Won't be GC'ed until your application is low on memory!
  13. 13. Java's "Problems" • Greatly Exaggerated (Java has been dead forever) • Java can be Fast! (see Android and Micronaut) • However Most Existing Tools are based around • Reflection • Runtime Proxies • Runtime Byte Code Generation (bytebuddy/cglib/javassist)
  14. 14. Java's Advantages • Mature, Robust Ecosystem • Outstanding IDEs • Code Maintenance and Refactoring • Developer Availability • Build System Maturity • Diversity (Mobile, IoT, Server Side) • Languages (Java, Kotlin, Groovy, Scala)
  15. 15. By the time Go has all the features of Java, Java's startup performance will match Go
  16. 16. Already Solved Problem • The Android Community already solved the problem • Ahead of Time Compilation used extensively • Google Dagger 2.x • Compile Time Dependency Injector • Reflection Free • Limited in Scope to just DI
  17. 17. Ahead of Time Compilation • So what is Ahead of Time (AOT) compilation? • Pre-computation of application code using closed world static analysis • Fancy way of saying do more at compilation time and less at runtime
  18. 18. Micronaut is... • A Microservices and Serverless Focused framework (hence the branding) • Also a Complete Application Framework for any type of Application • Dependency Injection, Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP), Configuration Management, Bean Introspection and more..
  19. 19. Micronaut AOT Computation • All Dependency & Configuration Injection • Annotation Metadata (Meta annotations) • AOP Proxies • Essentially all framework infrastructure • ie. What Spring/CDI do at runtime
  20. 20. With Micronaut You Can Build • Microservices • Serverless Applications • Message-Driven Applications with Kafka/Rabbit • CLI Applications • Even Android Applications • Anything with static void main(String..args)
  21. 21. So What is Micronaut? Really? • An Application Framework for the Future • Reflection Free, Runtime Proxy Free, No Dynamic Classloading • Ahead of Time (AOT) Compilation AOT APIs • ... oh and let's you build Microservices
  22. 22. Micronaut's Impact • We announced Micronaut on March 2018 • Open Sourced 28th of May 2018 (a year ago!) • Sparked industry wide improvements from Red Hat (with Quarkus) and Pivotal (Spring Boot 2.2) • Micronaut is changing the face of server side Java
  23. 23. GraalVM • A New Universal Virtual Machine from Oracle • Features a native-image Tool • Converts Java -> native machine code using AOT • Works well with Micronaut • Startup time 20ms and Memory Consumption 18MB!
  24. 24. DEMOMicronaut
  25. 25. Hello Micronaut @Controller class HelloController { @Get("/hello/{name}") String hello(String name) { return "Hello " + name; } } @Client("/") // Client Generated at Compile Time interface HelloClient { @Get("/hello/{name}") String hello(String name); }
  26. 26. How Small? • Smallest Micronaut Hello World JAR is 12MB when written Java or 14MB in Groovy • Can be run with as little as 10mb Max Heap with Kotlin or Java (20mb for Groovy) • Startup time subsecond for Kotlin or Java (a little more for Groovy) • All Dependency Injection, AOP and Proxy generation happens at compile time
  27. 27. Micronaut Microservice Cold Starts & Memory Style Cold Start Memory OpenJDK +/- 800ms +/- 100mb Eclipse OpenJ9 with Class Sharing +/- 300ms +/- 70mb Graal Native +/- 15ms +/- 15mb
  28. 28. Micronaut AWS Lambda Cold Starts Style Cold Start Simple Function +/- 300ms API Gateway +/- 800ms API Gateway + Graal Custom Runtime +/- 150ms
  29. 29. Micronaut 1.1 Out Now and Production-Ready • Compile Time DI & AOP • HTTP Client & Server • GRPC and GraphQL Support • RabbitMQ and Improved Kafka Support • Micronaut 1.1.2 supports GraalVM 19 native (experimental status)
  30. 30. Micronaut project is healthy • ~2 years of development by several OCI engineers. • 128 contributors (19 from OCI). • ~2350 stars on GitHub. • ~6000 commits. • More Exciting Announcements in 2019 • Made in Spain (partly ;-)
  31. 31. Micronaut Resources • Gitter Community: • User Guide: • Micronaut Guides: • FAQ: • Github: core • Examples: micronaut-examples
  32. 32. Summary • Micronaut and GraalVM are leading the AOT revolution • Server Side Java is Adapting to the Serverless world • Building more efficient applications possible with right framework choices • AOT Sacrifices Compilation Speed to Gain so Much More • Going native an option for the future with GraalVM
  33. 33. Q & AMicronaut