Women in Agriculture,Gender and Water Indicators by Ilaria Sisto
Women in Agriculture, Gender and Water IndicatorsFAO Support to the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) Gender Strategy Ilaria Sisto World Water Week 2012 Stockholm, 27th August 2012 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Outline1. Women in agriculture and the gender gap2. Gender-sensitive Indicators for water resources in agriculture3. FAO Support to the implementation of the AMCOW Gender strategy Women from Sub- Saharan Africa spend about 40 billion hours/year collecting water
1. Women are a key resource in agricultureSource: ILO.Share of employed population by sector and gender
Women farmers produce less perunit of land... Percentage Sorghum Vegetables All crops 0 -5 -10 -18 -21 -15 -20 -41 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 Gap between yields on male- and female-controlled plots in Burkina Faso
… because women use fewer inputs (e.g. fertilizer) Bolivia Ecuador Guatemala Nicaragua PanamaBangladesh Nepal Pakistan Tajikistan Viet Nam GhanaMadagascar Malawi Nigeria 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage of households using fertilizers Male-headed households Female-headed households
… and women control less land Bolivia Ecuador Guatemala Nicaragua PanamaBangladesh Indonesia Nepal Pakistan Tajikistan Viet Nam GhanaMadagascar Malawi 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Average farm size (ha) Male-headed households Female-headed households
Economic and social gains fromclosing the gender gap Agriculture productivity gains on women’s farms and at national level Food security gains with a reduction in the number of hungry people Broader economic and social gains Improve health, nutrition and education for children Build human capital and promote economic growth
Steps to close the gender gap Ensure equality for women under the law Invest in women and girls Provide public services and technologies to free up women’s time Consider gender differences in agricultural policy Address the multiple constraints of women in agriculture holistically
2. Gender-sensitive indicators in water resources management at national level Management of land and water resources Access to paid employment Educational attainment Institutional empowermente.g. Empowerment (legal, political, economic and social empowerment of women and men)
Monitoring MDG 8: Access to drinking water % urban water supply coverage % rural water supply coverage % total water supply coverage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 an n a co n ce ria us ey e t r ia ly e yp si no ai ec in Ita an rd oc rk ge pr Sy ni Sp st Eg ba re Jo Tu Cy Tu or Fr le Al G Le Pa M
Management of land indicators:① Percentage farms managed by women② Percentage cultivated area managed by women③ Distribution of farm sizes between men and women
Access to water indicators:① Number of men and women with access to drinking water in relation to the total population② Proportion of rural households (male and female headed) connected to reticulated water③ Proportion of people (families) dependent on a community pump for drinking water of total population.
Access of women to paid employment1. Statistics reflect only part of reality as many workers are paid in cash and payments are not officially registered2. Contributions of women and children are not recorded3. Majority of farms (approx. 85%) are « managed by the family »
Access to paid employment indicators:① Percentage women hours worked in agriculture sectors② Percentage women in the agriculture labour force in the irrigation sector③ Ratio men/women in paid permanent and seasonal employment in the irrigation sector① Percentage of women with social security coverage.
Educational attainment indicators:① Number of rural boys and girls enrolled in schools② Number of men and women employed in the irrigation sector who received training③ Number of men and women with each education level working in agriculture sectors① Ratio men/women of extension staff involved in the irrigation sector.
Institutional empowerment indicators:① Percentage women employees in a ministry (water ministry or equivalent)② Percentage women in decision-making positions③ Percentage women members of the irrigation associations
3. FAO Tools Passport to mainstreaming gender in water programmes: SEAGA Irrigation Sector Guide Key questions for interventions in the agricultural sector www.fao.org
FAO Policy on Gender Equality• Framework to guide FAO’s efforts to achievegender equality in all its technical work andassess results.• 30% of total agricultural aid is committed towomen and gender equality by 2025.• One standard for gender mainstreaming isstrengthening the capacity of Membercountries in policy analysis, gender equalityplanning and evaluation.
FAO Support to Member Countries Strengthen government technical and functional capacities to address gender inequality in agriculture sectors. Three dimensions: individuals, organizations and enabling environment. Portfolio of CD instruments: training, policy advice, organizational analysis, knowledge management, network creation, coaching, knowledge sharing and pilot new approaches.
What else can be done? Strengthen extension systems and institutions to be more responsive and inclusive of women Address structural barriers to women’s access to productive resources Improve financial systems to respond to needs of rural women producers and entrepreneurs Close the gender gap in the rural labour markets.