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Barrierefrei kommunizieren

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Jan Eric Hellbusch ist freiberuflicher Berater für barrierefreies Webdesign. Nach seinem Studium der Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Universität Siegen arbeitete er als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Universität Magdeburg, bei der GTZ im Bereich "Öffentlichkeitsarbeit" sowie im Projekt "Barrierefrei Informieren und Kommunizieren" der Blinden- und Sehbehindertenverbände Deutschlands. Hellbusch ist Autor des 2011 erschienenen Werks "Barrierefreiheit verstehen und umsetzen" sowie der beiden gleichnamigen Titel "Barrierefreies Webdesign". Mit 2bweb.de war er an zahlreichen großen und kleinen Projekten bei der Umsetzung der Barrierefreiheit beteiligt, etwa beim Landtag in NRW, bei der Tagesschau oder bei der Selbsthilfeorganisation PRO RETINA.

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Barrierefrei kommunizieren

  1. 1. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012 Barrierefrei Kommunizieren Jan Eric Hellbusch © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  2. 2. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012In Deutschland gibt es eine Gesetzeslage • BITV 2.0: Verordnung zum Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz • Für Behörden des Bundes verpflichtend • Bezieht sich seit 2011 auf die Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 • Die Länder-BITVs - sofern vorhanden - beziehen sich auf WCAG 1.0 © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  3. 3. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Maßgeblich sind Webstandards • Die Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 wurden in Dezember 2008 vom World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) als Webstandard veröffentlicht. • Ausrichtung an moderne Webtechniken. • Anforderungen (behinderter) Nutzer, aber auch der Webentwickler, Software-Hersteller und nicht zuletzt der Zertifizierer. • Grundlage für viele Gesetze weltweit. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  4. 4. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Standardisierung in EuropaHuman Factors; European accessibility requirementsfor public procurement of ICT products and services •Mandate 376: Europäische Standards zur Zertifizierung der Barrierefreiheit • Richtlinien einschließlich WCAG 2.0 und Teile der ISO 9241 • Testanleitungen, Werkzeugkiste • Geplantes Inkrafttreten: Februar 2014Weitere Informationen auf www.mandate376.eu. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  5. 5. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012 Vergrößerungssysteme © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  6. 6. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012VergrößerungsausschnitteBei Vergrößerung wird immernur eine Teilansicht dargestellt. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  7. 7. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Benutzerdefinierte Farben © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  8. 8. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Tasten, hören und schlecht sehenEs gibt unterschiedlicheAusgabe- undEingabegeräte. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  9. 9. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Wer Tastatur und Maus nicht nutzenkann, ...... braucht eineSpezialmaus. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  10. 10. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Computer mit BlindenhilfsmittelnDie Hilfsmittel:• Screenreader•Sprachausgabe• Braillezeile © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  11. 11. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Thema KontrastHelligkeitskontraste werden anhand eines Algorithmusses derWCAG 2.0 gemessen. Das Kontrastverhältnis kann zwischen 1:1(kein Helligkeitsunterschied) und 21:1 (schwarz/weiß) liegen. • Konflikte: Corporate Design, grafisches Design • Minimales Kontrastverhältnis (AA): 4,5:1(normale Schrift) bzw. 3:1 ( große Schrift; Ausnahme Logos) © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  12. 12. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012HintergrundgrafikenHintergrundgrafiken werden im Kontrastmodus alsHintergrund behandelt; entsprechend werden sie imKontrastmodus ausgeblendet. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  13. 13. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012SkalierbarkeitIm Mittelpunkt der WCAG-Anforderung steht dieTextvergrößerung: • Alle Browser bieten eine Seitenzoom-Funktion • Besser nutzbar ist ein elastisches Layout, das auf die reine Schriftvergrößerung reagiert • Optimale Lösungen gibt es nicht; ein flüssiges Layout gilt nachwievor als Best-Practice © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  14. 14. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Seitenzoom © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  15. 15. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Strukturen in HTMLMit HTML 4 geht es im Inhalt im Wesentlichen um 1. Überschriften 2. Listen 3. Absätze 4. DatentabellenTechnisch ist der richtige Einsatz das Handwerk, dasjeder beherrschen muss. Es kann aber nicht alles mitdiesen Elementen abgebildet werden. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  16. 16. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Alternativtexte für BilderDie Formulierung von Alternativtexten für Grafikenhängt von vielen Faktoren ab, etwa Kontext des Bildes.Es ist eine eigene "Kunst". • Schriftgrafiken: Abgebildeter Text im alt-Attribut • Layout-Elemente: Leeres alt-Attribut oder per CSS einbinden • Fotos: eine kurze Beschriftung oder Identifikation • Schaubilder: Identifikation und entweder eine lange Beschreibung oder Hinweis auf Kontext • Verlinkte Grafiken: Etwas über das Linkziel © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  17. 17. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012TastaturbedienungScreenreader-Nutzer verwenden meist die strukturelleNavigation des Screenreaders. Vor allem für sehendeTastaturnutzer müssen Webseiten bedienbar bleiben. • Bedienung mit der Tab-Taste muss gewährleistet werden: 1. Links und Steuerelemente (<a href> statt <span>) 2. Reihenfolge folgt Quellcode (tabindex vermeiden) © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  18. 18. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Sichtbarer FokusDer Fokus muss immer sichtbar bleiben. © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  19. 19. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Schreckgespenst PDFPortable Document Format müssen auch barrierefrei sein: • Strukturen wie in HTML • Voraussetzung: Formatvorlagen korrekt einsetzen • Ab Microsoft Word 2010 „out of the box“ möglich • Hilfreiche Plugins: AxesPDF (Word) und „Made to tag“ (Indesign) • Nacharbeit in Adobe ist unverhältnismäßig teuer © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de
  20. 20. Besser Online 2012 - DJV 15. September 2012Ende der Folien © Jan Eric Hellbusch (1967 - 2012) hellbusch@2bweb.de http://2bweb.de

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