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# Chapter 12

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### Chapter 12

1. 1. ,J-}? ( Dt) )";.,, Q" tklll/1lr.rrt ilrur+ = drk,, i." "+;l)*ri l;:: fj = a6 > .= t-, D re 7 rrrr f, Nsk{t-- Yg49- .;1 r.: ii ,4 (a4, ,.1 .vt; I 4; xlolirl t*t:l!"r; lf c oisl nri /s ) ha (.r J i; A^ = l}Ei1 r - */Q-rnzril w:,{ = trcxt(i -, (o 3.q6qgro) -_ ) -< -- Jr.q-88 1 o b?J r^0.!- l"- - 14- li.5yM 4 Tc a-Siini,i^l-t jlx lVrtt-P frlc-iof l,i;,r.r e, r-(r11ir117t;i; Utt 2qua llap i.1 Cr.l3 _il: I = I!j^ ksrro.fl Lt. id-rr"cr -- d CtLrti t] .*J tl . f, reqrii,r.ci sitaft pz^.ra k: lUr. iirt frrril i) I ) ?-j irii ci;ii:,rnj voJv+r :o l ba {.ii..:u,ia l -l: I -i-.
2. 2. i0 jJx.o raoc: LJtqxlb-Y Ns/*t vrale,r ar- 46o, rnourh piir) hrr1-:-ontal (4.6s!tpo., ,1q" ) = etnl ,-l-t-! - L.i [", a vo". , 4lii y {oY N /}/i trnl I I -- DrqrYfltef =1t ,] 3r,".r,.--1I--.Fv=3mis ,_ j ._aoo 14 li(rt, it l 4 4 -t{"vr- ri -Tf{u I?, + h?= 4., fi, o, t,,j t v-!: ,Lr F-JE ,, iq _ I _-)ao p.{) V, .o , 2",=5 b, l_r,txlo-} lrl 1), o. r/plrit/s ,t-,=o ( nrnnlir :l.o : n iL) /) D" fvl) =( qq, ) k3/n3 )( ; mlr;1soxi6-3)nl t ^l t 5eg x {o-v Ns/rn = a r?xlot .j t)t51 , ,-.-.--r-l -l dri- i-j i:t1 -- 2- : (rl)rr1t- ,1 ,t I i*{- I -- V, <I (q = A,V, / ri Sim xrr,-l))r 3 ) Itl t]- *r.riocr lf i* + llo r,r,51.-- :lr:]j_ -3 , /1.t1) rtaxto "/J)(1 .&t) L : 5 ?g/xlo-3 mr/s t llP: rr Li51 t J?61 -3 llrr r!-53 rn__ 4S...- / uJ*n"ft . 63-b,, i ( *, ir )4 i+46 l= i---.-7]ex(0) t) rr/,* ( 6.sitxlo-f mr/e)(e-s B --L) 0,1 - l-{ KL)* t "7\$ q
3. 3. wdt-e * @-J wt y-*;ete,30 (h) NPSH = L+vtt ?,t -o r3 ( inkf) tt o (ery i:.vt* "t9 5 lt oP3 7. _ vV+ p. ( i- t i-L v3 t -/ t ,yt* .7 o k J 7, tr - YAln t V--o ,Zs -0 | t hv-o t.J *a) P-Y / ls /9 Vt €) ;nt" O <) q- ?r 11 .L {dI Ft r4t,c = 7lj+ xt, ? NJ/m 7 *1*. ( tll: l?,J ^t, NIrStln 6 "tJ h -7 pain,, = tot 4^ " q1ztxJ65.16" t -}l,e rf4ffi :!g l{^." .f v Y z1ln-ffi75" - ro-38 - 0.7{ t3 -- 96a m +3 = ,o-*.rln# t1 l- r-t---*-u l" I:. tJp-iuf-e = -.- J/+ --tl; V ./u i) ili i-j i l U,, ,|w ---F- I ", -+ -) { ./ -T* il -t
4. 4. lltt,. I.t 1 . ,/ /^t- _-..1 tY) = hn = 5Q - | .).,: l0 Q n- lt, L/mln l b "l I ,L 7t. "1r = ; ).l9o )Yl ,,|{ki d : L,,1 l,{-.f t) lClqn !!,Y: rzr I u,-E,{ub,+I+t " //)t t /6 ,41 (t-5 r<E /-l/L I [.r. =0 , l), =P, =O Yt =V1 = 0 "y^rJ=4 , 1,1, (2,-?,) rlJirJ{3 ,,t (tr) =A = i-5 i-[tu orrlrso t.llr, ( io r9-rl J.g r I 54 -/-: rt0-9d- =, 5 +?r,y16,4d h1,=ig+t-?35y-g)- (? xro-6+ f .:r x ro-!C.__5d.i &= AV u,=1lES1rro, a = -f;(rtrx{o-)).Y " tt t / " : Ia Yto-: ,,/./i T=----::- = ,. 6 klov Sif G.: l6rl .3c/nr,q i = i ;+ xtol& =€) x l) ,avc O lp. t-r { {t;rIr eixrD+ci)- F+*111 1o-rq>> lt+ Frt.xta-b& I.,p - 1-5 I :i 16xlo{iQt - - --i g" y6 r. t\$-60,> +[ >x ro-? , -64 -I f = I i + i q6 x{04L,{S" / l7Yll11 l,,il" cr r leos)"j -{vl . - l I )-.0P43?x fg|q" 3f - tq tr16xt04ra J\$x1o-r0) ardt I l l,r1r,- {. I }.)f, Y1o-{ Q-- @) ,,,tlrt-t>s{TWY &) = I 5t i"f-15 {- i[8{*t O4 tt+ tst: ;jHer4.? ltt Frt vrc-t Q.
5. 5. ] rr 31r(11.15) -/ l= 3o m , 0 = LA e\$ ): Kroo,da^- a .i ku ..v*, i v vdtc .10 L 4boi9, a chpc,t va)}< r o, (utry olu 4 y rt[]u,{qf ,Hnn6ed 10" Vaob< Vo*l"t0. A := i- ,t ^L f oo I Jun 4o rn of Pip€ , tlr1z opa./) 144L St AY .] J- 1^r K ?f :2-* W -Lt-2rQo , vx1-tckd Q..=? tr , L v1 L4 I D-u, 4-. / i"u "t- yt%u*, { hp = Yu Kr ?,+ (f*+ >r;q P1 P- = 0, Vt=V-t,--O , 71-2,=4a {^ti 7 c" hp =(z-,-7) n ft*+:r.l1i FK;: z1r0z) + r + to Jn"L 13-e fil - "-L*o-l + lj - a)-f,n-n-rtl- -Jn = L- = 1 .t(16 D*3 hp= .1 L o.\$r(V" -O O=AV i = O " filoo-)- v _ 3t ?3(* sub O V=J{.13P ln+a hp=q+o-t"(C31S3(}] h?=q +F:e -&eQ- *O = Q-r c36 84 | A"rfi?t(toooL)(to;f I WJ l-rt *t | ["rnin hp =11 3.0r3 rilt{06-, ,)(nl,.,.t,,, :> q + j .ol1 yl,tj - DrA.t.l h-?A,J. v<rgu-i l(ounr{a .=) c,rot* ur+h | ::,i -/ :) ho= 3+gr16-?4i- h? l, o ^.,-!> 3 lrxl0-ld = 1+jol3x{0" & - 3.0t3 Y(occt -- L &.- = * !-^.ro t l-ot3Xl0a Iti, pu,rp Nttj.ld. no.l bq Salr:JactarX .rn +hl: su-s+eol] A
6. 6. tJ lg (q) Vaivr wrdr ope4., Q=? tl ,t ,,4 Yr H o fi r,^ = {t. {tr,rl*+ + rKLl+ ?,0 , V1--0 ,71=6 f,--o-ot ?,= 0,Vt.0 rZ:= 3 i3D LKt= KtrilrnCFromF{ur&tt] = 33 m aI (uoJr{, r^riat o}+a) Jo rn L= lOffi , D=0 l- ha = .gJ, .0-.t.Tlx 1o-" Q.) jn>lt) 0"=AV = \$10 r) v y = rL.l-3t d ho = ?-, + l-f+ l\$ * LKu t,;L 0 t.0rxroro . )a, t fto ortg {_; I (-t.l=,Al- J r-G.*r) On,.lorr.r Qv - Jt | (e + KruL*)(Fr< _O . ( [r 1 I /(t]( otl&) + ro,6 q, _ ,il _?j 6ye-L ) .vr(51g1 6l.troto) lt 5i1a f g-, : /g e rl- = J.797xrol G- -- (i . 0I3 ,nl/" r. *1(1, ) rt l, lo/ ()no*; - ,ol (e) () f cr.1l93) o orcS n)t/s ( t,, i;d - 10io (o oac5) = l3 +(6 t K.ur,o) (Sl< og)(o,oQ(s)L - (L { Kcuur,< )it_r. bso) -_ S?_ 3j __ rr }o! , It Jqt (6 + k.u"u*. 1 = jl E3( Kur"jr. : Q5.136 X ?s.-li+ lrznr Frgu"e l] 38 .,, P kr,.u* = Jg.14 ?-rgenl valr,< sr*hng *. t3 " : llw neqtlxd va,lva S,ct*rttg ts tt / -,4 opofl #
7. 7. t.) oJcm !=c.oor o . = o.o! lyl 4r ffr/ l,=JEAoVft ?, uo= ?, H+ z, r i#+>rl4 =o , ?"= a ,Vs: o , Zr=(^ . L= 60,n , D= 0o,r. ,V= I +rn1s Q,1 = .6atl .JJ ^.ot!-! I Kr- Krug",1 | Kr volw t Ky n.lil 3 t1" = 1-i tlo + l-c = f3zo i{rnr q.k( n/s- rr r . rofl= Y grrJlrnl JJ.od = I-6> tO-q N s,/rn" \$=o ool,Q-e= pJ! JA - t!+ e#: i +=,,r/:ft; :,, | ;;r ,.rv,u-vxv/rf f = o.ot.VY u = 5 6xto[ 35x10 (. lvl-1- -f r _. a * , hh- .r +troo rJ r{ rr) [ro o*r{f}=) + /d r]*!*, t,, :.o +4tB6-1 &+-o-tao _J !-[ rn *(bI e,AV lr-v) i = 1-(o 6FlCt.uJ Ns = @dZt ?3 bbl k1u = tJFxto n1z7r. Qh"fh uJ = lJto rp/n r8,1.:sniarsvo : = l}ltO ort4a 1 tll rnd / I VltI ,X5 I , t(Nndl 6os fn\$DG+l:% A rt- : lt3.pg radA Irlr> dfrqa C LFr] rvS0 - a733 Nr = IJSS ( ,r ,fn ) Qa tle) __ i:34-t J:rz,rfl , wi:lh Nsd = flSl+-l Figt,i la.ltr l:ni lrJs,{ = t3l4 I , o to dial -\$/ow pumP tlotl-ld b{ /Ccoynme-nd.r ri ft,. 41,-3 opi) ii((tr n .,; A-1, rA;J Ji; ,f w7t l-L t-llrs..r / ,ri -l< zI
8. 8. I,t Jor flqlimLrrn bovJef , p=lkO" l.i 66 (ll F. le.vrhan -9?9yr L-.i) l,l.)sh.f+= -cos p P\$ tr] {er,1J"1 nl/(U-Y,)[1 11*or * p J {1-t G-g i> s>} {.d shofp pA L+)(+-v,J( !4/ e t r eds ir-r") I I lruif rrlc v. r*t [(--*)(4 = o&-UL u ,, V r il^ 4v2 J:nc;lr- -- -*Prt )) ,,1?- gr"+y)tt, 4- ,"6 21 V, =,6 ! t. "(lLy: Ej n, tJt/€ l)r -0, V, .0, l,.rl15 , ia-_g , ,.....-iD , f .d o3a t-,Yqr,r z ltoo3r)HJ#*,, ql9 - ia ;+ + rsn ]- I \$48 yr _o / tv -- rll \$1] AV : fftV-,- -L , tr/. i{{oiJv= /;(a )) V1 i V: 7, ] ,,i ,r -,t l. , -J v: ti 0 {l{} ll- Vi ,t; 3/ (t int, Q l lF -- yi- + r5.0 I --l t- / .?+8 ( o o+74 V-t) - i{ 61 tl - li/ v r f tc5-{t il! = ri o-ci (o Vr + 11 sl x lc-t v (X- {Yu T .- t ,? i ., rr b-.{vr{ 4 t I} OJl,1,l!,1L = il{ Q AoV-t j, 51f ,*Tr Vj = t3060.7J = +(or I (rt.t-?eJ -- 3 4l rrl/g , v.) -- t{t.tp n(3 -l UJm," sri,ritr l*l*pOVJl 1 +, ** )(a.ry-#( r+ rr ^1,)- = Q3 tlfr ff.nN,i , -_ Al.i, vpd Nnt/, = a1r4 ^,o KoJ** X(oj