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  1. 1. hepatic vein system portal vein system branch of the hepatic artery branch of the portal vein Connection of the portal and the hepatic vein system sinusoid (collecting vein)
  2. 2. Portion of a hepatic lobule (schematic drawing) portal triad
  3. 3. „Alternative” units Portal lobule: Supplied by one portal triad in the center Triangular, with central veins at the angels Acinus: Supplied by perilobular branches Rhomboid Oxygen content of the blood decreases from the periphery to the central vein: central region is more suspect of ischemic injury (centrolobular necrosis)
  4. 4. The portal canal consists of • branches of the portal vein • branches of the hepatic artery • bile ducts • lymph vessels • small nerves • loose connective tissue (in which the above structures are embedded) portal vein bile duct hepatic artery connective tissue
  5. 5. Interlobular vein Interlobular artery Interlobular duct
  6. 6. glycogen space Kupffer cell rER collagen fibrils Schematic drawing of a hepatic cell and its environment cell
  7. 7. Portion of a hepatic lobule with higher magnification central vein portal space Central vein Portal space Central vein Portal space (portal canal)
  8. 8. Hepatic lobules in the human liver (arrows: central veins, low magnification)
  9. 9. Portion of a hepatic lobule with higher magnification central vein portal space Central vein Portal space Central vein Portal space (portal canal)
  10. 10. Lymphatic Tissue
  11. 11. Fungiform papilla Filiform papillae
  12. 12. vallate papilla Foliate papillae
  13. 13. Histology of the teeth dentin enamel gingival sulcus odontoblast layer pulp chamber periodontal membrane (periodontium) alveolar bone root canal cementum apical foramen Anatomical parts: Crown, neck, root, pulp chamber and root canal Histological components: •Dentin, •Enamel, •Cementum
  14. 14. Granular layer of Tomes
  15. 15. dental lamina dental papilla (mesenchyme) epithelium of the primitive oral cavity (ectodermal) stellate reticulum outer enamel epithelium inner enamel epithelium dental lamina for permanent tooth enamel organ enamel organ (early bell stage) dental sac
  16. 16. odontoblasts in dental papilla predentin dentin enamel rods ameloblasts (inner enamel epithelium) dentin Enamel organ, late bell stage rests of dental lamina
  17. 17. GI
  18. 18. Esophagus
  19. 19. Esophago-gstric junction
  20. 20. STOMACH
  21. 21. • Surface epith.- columnar, secret mucous. • Mucous neck cells - in isthmus, secret mucous. • Parietal cells - Hcl & IF • Chief cells - base of the gland, secret pepsinogen (proenzyme). • Enteroendocrine cells - gastrin.
  22. 22. • Meissner’s plexus- submucosa • myenteric plexus- muscularis externa
  23. 23. Small intestine
  24. 24. Crypts, villi ‫שבניהם‬ ‫ומה‬ ..
  25. 25. Alcian blue- H - picrosiriusred Duodenum: • Goblet cells- blue • Brunner glands- pink
  26. 26. Large intestine • No plicae folds! • No Villi! • No paneth cells • Many goblet cells • Solitary lymphoid follicles • Crypts are deeper, more numerous & closely packed
  27. 27. Appendix
  28. 28. Asthma bronchiale Bronchiole cuboidal epithelium Muscular layer ! Elastic fibers ! NO CARTILAGE ! NO GLAND ! Smooth muscle layer Simple cuboidal
  29. 29. Epithelium: simple cuboidal (with Clara cells - surfactant) wall is studded with a few alveoli Respiratory bronchiole Alveolar duct and its endpieces the alveolar sacs : most peripheral respiratory passages, the wall consists of alveoli only (4-5 sacs open into one duct)
  30. 30. Type I. pneumocyte – gas exchange -(95% of the surface is covered by these cells) -develops from type II. pneumocyte Type II. pneumocyte – secretion of surfactant Alveolus epithel
  31. 31. Leydig cells
  32. 32. Rete testis in mediastinum Network of tubules in dense connective tissue lined by cuboidal epithelia.
  33. 33. Liver Stom. C. Liver Stom. C. Lesom Grom Trmes-col Mgastdors Corlig H-renlig Trmes-col Lesom Corlig H-renlig Mgastdors Development of Bursa Omentalis
  34. 34. Liver Stom. C. Liver Stom. C. Grom Trmes-col Lesom Corlig H-renlig Trmes-col Lesom Corlig H-renlig Grom G-collig G-collig Development of Bursa Omentalis
  35. 35. Éiver Stom. C. Grom Trmes-col Lesom Corlig H-renlig G-collig Surgical Approach of Omental Bursa Lesser omentum Gastrocolic ligament Transverse mesocolon
  36. 36. Falciform lig. Lesser omentum Gastro-splenic lig. Phrenico-splenic lig. L L S S A
  37. 37. Transverse section through the embryo cranial to the septum transversum arrow in the pericardio- peritoneal canal Illustration was prepared by Katalin Fink and Ágnes Nemeskéri
  38. 38. -pleuropericardial canal narrows – obliterates Transverse section through the embryo cranial to the septum transversum pleuropericardial septum common cardinal vein phrenic nerve lung primary pleural cavity Illustration was prepared by Katalin Fink and Ágnes Nemeskéri
  39. 39. 4th week Nasal placod (Pax-6) -processus maxillaris two maxillary prominences -processus mandibularis (two mandibular prominence) -stomodeum (primitive oral cavity) -processus frontalis (frontonasal prominence) Face The basic morphology of the face is established between the 4th and 10th weeks by the development and fusion of five prominences (processes)
  40. 40. 5-6th week Nasal pit Nasal or olfactory placodes invaginates to form the nasal pit, dividing the frontonasal prominence into the lateral and medial nasal process. (Nasal placodes give rise to the olfactoty epithelium) maxillary prominences -proliferate and move toward the midline
  41. 41. Cranial neural crest cell migration in the mammalian head (mesenchymal cells)
  42. 42. Brachial pouches: outpocketings of pharynx endoderm
  43. 43. Cranial Neural Crest
  44. 44. Coelom Intraembryonal Dorsal aorta Mesonephros Gut tube Visceral Ventral Gut tube Genital crest Neural tube Notochord Dorsal aorta Mesonephros Somites Folding of the Embryo (Intraembryonal Mesoderm) Dorsal mesogastrium coelom Intraembryonal coelom mesogastrium mesoderm
  45. 45. Coeliac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Inferior mesenteric artery Umbilical loop Duodenal loop Vitelline duct Falciform ligament Omentum minus Umbilical artery Allantois Primitive Gut Tube Duodenojejunal flexure Left colic flexure Cecum
  46. 46. Liver Aorta Stomach Cecum (above) 70 D Superior mesenteric artery 180o Rotation of Umbilical Loop
  47. 47. FETAL CIRCULATION To placenta: umbilical arteries