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Detecção e Correcção Parcial de Problemas na Conversão de Formatos

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Presentation given at I Workshop Per-Fide, UMinho, about GuardaLivros, an application being developed to detect and resolve problems in simple-text documents to be automatically processed (e.g., bi-text alignment) [PT].

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Detecção e Correcção Parcial de Problemas na Conversão de Formatos

  1. 1. Detecc˜o e Correcc˜o Parcial de ¸a ¸a Problemas na Convers˜o de a Formatos Andr´ Santos, pg15973@alunos.uminho.pt e Jos´ Jo~o Almeida, jj@di.uminho.pt e a I Workshop Per-Fide DI@UM 16 de Setembro de 2010
  2. 2. 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  3. 3. Introdu¸˜o ca 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  4. 4. Introdu¸˜o ca Introduc˜o ¸a An´lise e tratamento de documentos em a formato electr´nico de texto simples, tendo em vista o a sua normaliza¸˜o para posterior processamento ca (e.g., alinhamento). Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  5. 5. Introdu¸˜o ca Introduc˜o ¸a An´lise e tratamento de documentos em a formato electr´nico de texto simples, tendo em vista o a sua normaliza¸˜o para posterior processamento ca (e.g., alinhamento). v´rios tipos de documentos: livros, artigos a cient´ıficos, ... v´rias proveniˆncias a e frequentemente, passado desconhecido por vezes, resultado de tradu¸oes c˜ por vezes, completamente adulterados em v´rias l´ a ınguas Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  6. 6. Introdu¸˜o ca Introduc˜o ¸a Para j´... a Centrar no dom´ dos livros ınio Idealmente, acabaremos por ter partes significativas reutiliz´veis noutros dom´ a ınios Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  7. 7. Introdu¸˜o ca Descric˜o do problema ¸a anterior formata¸˜o (superior/inferior ` linha, ca a it´lico, ...) a pagina¸˜o (n´meros, cabe¸alhos, rodap´s, ...) ca u c e divis˜o em sec¸˜es a co par´grafos a notas de rodap´ e codifica¸˜o do texto ca ... Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  8. 8. Introdu¸˜o ca Descric˜o do problema - Exemplo ¸a (. . . ) gaiement. Sur le devant s<92>’ouvrait la porte d<92>’entr´e, donnant acc`s dans la salle commune. e e Une l´g`re v´randa, qui en prot´- e e e e <96>- 86 <96>- ^Lgeait la partie ant´rieure contre l<92>’action e des rayons solaires, reposait sur de sveltes bambous. Le tout ´tait peint d<92>’une fra^che e ı (. . . ) La Jangada, Jules Verne Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  9. 9. Arquitectura e design goals 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  10. 10. Arquitectura e design goals 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  11. 11. Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Primeira abordagem RegExp + Find & Replace Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  12. 12. Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Primeira abordagem RegExp + Find & Replace Demasiado naive Grande confus˜o a Necess´ria abordagem mais sistematizada a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  13. 13. Arquitectura e design goals Arquitectura Arquitectura defini¸˜o de DSL e ontologias ca ajudam na organiza¸˜o ca permitem abstrair do c´digo e discutir detalhes o a um n´ mais elevado (at´ com pessoas de ıvel e outras ´reas) a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  14. 14. Arquitectura e design goals Arquitectura Arquitectura Montagem de uma pipeline; em cada passo lida-se com um conjunto espec´ ıfico de problemas. 1 Pagina¸˜o ca 2 Sec¸˜es co 3 Par´grafos a 4 Notas de rodap´e 5 Palavras e caracteres 6 ... Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  15. 15. Arquitectura e design goals Arquitectura Arquitectura Montagem de uma pipeline; em cada passo lida-se com um conjunto espec´ ıfico de problemas. 1 Pagina¸˜o ca 2 Sec¸˜es co 3 Par´grafos a 4 Notas de rodap´e 5 Palavras e caracteres 6 ... 7 Commit Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  16. 16. Arquitectura e design goals Pagina¸˜o ca Paginac˜o ¸a Objectivo Identificar e remover do texto elementos referentes ` pagina¸˜o do livro: a ca n´meros de p´gina u a cabe¸alhos c rodap´se quebras de p´gina a Geralmente estes elementos s˜o factores que a destabilizam o processo de alinhamento. Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  17. 17. Arquitectura e design goals Pagina¸˜o ca Paginac˜o - Exemplo ¸a est vrai qu’il fallait etre assez chanceux pour ^ rencontrer le nabab, et assez audacieux pour s’emparer de sa personne. Page 3 ^LLa maison a vapeur ` Jules Verne Le faquir, - evidemment le seul entre tous ´ que ne surexcit^t pas l’espoir de gagner la a prime, - filait au milieu des groupes, s’arr^tant e La Maison ` Vapeur, Jules Verne a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  18. 18. Arquitectura e design goals Pagina¸˜o ca Paginac˜o - Algoritmo ¸a 1 identificar as quebras de p´gina (e.g., ^L) a 2 nas imedia¸˜es: candidatos a cabe¸alhos e co c rodap´s e 3 contam-se as ocorrˆncias de cada candidato e normalizado 4 s˜o considerados cabe¸alhos ou rodap´s a c e candidatos que ultrapassarem um determinado valor de ocorrˆncias e 5 substitui-se tudo por uma marca pr´pria o 6 move-se a informa¸˜o relativa ao n´mero de ca u p´gina, cabe¸alhos e rodap´s para ficheiro ` a c e a parte Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  19. 19. Arquitectura e design goals Pagina¸˜o ca Paginac˜o - Exemplo ¸a est vrai qu’il fallait etre assez chanceux pour ^ rencontrer le nabab, et assez audacieux pour s’emparer de sa personne. Page 3 ^LLa maison a vapeur ` Jules Verne Le faquir, - evidemment le seul entre tous ´ que ne surexcit^t pas l’espoir de gagner la a prime, - filait au milieu des groupes, s’arr^tant e La Maison ` Vapeur, Jules Verne a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  20. 20. Arquitectura e design goals Pagina¸˜o ca Paginac˜o - Exemplo ¸a est vrai qu’il fallait etre assez chanceux pour ^ rencontrer le nabab, et assez audacieux pour s’emparer de sa personne. _pb2_ Le faquir, - evidemment le seul entre tous ´ que ne surexcit^t pas l’espoir de gagner la a prime, - filait au milieu des groupes, s’arr^tant e La Maison ` Vapeur, Jules Verne a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  21. 21. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es ¸o Objectivo Identificar e normalizar as divis˜es entre as v´rias o a sec¸oes do livro (in´ c˜ ıcio, fim, partes, cap´ ıtulos, anexos, ...) Para realizar esta tarefa foi criada uma ontologia de tipos de obra e respectiva hierarquia de divis˜es, em o v´rias l´ a ınguas. Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  22. 22. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es - Ontologia ¸o Exemplo cap PT cap´tulo, cap, cap. , capitulo ı FR Chapitre, chap, chap. EN Chapter, chap, chap. NT sec A partir desta ontologia ´ automaticamente gerada e uma parte do c´digo. o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  23. 23. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es - Exemplo ¸o PRIMEIRA PARTE FANTINE ^LLIVRO PRIMEIRO UM JUSTO O abade Myriel Em 1815, era bispo de Digne, o reverendo Carlos Francisco Bemvindo Myriel, o qual contava setenta e Os Miser´veis, Vitor Hugo a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  24. 24. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es - Algoritmo ¸o 1 Procura de potenciais in´ ıcios de sec¸˜o: ca linhas contendo palavras-chave (cap´ıtulo, Cap., chapter, Apˆndice, Table des Mati´res, ...) e e p´ginas ou linhas contendo apenas numera¸˜o a ca numera¸˜o romana ca ... 2 Colocar uma marca imediatamente antes da sec¸˜o encontrada. ca Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  25. 25. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es - Exemplo ¸o PRIMEIRA PARTE FANTINE ^LLIVRO PRIMEIRO UM JUSTO O abade Myriel Em 1815, era bispo de Digne, o reverendo Carlos Francisco Bemvindo Myriel, o qual contava setenta e Os Miser´veis, Vitor Hugo a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  26. 26. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es - Exemplo ¸o _sec+O:PARTE=PRIMEIRA_ FANTINE _sec+O:LIVRO=PRIMEIRO_ UM JUSTO O abade Myriel Em 1815, era bispo de Digne, o reverendo Carlos Francisco Bemvindo Myriel, o qual contava setenta e Os Miser´veis, Vitor Hugo a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  27. 27. Arquitectura e design goals Sec¸˜es co Secc˜es ¸o A identifica¸˜o das v´rias partes constituintes de um ca a documento: permite posteriormente comparar as duas vers˜es e remover partes que estejam presentes o apenas numa delas (apˆndices, pref´cios a e a edi¸oes espec´ c˜ ıficas, etc) permitir´ fazer um alinhamento estrutural a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  28. 28. Arquitectura e design goals Par´grafos a Par´grafos a Objectivo Resolver quest˜es relacionadas com a identifica¸˜o o ca de par´grafos, discurso directo, etc. a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  29. 29. Arquitectura e design goals Par´grafos a Par´grafos - Exemplo a L’h^tesse prit la d´fense de son cur´: o e e - D’ailleurs, il en plierait quatre comme vous sur son genou. Il a, l’ann´e derni`re, aid´ nos gens a e e e ` rentrer la paille; il en portait jusqu’` six bottes a a la fois, tant il est fort! ` - Bravo! dit le pharmacien. Envoyez donc vos filles en confesse a des gaillards d’un temp´rament pareil! ` e Moi, si j’´tais le gouvernement, je voudrais qu’on e saign^t les pr^tres une fois par mois. a e Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  30. 30. Arquitectura e design goals Par´grafos a Par´grafos - Algoritmo a identifica¸˜o de par´grafos baseia-se na an´lise ca a a da indenta¸˜o e das linhas em branco ca identifica¸˜o (e normaliza¸˜o) de discurso ca ca directo: pontua¸˜o, par´grafo, travess˜o ca a a texto entre aspas Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  31. 31. Arquitectura e design goals Notas de rodap´ e Notas de rodap´ e Objectivo Identificar e remover do documento notas de rodap´ e e respectivas chamadas. Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  32. 32. Arquitectura e design goals Notas de rodap´ e Notas de rodap´ - Exemplo e On fit un inventaire de son argent comptant, et on le mena dans le ch^teau que fit construire le roi a Charles V, fils de Jean II, aupr`s de la rue e Saint-Antoine, a la porte des Tournelles[1]. ` [1] La Bastille, qui fut prise par le peuple de Paris, le 14 juillet 1789, puis d´molie. B. e Quel etait en chemin l’´tonnement de l’Ing´nu! ´ e e je vous le laisse a penser. Il crut d’abord ` que c’´tait un r^ve. e e Oeuvres de Voltaire, Voltaire Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  33. 33. Arquitectura e design goals Notas de rodap´ e Notas de rodap´ - Algoritmo e 1 Identificar chamadas para notas de rodap´ no e meio de frases ([1], <<2>>, ^3, ...) 2 Substituir por uma marca pr´pria o 3 Identificar notas de rodap´ (geralmente e encontram-se no fim de p´ginas ou no fim do a documento). Outras pistas: N. d(o|a|os|as) T., ... 4 Inserir uma marca pr´pria e remover a nota o para um ficheiro ` parte a Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  34. 34. Arquitectura e design goals Notas de rodap´ e Notas de rodap´ - Exemplo e On fit un inventaire de son argent comptant, et on le mena dans le ch^teau que fit construire le roi a Charles V, fils de Jean II, aupr`s de la rue e Saint-Antoine, a la porte des Tournelles[1]. ` [1] La Bastille, qui fut prise par le peuple de Paris, le 14 juillet 1789, puis d´molie. B. e Quel etait en chemin l’´tonnement de l’Ing´nu! ´ e e je vous le laisse a penser. Il crut d’abord ` que c’´tait un r^ve. e e Oeuvres de Voltaire, Voltaire Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  35. 35. Arquitectura e design goals Notas de rodap´ e Notas de rodap´ - Exemplo e On fit un inventaire de son argent comptant, et on le mena dans le ch^teau que fit construire le roi a Charles V, fils de Jean II, aupr`s de la rue e Saint-Antoine, a la porte des Tournelles_fnr29_. ` _fne8_ Quel etait en chemin l’´tonnement de l’Ing´nu! ´ e e je vous le laisse a penser. Il crut d’abord ` que c’´tait un r^ve. e e Oeuvres de Voltaire, Voltaire Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  36. 36. Arquitectura e design goals Palavras e caracteres Palavras e caracteres translinea¸oes de palavras c˜ codifica¸˜o do texto ca ... Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  37. 37. Arquitectura e design goals Relat´rio e Commit o Relat´rio o Os passos anteriores produzem um relat´rio o Este relat´rio consiste num resumo do que est´ o a a ser assumido e do que est´ a ser feito a O objectivo ´ permitir realizar um diagn´stico e o ao funcionamento do programa, permitindo corrigir manualmente aquilo que estiver errado Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  38. 38. Arquitectura e design goals Relat´rio e Commit o Relat´rio o livros/_FR_15.pdf.txt: footers=[’( Page) = 241’] headers=[ "(La maison x{e0} vapeur Jules Verne) = 241"] ctrL=1; pagnum_ctrL=241; sectionsO=2; sectionsN=30; word_tr=58; words=118036; Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  39. 39. Arquitectura e design goals Relat´rio e Commit o Passo final: commit Depois de verificado o relat´rio e afinados os o pormenores, ´ poss´ a cria¸˜o de uma c´pia e ıvel ca o do documento sem as marcas anteriormente adicionadas. Este ´ a ultima etapa antes da realiza¸˜o do e ´ ca alinhamento, e limpa tanto quanto poss´ o ıvel texto de tudo o que possa vir a afectar negativamente o alinhador. Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  40. 40. Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  41. 41. Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o 1 Introdu¸˜o ca 2 Arquitectura e design goals Primeira abordagem Arquitectura Pagina¸˜o ca Sec¸˜es co Par´grafos a Notas de rodap´e Palavras e caracteres Relat´rio e Commit o 3 Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  42. 42. Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o N˜o existe um standard para livros a (documentos?) em txt Os documentos s˜o bastante heter´geneos a o (proveniˆncia, tipo e quantidade notas de e rodap´, formato da pagina¸˜o, ...) e ca Viva as express˜es regulares! o Tem-se verificado a regra dos 20/80 Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  43. 43. Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Ontologias e DSLs ajudam a estruturar ideias - melhorar e completar Conjunto de fun¸˜es de diagn´stico prop˜em co o o altera¸˜es que podem ser tornadas co permanentes O relat´rio a gerar no fim dos diagn´sticos o o deve apresentar resumo inteligente da an´lise a ´ Indice de “alinhabilidade” Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  44. 44. Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Conclus˜es, wish list e trabalho futuro o Implementa¸˜o de algoritmos de aprendizagem ca Al´m dos livros: poesia, legisla¸˜o, artigos e ca cient´ ıficos, s´ıtios web, . . . Andr´ Santos, Jos´ Jo˜o Almeida e e a Det. e Correc¸˜o Parc. de Problemas na Conv. de Formatos ca
  45. 45. Detecc˜o e Correcc˜o Parcial de ¸a ¸a Problemas na Convers˜o de a Formatos Andr´ Santos, pg15973@alunos.uminho.pt e Jos´ Jo~o Almeida, jj@di.uminho.pt e a I Workshop Per-Fide DI@UM 16 de Setembro de 2010

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