1. What is STRUCTURED CABLING?
Structured cabling is building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a
number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. A Structured Cabling
System (SCS) is a set of cabling and connectivity products that integrates the voice, data, video and
various management system of a building.
- A structured cabling system is a complete system of cabling and associated hardware, which provides
a comprehensive telecommunications infrastructure. This infrastructure serves a wide range of uses, such
as to provide telephone service or transmit data through a computer network. It should not be device
Structured cabling falls into five subsystems:
Demarcation point is the point where the telephone company network ends and connects with the onpremises wiring at the customer premises.
Equipment or Telecommunications Rooms house equipment and wiring consolidation points that
serve the users inside the building or campus.
Vertical or Riser Cabling connects between the equipment/telecommunications rooms, so named
because the rooms are typically on different floors.
Horizontal wiring can be IW (inside wiring) or Plenum Cabling and connects telecommunications
rooms to individual outlets or work areas on the floor, usually through the wire ways, conduits or
ceiling spaces of each floor.
Work-Area Components connect end-user equipment to outlets of the horizontal cabling system.
2. What is a NETWORK PLAN?
Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, networksynthesis, and network-realization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or
service meets the needs of the subscriber and operator. The process can be tailored according to each new
network or service.
A network planning methodology
A traditional network planning methodology involves five layers of planning, namely:
long-term and medium-term network planning
short-term network planning
IT asset sourcing
operations and maintenance.
Each of these layers incorporates plans for different time horizons, i.e. the business planning layer
determines the planning that the operator must perform to ensure that the network will perform as
required for its intended life-span. The Operations and Maintenance layer, however, examines how the
network will run on a day-to-day basis.
The network planning process begins with the acquisition of external information. This includes:
forecasts of how the new network/service will operate;
the economic information concerning costs; and
the technical details of the network’s capabilities.
3. What is STRUCTURED CABLING PLAN?
4. What is the difference between STRUCTURED CABLING PLAN to a
5. What is RJ45, RJ11, cat 5E, cat 6, cat 6A?
RJ45- a connector standard for telephone cables
A type of modular connector for computer network (Ethernet) cables
RJ11- is short for Registered Jack-11 and is a four or six wire connection primarily
used for telephones and computer modem connectors.
Cat 5E- is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals.
is used as a cabling infrastructure for 10BASE-T (Ethernet), full duplex 100BASE-TX
(Fast Ethernet) and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet, or Gibe) networks. The Cat 5e
standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and can be used up to a maximum
length of 100 meters.
Cat 6- is a standardized cable for Gigabit Ethernet and other network physical
layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3
6. What is ETHERNET?
-Is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was
commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has largely
replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET.
The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical
layer in use with Ethernet. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared
medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced with twisted pair and fiber optic links in
conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original
10 megabits per second to 100 gigabits per second.
7. What is GIGA ETHERNET?
Is the most widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology.
Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs.
a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local
area networks (LANs), provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit).
Gigabit Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard and is currently being used as
the backbone in many enterprise networks.
Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on optical fiber (with very short distances possible
on copper media). Existing Ethernet LANs with 10 and 100 Mbps cards can feed into a
Gigabit Ethernet backbone. An alternative technology that competes with Gigabit
Ethernet is ATM. A newer standard, 10-Gigabit Ethernet, is also becoming available.
8. Difference between ETHERNET and GIGA ETHERNET?
The difference between ETHERNET and GIGA ETHERNET are Ethernet said
that this is commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE
802.3. Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such
as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET and this is a family of computer
networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). GIGA ETHERNET said
that this is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet
frames at a rate of a gigabit per second (1,000,000,000 bits per second), as defined
by the IEEE 802.3-2008 standard. It came into use beginning in 1999, gradually
supplanting Fast Ethernet in wired local networks, where it performed
considerably faster. The cables and equipment are very similar to previous
standards and have been very common and economical since 2010.
9. What is a HUB, SWITCH, SWITCH HUB, ROUTER?
The term ‘hub’ is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment
that connects PCs together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type
of device simply passes on (repeats) all the information it receives, so that all
devices connected to its ports receive that information.
SWITCH- is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting
the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. Is a computer networking
device that links network segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a
multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of
the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and
above are often called layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.
The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with
one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set
of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching
and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and
the switch is non-conducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two
states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle" (flip switch for continuous "on" or "off")
or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off") type.
a special type of hub that forwards packets to the appropriate port based on the packet's
address. Conventional hubs simply rebroadcast every packet to every port. Since
switching hubs forward each packet only to the required port, they provide much better
performance. Most switching hubs also support load balancing, so that ports are
dynamically reassigned to different LAN segments based on traffic patterns.
ROUTER- are small physical devices that join multiple networks together.
Technically, a router is a Layer 3 gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more
networks and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model.
This is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating
an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from
different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads
the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then,
using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the
next network on its journey. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on
the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another
through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its
10. Difference between SWITCH and HUB?
The term ‘hub’ is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment that connects PCs
together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device simply passes on
(repeats) all the information it receives, so that all devices connected to its ports receive that
Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. However, this can
result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network. Hubs pass on traffic
to the network regardless of the intended destination; the PCs to which the packets are sent use
the address information in each packet to work out which packets are meant for them. In a small
network repeating is not a problem but for a larger, more heavily used network, another piece of
networking equipment (such as a switch) may be required to help reduce the amount of
unnecessary traffic being generated.
Switches control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A
switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives),
and then forwards on packets to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous
communication across the switch, improving bandwidth.
This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if
the same information had been sent from every port (as with a hub).
Switches and hubs are often used in the same network; the hubs extend the network by providing
more ports, and the switches divide the network into smaller, less congested sections.