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Luz y Sombras

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Proyección de sombras sobre el plano horizontal y vertical, fuente luminosa el sol.

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Luz y Sombras

  1. 1. La Luz
  2. 2. La Luz <ul><li>La luz es una radiación electromagnética que se comporta como onda y como partícula. </li></ul><ul><li>La luz tiene un amplio espectro, pero el ojo humano solo puede ver una pequeña parte, entre los 400 y 700 nm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. El ojo humano <ul><li>Órgano fisiológico que permite experimentar la sensación de luz y color. </li></ul><ul><li>Transforma la energía luminosa en energía nerviosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Se puede comparar con una cámara fotográfica: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objetivo, la c ó rnea, el humor acuoso y la retina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diafragma, el iris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pel ícula fotosensible, la retina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foto-receptores: conos y bastoncillos </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. La Sombra
  5. 5. La Iluminación <ul><li>Intervienen dos elementos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuente luminosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flujo luminoso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rendimiento luminoso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cantidad de Luz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensidad luminosa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iluminancia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luminancia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objeto a iluminar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modelo geométrico </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Luz y sombra <ul><li>Por todas partes hay luz y sombra. Miremos adonde miremos, nos encontraremos con estos dos elementos. </li></ul><ul><li>Sin embargo, muy pocas veces se ha detenido a ver estas sombras, a observarlas. Ver la extensión que ocupan, por donde son más oscuras y por donde menos, hay brillos, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Luz y sombra <ul><li>Todos los cuerpos tienen un volumen y una forma, que percibimos gracias a la sombra. De lo contrario los veríamos planos. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Luz y sombra Sin sombrear no sabemos si una figura representa: un cuerpo plano o no Sólo los efectos de luz y sombra nos permiten saber cómo es un objeto.
  9. 9. Luz y sombra   Las sombras son producidas por la luz. Hay dos clases de luz: la natural y la artificial. La natural es la luz del Sol y de la Luna. La artificial es la luz eléctrica, la de gas, la de las velas, en fin, toda luz que no sea la del Sol y de la Luna. La diferencia más importante entre estas dos clases de luz, aparte de su intensidad o tono, es que producen sombras distintas. La luz natural produce sombras paralelas. La luz artificial sombras radiadas.
  10. 10. Luz y sombra La luz natural, produce sombras paralelas. La natural es la luz del Sol y de la Luna. También se las conoce como cilíndricas y son las más utilizadas en la representación de las proyecciones ortogonales. La luz artificial produce sombras radiales. La artificial es la luz eléctrica, la de gas, la de las velas, en fin, toda luz que no sea la del Sol y de la Luna.
  11. 11. Clases de sombras Cuando la luz da sobre un objeto, éste queda iluminado por la cara que está de frente a la luz, pero por el opuesto, no. Por el lado opuesto se produce la sombra. Esta sombra que se produce en el propio objeto se llama sombra propia.  Sombra proyectada: la que este objeto arroja sobre superficies cercanas. Luz Sombra Propia Luz
  12. 12. Luz reflejada Como la pared es negra, no refleja los rayos luminosos y la parte en sombra de la esfera no tiene nada de luz., la sombra cubre por completo la cara del objeto opuesta a donde da la luz y se confunde con el fondo oscuro. En este otro caso la pared blanca, si refleja los rayos luminosos y en la parte en sombra de la esfera, debido a este reflejo, hay luz. Después de llegar la sombra a su máxima intensidad, vuelve a hacerse más clara, vuelve a haber luz. Luz Superficie Blanca Reflejo Sombra sobre el plano vertical Sombra sobre el plano horizontal Luz Superficie Oscura Se fusiona la figura con la superficies Sombra sobre el plano horizontal No refleja
  13. 13. Proyección de las sombras Donde llega más fácilmente la luz en este cubo es: a la cara A, cae de lleno sobre ella, por eso es la más clara, la más iluminada. A la cara B llegan con mayor dificultad y los rayos que inciden, caen con un ángulo de 45 ° . Debido a esto tiene menos luz, está mezclada con gris. A la cara C no llegan. La única iluminación que reciben es por reflejos de la luz sobre la superficie blanca donde está el cubo.   Debido a esto es tan oscura.  La zona D es la que menos luz tiene, pues no llegan a ella los rayos de luz directamente y, por lo tanto, se reflejan muy débilmente. A B C D
  14. 14. Proyección de las sombras A B C D
  15. 15. Proyección de las sombras A B C D
  16. 16. Algo importante sobre el sombreado PLANTA VISTA CORRESPONDENCIA Plano Vertical
  17. 17. Proyección sobre el plano horizontal
  18. 18. Proyección sobre el plano horizontal
  19. 19. Proyección sobre el plano horizontal
  20. 20. Sombra proyectada sobre el mismo objeto
  21. 21. Proyección sobre distintos planos verticales del mismo objeto De la misma forma podemos apreciar, desde una visualización ortogonal, extraída de un software de gráfica digital, como es iluminada como incide en forma directa todas las salientes, al haber planos en distintas profundidades se proyecta la sombra de los volúmenes que sobresalen porque pertenecen al plano más cercano a la fuente luminosa. En este caso el sol se encuentra detrás del observador. Podemos ver como se produce la proyección de acuerdo al ángulo de 45 ° de los rayos luminosos emitidos por el sol. Al pasar por los puntos se proyectan a una distancia igual a la altura
  22. 22. Proyección sobre el plano vertical
  23. 23. Proyección sobre el plano vertical
  24. 24. Bibliografía <ul><li>Detalles bibliográficos de Iluminación en fotografía </li></ul><ul><li>Página: Iluminación en fotografía </li></ul><ul><li>Autor: colaboradores de Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Editor: Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre . </li></ul><ul><li>Última revisión: 10 de mayo del 2007, 17:06 UTC </li></ul><ul><li>Fecha de consulta: 12 de julio del 2007, 16:26 UTC </li></ul><ul><li>URL permanente: http :// es.wikipedia.org /w/ index.php?title=Iluminaci%C3%B3n _ en_fotograf%C3%ADa&oldid=8686557 </li></ul><ul><li>Código de versión de la página: 8686557 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.laescuelavirtual.com / </li></ul><ul><li>Geometría Descriptiva. Donato Di Pietro – Ed. Alsina </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectiva para Arquitectos. George Schaarwachter – Ed. G. Gilli </li></ul><ul><li>Normas de Dibujo Técnico. I.R.A.M. </li></ul>

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