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La découverte de l'allumette

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La découverte de l'allumette

  1. 1. Professeur: Jorge Baptista
  2. 2. • Aujourd’hui je vais parler sur l’allumette et son inventeur. • Une allumette est une petite tige de bois, destinée à créer une flamme par friction avec son extrémité enduite d'un produit chimique inflammable, après quoi elle n'est plus utilisable. • Une allumette produit une flamme en un seul temps, par réaction chimique ou par frottement.
  3. 3. • L'allumette a été inventée en 1805 par Jean-Joseph-Louis Chancel, assistant du professeur Louis Jacques Thénard, en France. Toutefois, il a été trouvé des allumettes datées du IIe et VIe siècle. • Les allumettes actuelles sont dites de sûreté car elles ne s'enflamment pas spontanément. Il est nécessaire de faire friction. L'allumette inventée en 1805 par le chercheur français devait être trempée dans un bain d'acide sulfurique pour s'enflammer. Gustave Erik Pash a présenté la première allumette de sûreté en 1844.
  4. 4. • Gustaf Erik Pasch est née le 3 septembre 1788 . Il est mort le 6 septembre 1862. Il était un professeur suédois de chimie à l'Institut Karolinska de Stockholm, et inventeur de l'allumette de sûreté. Fils de charpentier, il intègre l'Université d'Uppsala en 1806 et est diplômé en 1821. Il s’est marié avec Augusta Fredrika Vilhelmina Berg en 1827. La même année, il devient membre de l'Académie royale des sciences de Suède.
  5. 5. • Une allumette est constitué par: • Phosphore rouge, sulfure d'antimoine, trioxyde de fer et colle • Bois / peuplier / carton • Fréquemment elles viennent dans une boîte • Les allumettes sont produits industriels
  6. 6. Comment on allume? On presse l’allumette sur sa boîte et voilàOn presse l’allumette sur sa boîte et voilàOn presse l’allumette sur sa boîte et voilàOn presse l’allumette sur sa boîte et voilà On presse l’allumette sur sa boîte et voilà nous avons une flamme
  7. 7. • On peut allumer facilement une four, bougie ou une cuisinière. • Il est commode et pratique d’ utiliser. • Les plus petits peuvent allumer le four, par exemple, sans grands dangers. • Une alternative au briquet. • On peut faire d’art.
  8. 8. • En France, les allumettes ont relevé d'un monopole de l'État entre 1872 et 1992. • Actuellement elles sont commercialisées dans tout le monde. • Son prix varie entre moins de 1€ et 3€ • Elles ont évolué en allumettes de sûreté et sont encore utilisés de nos jours.
  9. 9. • En résumé, l’allumette a été créée en 1805 pour Jean-Joseph-Louis Chancel • Aujourd’hui nous avons l’allumette de sûreté inventé en 1844 pour Gustave Erik Pash . • Elles sont pratiques et elles sont vendues dans tout le monde.

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