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Lichtverschmutzung im Harz und anderswo

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Vortrag von Dr. Andreas Hänel zm Thema Lichtverschmutzung beim 2. Sankt Andreasberger Teleskop-Treffen (STATT) am 30.07.2011.

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Lichtverschmutzung im Harz und anderswo

  1. 1. Lichtverschmutzung im Harz und anderswo Auf der Suche nach den dunkelsten Beobachtungsplätzen STATT 30.7.2011 Fachgruppe DARK SKY der Vereinigung der SternfreundeAndreas HänelPlanetarium, Museum am Schölerberg, Osnabrück
  2. 2. Wernigerode, 9.12.2009, 20.7
  3. 3. Harz?
  4. 4. DMSP Daten • nach oben gerichtetes Licht • verfügbar 1992 - 2009 • unkalibriert • Auflösung 2.7 km (Koordinatenfehler) Cinzano et al. Weltatlas • Himmelhintergrundhelligkeit [* nat. Helligkeit] • 1997 kalibriert • abgeleitete Karten: • Zahl sichtbarer Sterne• Hintergrundshelligkeit[mag/arcsec²]
  5. 5. Wo gibt es in Europa nochgute Beobachtungsplätze? DMSP map 2009
  6. 6. Charakteristika eines dunklen Platzes?• Grenzhelligkeit (subjektiv)• Bortle-Skala (subjektiv) OMI• Zenit-Himmelshelligkeit (SQM-L): 21.8 mag/arcsec²• Gesamthelligkeit (Allsky Photometrie)
  7. 7. Himmelshelligkeit mit SQM/SQM-L messen• handlich• einfache Messungen• Grenzen kennen!• Tests von Pierantonio Cinzano Geopositionen mit GPS • Position • waypoints mit SQM-Messung • Navigation zu dunklen Beobachtungsplätzen
  8. 8. Nachtlandschaften (30/180 sec belichtet, 1:2,8, 800 ASA) Berlin 18.2m Bonn Osnabrück Westhavelland 19.2m 20.6m/arcsec² 21.4m/arcsec²
  9. 9. EUROPARC: Nationale Naturlandschaften101 Naturparks (26%)MENSCH und Natur16 Biosphärenreservate (3,6%)Mensch und Natur14 Nationalparks (0.55%)Mensch und NATUR
  10. 10. Naturlandschaften und Dunkler Himmel
  11. 11. Nationalpark Eifelnahe Bonn/Köln/AachenDernau, Ahrtal
  12. 12. SQM-L Messungen 12/2008Naturpark/Nationalpark Eifel 19.0 19.5 20 21 20.5-> Harald Bardenhagen
  13. 13. TERRA.vita, Osnabrück
  14. 14. TERRA.vita, Osnabrück 21.0 20.5 20.0
  15. 15. TERRA.vita, Osnabrück
  16. 16. Variation mit der Zeit (Holzhausen)
  17. 17. Jahreszeitliche Variation (Holzhausen, SQM-L)Abschattung durch Vegetation
  18. 18. Variation während der Nacht(Osnabrück Museum, SQM-LU)Abschalten
  19. 19. Variation während der Nacht (Holzhausen, SQM-L)
  20. 20. Naturpark Westhavellanddunkelste Region in DDiskussion über 21.7 mag/arcsec²70 km westl. Berlin
  21. 21. Naturpark WesthavellandHavel - Wasser, FeuchtlandRastplatz für Zugvögel Kraniche, Gänse,FFH, RAMSAR1315 km²
  22. 22. Naturpark Westhavelland 04/2009 Zodiakallicht
  23. 23. Naturpark WesthavellandZodikallicht 22.2.2011
  24. 24. Naturpark Westhavelland 21.78 mag/arcsec² !
  25. 25. Naturpark Westhavelland Einfluss Milchstraße21.4 21.75
  26. 26. Naturpark Westhavelland Korrigierte Werte über Bezugspunkte: • Milchstraße • Wolkenbedeckung • Transmission
  27. 27. Zenit: 21.6 mag/arcsec² (Milchstraße!)kontrastverstärkt
  28. 28. Naturpark Westhavelland Einladung zum WHAT 26.-28.8.2011 Sportplatz Havelaue-Gülpe
  29. 29. Biosphärenreservat Rhön „Land der offenen Fernen“ 1850 km²; Wasserkuppe 950 m
  30. 30. Biosphärenreservat RhönHimmelshelligkeit 21 mag/arcsec²?
  31. 31. Biosphärenreservat Rhön ? Kirchenanstrahlung!
  32. 32. Lange Rhön 21.65 mag/arcsec² No Entry!
  33. 33. Zenit: 21.78 mag/arcsec² (keine Milchstraße!)
  34. 34. Biosphärenreservat Rhön Lange Rhön Parkverbot! Parkplätze am Rand genau so dunkel
  35. 35. Biosphärenreservat Rhön 21.77 mag/arcsec² ! 21.0 20.520.0 21.0
  36. 36. Biosphärenreservat Rhön DMSP 2009
  37. 37. Nationalpark HarzUnterschiedliche Klimate 200 - 1140 mMoore, Wald, HochgebirgeLuchsGeopark, BergbautraditionUNESCO Welterbe247 km²
  38. 38. Nationalpark HarzHimmelshelligkeit 20.5-21 mag/arcsec²?
  39. 39. Harz? Bad Suderode 28.11.2009
  40. 40. Harz?Braunlage 14.4.2011
  41. 41. STATT 2010
  42. 42. Leuchtdauer reduzieren - abschalten Daten M. Koch
  43. 43. St. Andreasberg
  44. 44. Kl. Sonnenberg
  45. 45. Torfhaus
  46. 46. Elend
  47. 47. Zodiakallicht und GegenscheinGegenschein:200 10m stars ~ 0.15 mcd/m² ~ 22.15 mag/arcsec² (Leinert)natürlich dunkler Himmel:21.7 mag/arcsec² ~ 0.23 mcd/m²dunkler Himmel:21.4 mag/arcsec² ~ 0.30 mcd/m²
  48. 48. Vergleich mit anderen dunklen Regionen
  49. 49. PNR Causses de Quercy Rocamadour 677 Einw. 1,5 Mio. Touristen/a Abschalten um 24:0023:55, 21.3 0:20, 21.6
  50. 50. PNR Causses de Quercy-> Zentrum Naturpark21.55 21.65
  51. 51. PNR Causses de Quercy-> Zentrum Naturpark
  52. 52. Parc Astronomic Montsec800 m21.45
  53. 53. Montsec, Coll dAres1500m21.65 Ager 5.5 km 600 Einw. Balaguer 30 km 14 000 Einw. Lerida 50 km 140 000 Einw. Barcelona 130 km 4,5 Mio. Einw.
  54. 54. Montsec
  55. 55. Montsec21.65
  56. 56. Vergleich Causses de Quercy - Montsec23:55 21.65 0:05 21.65
  57. 57. Naturpark Westhavelland Nationalpark Harz Biosphärenreservat Rhön Dark Sky Park Zselic, Ungarn Lastovo, Kroatien La Palma, Spanien
  58. 58. Folgerungen• Cinzano und DMSP notwenig, um Beobachtungsplatz zu finden• DMSP aktueller (2009 <-> 1997)• DMSP höhere Auflösung (einzelne Plätze)• DMSP: Relativwerte• Cinzano Karten: „Werte“• Cinzano Karten: grobe räumliche Auflösung (Verschmieren)• zu breite Intervalle (20.5 - 21.0 - 21.5 mag/arcsec²) • 21.0 .... >21.3• etwa 0.5 mag/arcsec² zu hell (gegen SQM-L)?immer vor Ort testen!
  59. 59. Strom - Energie 66
  60. 60. CO2 Emissionen und IPCC-SzenarienIPCC: Weltklimarat: Zunahme der TemperaturAMAP: Meeresspiegel steigt stärker an (SWIPA) -> CO2 reduzieren!!! Global Carbon Project, 21.11.2010 67
  61. 61. Mehrverbrauch entspricht dem regenerativ erzeugtem Strom!3.1 % (1990) -> 16.8 % (2010)-> Reduzierung Stromverbrauch! 68
  62. 62. Geringer Energieverbrauch: alles anstrahlen!Brüssel Linz, A 69Gilching
  63. 63. Voll abgeschirmte Leuchten
  64. 64. unterschiedliche Modelle (Teneriffa)
  65. 65. Lichtfarbe, Mensch und SehenLED Spektrale Schutzzone für visuelle Astronomie (Falchi et al. 2011) 72
  66. 66. Lichtfarbe Streuung Streuung im Blauen stärker bei gleiche Lumen -> Hg 2.5x Na Farbtemperatur < 3000 K Aubé, 2007
  67. 67. Leuchtdauer reduzierenbedarfsorientiert beleuchtenPreußisch-Oldendorf: ausschalten 0 - 6 Uhr1390 von 1662 Lichtpunkten ausgeschaltet: -86%342 -> 202 MWh/a: -40%sky bkg: 20.68 -> 21.00 mag/arcsec²: -43%

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