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História da Arte: Dadaísmo 2

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História da Arte: Dadaísmo

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História da Arte: Dadaísmo 2

  1. 1. Maggy – Marcel Duchamp
  2. 2. O dadaísmo surgiu no ano de 1916, por iniciativa de um grupo de artistas que, descrentes de uma sociedade que consideravam responsável pelos estragos da Primeira Guerra Mundial, decidiram romper deliberadamente com todos os valores e princípios estabelecidos por ela anteriormente, inclusive os artísticos. A própria palavra dadá não tem outro significado senão a própria falta de significado, sendo um exemplo da essência desse movimento iconoclasta. Presente – Man Ray
  3. 3. A escultura dadaísta nasceu sob a influência de um forte espírito iconoclasta. Uma vez suprimidos todos os valores estéticos adquiridos e conservados até o momento pelas academias, os dadaístas se dedicaram por completo à experimentação, improvisação e desordem. Os ready mades de Marcel Duchamp não pretendiam outra coisa que não dessacralizar os conceitos de arte e artista, expondo objetos do dia-a-dia como esculturas. A Fonte – Marcel Duchamp
  4. 4. Porta-garrafas – Marcel Duchamp Duchamp e Picabia, aos quais se soma o pintor e fotógrafo americano Man Ray, fundam com Stieglitz a revista 291, que antecipa diversos temas do movimento dadaísta, ao qual aderiram em 1918. dada nasce em Zurique, em 1916, quando o pintor-escultor H. Arp fundam o cabaré Voltaire, circulo literário e artístico destituído de programa, mas decidido a ironizar e desmistificar todos os valores constituídos da cultura passada, presente e futura.
  5. 5. Um rumor secreto – Marcel Duchamp
  6. 6. Concretização Humana – Hans Arp
  7. 7. A Noiva – Marcel Duchamp A pintura dadaísta foi um dos grandes mistérios da história da arte do século XX. Os pintores deste movimento, guiados por uma anarquia instintiva e um forte nihilismo, não hesitaram em anular as formas, técnicas e temas da pintura, tal como tinham sido entendidos até aquele momento. Um exemplo disso eram os quadros dos antimecanismos ou máquinas de nada, nos quais o tema central era totalmente inédito para aqueles tempos.
  8. 8. A primeira grande escola e influência de Duchamp veio através dos Impressionistas. Já em 1912 realiza “Nu Descendo a Escada” onde já é possível perceber a radicalização de seu estilo. “Nu Descendo a Escada (exposto em Nova York, em 1913) causou impacto considerável e transformou Duchamp num artista, repentinamente, famoso.
  9. 9. A mulher-monóculo – Francis Picabia A música é como pintura – Francis Picabia
  10. 10. Moedor de Chocolate nº 2 – Marcel Duchamp
  11. 11. Tábua com ovos – Hans Arp O relógio – Hans Arp
  12. 12. A paisagem sueca – Man Ray
  13. 13. Grafo e Umbigo – Hans Arp
  14. 14. A parada amorosa – Francis Picabia
  15. 15. Mire Universale – Man Ray
  16. 16. Tatlin em sua casa – Raoul hansmann Um capítulo à parte merecem as colagens, que logo se transformaram no meio ideal de expressão do sentimento dadaísta. Tratava-se da reunião de materiais aparentemente escolhidos ao acaso, nos quais sempre se podiam ler textos elaborados com recortes de jornais de diferente feição gráfica. A mistura de todo tipo de imagens extraídas da imprensa da época faz desse tipo de trabalho uma antecipação precoce da idealização dos meios de comunicação de massa, que mais tarde viria a ser a arte pop.
  17. 17. Corte com a faca de um doce – Francis Picabia Dada-in – Raoul Hansmann
  18. 18. Adolf the Superman Swallows Gold and Spouts Junk John Heartfield, printed before 1942 Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas
  19. 19. L.H.O.O.Q. – Marcel Duchamp, 1919
  20. 20. Fotografia de Man Ray
  21. 21. Lábios - Fotografia de Man Ray
  22. 22. Artistas de seu tempo, os dadaístas foram sem dúvida os primeiros a incorporar o cinema e a fotografia à sua expressão plástica. E fizeram isso de uma maneira totalmente experimental e guiados por uma espontaneidade inata. O resultado desse novo materialismo foi um cinema completamente abstrato e absurdo, por exemplo, o de diretores como Hans Richter e a fotografia experimental de Man Ray e seus seguidores. Marcel Proust on His Deathbed, Man Ray, 1922 J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
  23. 23. Man Ray começou a trabalhar em 1911 como pintor e escultor e teve contactos íntimos com a arte vanguardista da Europa. Em 1915, começou a voltar-se para a fotografia, trabalhando como fotógrafo independente, realizador de cinema e pintor. Em 1917, foi co-fundador do Grupo Dada de Nova Iorque. Em 1921, foi para Paris, onde trabalhou de perto com os surrealistas. Regressou aos Estados Unidos em 1940, onde viveu 10 anos em Hollywood e onde deu aulas de pintura e fotografia. Em 1951, voltou a Paris, permanecendo aí até à sua morte. Man Ray é considerado um dos pioneiros mais importantes da fotografia contemporânea. Juntamente com Lee Miller, desenvolveu o processo de solarização, que usou sobretudo em retrato, mas também em fotografias de nus. Com as suas "radiografias", proporcionou um importante ímpeto à fotografia sem máquina. A amizade com artistas de vanguarda do seu tempo abriu as portas para o reconhecimento da fotografia no contexto artístico. La Priére (Prayer), Man Ray, 1930 J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
  24. 24. O enigma – Man Ray
  25. 25. Raiograma – Man Ray Le violin d´Ingres – Man Ray
  26. 26. Janela Fresca – Marcel Duchamp
  27. 27. Ainda que o ano de 1922 apareça como o do fim do dadaísmo, fortes ressonâncias do movimento podem ser notadas em perspectivas artísticas posteriores. Na França, muitos de seus protagonistas integraram o surrealismo subsequente. Nos Estados Unidos, por sua vez, na década de 50, artistas como Robert Rauschenberg (1925), Jasper Johns (1930) e Louise Nevelson (1899-1988) retomam certas orientações do movimento no chamado neodada. Difícil localizar influências diretas do dadaísmo na produção brasileira, mas talvez seja possível pensar que ecos do movimento dada chegaram até nós através da leitura que dele fizeram os surrealistas, herdeiros legítimos do dadaísmo em solo francês. Por exemplo, em obras variadas como as de Ismael Nery (1900-1934) e Cicero Dias (1907-2003); nas fotomontagens de Jorge de Lima (1893-1953), que podem ser aproximadas de trabalhos correlatos de Max Ernst; Flávio de Carvalho no lançamento de seu Traje de Verão, em 1956. na produção de Flávio de Carvalho (1899-1973). Deste último, podemos lembrar as performances, tão ao gosto das vanguardas - por exemplo, a relatada no livro Experiência nº 2 - e também o seu projeto para a Fazenda Capuava, edificada em 1938, cujas motivações de aproximação arte e vida lembram, segundo algumas leituras, o Merzbau de Schwitters.

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