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Empirismo Inglês - Bacon, Locke e Hume

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Slides utilizados como roteiro para a aula de filosofia. É apresentado neste arquivo: o contexto, a influência, particularidades da Idade Moderna e seu rompimento com a tradição e as bases do pensamento de cada um dos três pensadores.

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Empirismo Inglês - Bacon, Locke e Hume

  1. 1. Empirismo Inglês Bacon, Locke, Hume
  2. 2. O que é empirismo?
  3. 3. Corrente filosófica para a qual a experiência é o critério ou norma da verdade.
  4. 4. 1) Negação de princípios inatos 2) Negação do suprassensível
  5. 5. Influências e Contexto
  6. 6. 476 QUEDA DE ROMA  1789 REVOLUÇÃO FRANCESA  PRÉ- HISTÓRIA IDADE ANTIGA IDADE MÉDIA IDADE MODERNA IDADE CONTEMP.  4.000 a.C. INVENÇÃO DA ESCRITA  1453 QUEDA DE CONSTANTINOPLA EM ESPECIAL NA INGLATERRA
  7. 7. ARISTÓTELES
  8. 8. Real Sociedade de Londres
  9. 9. INDUSTRIALIZAÇÃO
  10. 10. Pensadores
  11. 11. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) John Locke (1632–1704) David Hume (1711 – 1776)
  12. 12. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) John Locke (1632–1704) David Hume (1711 – 1776)
  13. 13. Método Indutivo Teoria dos Ídolos
  14. 14.
  15. 15.  
  16. 16. Teoria do Ídolos Análise e crítica das falsas noções, da condição humana e filosofias anteriores.
  17. 17. 476 QUEDA DE ROMA  1789 REVOLUÇÃO FRANCESA  PRÉ- HISTÓRIA IDADE ANTIGA IDADE MÉDIA IDADE MODERNA IDADE CONTEMP.  4.000 a.C. INVENÇÃO DA ESCRITA  1453 QUEDA DE CONSTANTINOPLA ROMPIMENTO E CRÍTICA AOS MODELOS ANTERIORES
  18. 18. Teoria dos Ídolos Tribo O homem não representa o universo. Caverna O homem enquanto indivíduo. Foro A linguagem como algo falho. Teatro Sistemas filosóficos, teológicos, políticos...
  19. 19. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) John Locke (1632–1704) David Hume (1711 – 1776)
  20. 20. Tábula Rasa Ideias simples e complexas
  21. 21. Tábula Rasa Não existem ideias inatas, sendo que todo conhecimento se baseia em dados da experiência empírica.
  22. 22. Ideias Simples e Complexas Simples: percepções oriundas dos objetos (exemplo: textura e odor) Complexas: construídas em nossa mente com base nas experiências simples (exemplo: maçã)
  23. 23. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) John Locke (1632–1704) David Hume (1711 – 1776)
  24. 24. Ceticismo Causalidade e Hábito
  25. 25. Causalidade e Hábito O que observamos é a sucessão de fatos ou a sequência de eventos, e não o nexo causal entre esses mesmos atos ou eventos.
  26. 26. Princípio da razão suficiente
  27. 27. Para Hume, todas as ocorrências no mundo estão precisamente determinadas, não teleologicamente, em vista de algum fim, mas mecanicamente, em consequência de eventos precedentes.
  28. 28. Para Hume, todas as ocorrências no mundo estão precisamente determinadas, não teleologicamente, em vista de algum fim, mas mecanicamente, em consequência de eventos precedentes.
  29. 29. A B OBSERVAMOS A SEQUÊNCIA DE FATOS E CRIAMOS RELAÇÕES.
  30. 30. Princípio da uniformidade
  31. 31. Tese de que a natureza é uniforme em suas operações em qualquer região do espaço e em qualquer intervalo do tempo.
  32. 32. Basicamente, consiste em afirmar que as leis da natureza são invariáveis e continuarão operando no futuro tal como operaram no passado.
  33. 33. Conclusões
  34. 34. O empirismo caracteriza-se pela valorização da experiência sensível como fonte do conhecimento. O método indutivo e as bases da ciência fundadas no método empírico e experimental (hipóteses, observação, verificação e testes).

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