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Principles of Macroeconomics :3

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### 27

1. 1. 27 The Basic Tools of Finance
2. 2. <ul><li>Finance is the field that studies how people make decisions regarding the allocation of resources over time and the handling of risk. </li></ul>
3. 3. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY <ul><li>Present value refers to the amount of money today that would be needed to produce, using prevailing interest rates, a given future amount of money. </li></ul>
4. 4. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY <ul><li>The concept of present value demonstrates the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving a given sum of money in the present is preferred to receiving the same sun in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to compare values at different points in time, compare their present values. </li></ul><ul><li>Firms undertake investment projects if the present value of the project exceeds the cost. </li></ul>
5. 5. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY <ul><li>If r is the interest rate, then an amount X to be received in N years has present value of: </li></ul><ul><li>X/(1 + r) N </li></ul>
6. 6. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY <ul><li>Future Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of money in the future that an amount of money today will yield, given prevailing interest rates, is called the future value . </li></ul></ul>
7. 7. FYI: Rule of 70 <ul><li>According to the rule of 70 , if some variable grows at a rate of x percent per year, then that variable doubles in approximately 70/x years . </li></ul>
8. 8. MANAGING RISK <ul><li>A person is said to be risk averse if she exhibits a dislike of uncertainty. </li></ul>
9. 9. MANAGING RISK <ul><li>Individuals can reduce risk choosing any of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept a lower return on their investments </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. Figure 1 Risk Aversion Wealth 0 Utility Current wealth Copyright©2004 South-Western \$1,000 gain \$1,000 loss Utility loss from losing \$1,000 Utility gain from winning \$1,000
11. 11. The Markets for Insurance <ul><li>One way to deal with risk is to buy insurance . </li></ul><ul><li>The general feature of insurance contracts is that a person facing a risk pays a fee to an insurance company, which in return agrees to accept all or part of the risk. </li></ul>
12. 12. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk <ul><li>Diversification refers to the reduction of risk achieved by replacing a single risk with a large number of smaller unrelated risks. </li></ul>
13. 13. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk <ul><li>Idiosyncratic risk is the risk that affects only a single person. The uncertainty associated with specific companies. </li></ul>
14. 14. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk <ul><li>Aggregate risk is the risk that affects all economic actors at once, the uncertainty associated with the entire economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification cannot remove aggregate risk. </li></ul>
15. 15. Figure 2 Diversification Number of Stocks in Portfolio (More risk) (Less risk) 0 1 4 6 8 10 20 40 Risk (standard deviation of portfolio return) 30 Copyright©2004 South-Western 49 20 Aggregate risk Idiosyncratic risk
16. 16. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk <ul><li>People can reduce risk by accepting a lower rate of return. </li></ul>
17. 17. Figure 3 The Tradeoff between Risk and Return Risk (standard deviation) 0 5 10 15 20 8.3 3.1 Return (percent per year) Copyright©2004 South-Western 50% stocks 25% stocks No stocks 100% stocks 75% stocks
18. 18. ASSET VALUATION <ul><li>Fundamental analysis is the study of a company’s accounting statements and future prospects to determine its value. </li></ul>
19. 19. ASSET VALUATION <ul><li>People can employ fundamental analysis to try to determine if a stock is undervalued, overvalued, or fairly valued. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to buy undervalued stock . </li></ul>
20. 20. Efficient Markets Hypothesis <ul><li>The efficient markets hypothesis is the theory that asset prices reflect all publicly available information about the value of an asset. </li></ul>
21. 21. Efficient Markets Hypothesis <ul><li>A market is informationally efficient when it reflects all available information in a rational way. </li></ul><ul><li>If markets are efficient, the only thing an investor can do is buy a diversified portfolio </li></ul>
22. 22. CASE STUDY: Random Walks and Index Funds <ul><li>Random walk refers to the path of a variable whose changes are impossible to predict. </li></ul><ul><li>If markets are efficient, all stocks are fairly valued and no stock is more likely to appreciate than another. Thus stock prices follow a random walk. </li></ul>
23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Because savings can earn interest, a sum of money today is more valuable than the same sum of money in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>A person can compare sums from different times using the concept of present value. </li></ul><ul><li>The present value of any future sum is the amount that would be needed today, given prevailing interest rates, to produce the future sum. </li></ul>
24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Because of diminishing marginal utility, most people are risk averse. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-averse people can reduce risk using insurance, through diversification, and by choosing a portfolio with lower risk and lower returns. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of an asset, such as a share of stock, equals the present value of the cash flows the owner of the share will receive, including the stream of dividends and the final sale price. </li></ul>
25. 25. Summary <ul><li>According to the efficient markets hypothesis, financial markets process available information rationally, so a stock price always equals the best estimate of the value of the underlying business. </li></ul><ul><li>Some economists question the efficient markets hypothesis, however, and believe that irrational psychological factors also influence asset prices. </li></ul>