Presentación de Cristóbal Cobo en ExpoEnlacs 2012


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  • Let me propose a trilogy of tree key dimensions: that articulate contents, with containers and the adequate context.Here the challenge is not only to through technology away but also work in the context (here the invisible learning is the KEY)
  • A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education United States Department of Education by The National Commission on Excellence in Education .April 1983
  • My second statement has to do with the integration of literacies. The traditional literacy (usually measured as the amount of people who read and write, over 15 years old)And the 21st century literacies which has to do with a higher order and and more complex skills.Here, you can see this mobible teaching-technology used almost at the same time than the “learning machine” but used in the farms of China.
  • We have done a pretty good job. Reducing significantly the illiteracy around the world. Based on the UN Millenium Development Goal, this is how the illiteracy will look in 2015, where the problem will be much more focalized than in the past.As can be seen in this map that illustrates the illiteracy at the beginning of the 20th century illiteracy was as high as 50% of world population and was spread all around the world apart from US, UE and Au (SOURCE??).Now, in this second map elaborated by UNESCO, we can see that the level of illiteracy has decreased dramatically and it is expected to drop until 15% of world population.Map of 1900 2015, A LOT HAS TO BE DONE TO REDUCE THE DIFFERENCESS BETWEEN THE MALE AND FEMALE POPULATION- AND ALSO, TO SOLVE THE A REAL CAPABILITY TO UNDERSTAND IN A MININGFUL WAY WHAT ITS READ Progress of Literacy in Various Countries (1953. UNESCO) first time data concerning literacy as reported in national censuses carried out since 1900.[UNESCO’s International Literacy Statistics 1950-2000. John A. Smyth 2005]
  • According to the UNESCO, the World Illiteracy rate (of people over 15 year s old) has dropped particularly fast in the last 40 years.However, now we have a different world. This grapgh made by the International Telecommunication Union, show us how fast has grown the internet (30%) and the mobile subscription (reaching almost 80% of the world)
  • MihalyCsikszentmihalyi wrote that the creative process normally takes five steps (Creativity, 1996, p.79): 
  Preparation - becoming immersed in problematic issues that are interesting and arouses curiosity. Incubation - ideas churn around below the threshold of consciousness. Insight - the “Aha!” moment when the puzzle starts to fall together. Evaluation - deciding if the insight is valuable and worth pursuing. Elaboration - translating the insight into its final work.
  • Digital literacy across the curriculum. 2010. FutureLab
  • Comparing Frameworks for “21 st. Century Skills”. Chris Dede. Harvard Graduate School of Education. July, 2009.
  • Connected Minds Technology and Today's Learners Centre for Educational Research and Innovation OECD. F.Pedró
  • In the United States, Hargittai (2010)
  • Un estudio hecho en Uruguay, país que adoptó el proyecto One Laptop Per Child en su sistema educativo, mediante una en- cuesta nacional realizada a más de 5.600 estudiantes, identificó lo siguiente: un 45% de los estudiantes aprendió a usar el laptop a tra- vés de sus pares, un 36% de los estudiantes lo aprendió por su cuen- ta y sólo el 19% con la ayuda de un docente. Esta proporción varía según el nivel socio económico (NSE). Es decir, en el NSE medio-alto el 53% aprendió de un amigo o familiar, relación que disminuye hasta un 14% de los niños de NSE bajo-bajo (donde la escuela y el autoaprendizaje tienen una mayor relevancia) (Martínez, 2009).
  • Correlación edad: tipos de relaciones y privacidad
  • The relationship between students’ computer use at school and performance in digital reading tends to be negative with a slight curve.NAVIGATION: “After accounting for students’ performance in print reading, the relationship between digital reading performance and the frequency of browsing the Internet at home for schoolwork is close to linear” (p.189).”Navigation is a key component of digital reading, as readers “construct” their text through navigation. Thus, navigational choices directly influence what kind of text is eventually processed. Stronger readers tend to choose strategies that are suited to the demands of the individual tasks. Better readers tend to minimise their visits to irrelevant pages.” (p.20)SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION: “The more frequently students search for information on line, the better their performance in digital reading. Being unfamiliar with online social practices, such as e-mailing and chatting, seems to be associated with low digital reading proficiency”LACK OF INTEGRATION: “It is likely that the low level of ICT use at school indicates that ICT has not yet been fully integrated into pedagogical practices” (p.153)MODERATE FREQUENCIES OF USE: “The relationship between the frequency of computer use at home for leisure and for schoolwork and digital reading performance is not linear, but rather mountain-shaped: in other words, moderate users attain higher scores in digital reading than both rare and intensive users”.POSITIVE EFFECT OF ICT AT HOME: “The frequency of computer use at home for leisure is positively related to navigation skills, which is an essential and unique part of digital reading, while the frequency of computer use at school is not. These findings suggest that students are developing digital reading literacy mainly by using computers at home to pursue their interests [...] it is important to encourage students to develop navigation skills and to foster self-confidence through using computers at home, while providing guidance on how to balance the amount of time students spend using computers with time for other activities.”NEGATIVE EFFECT OF THE SCHOOL: “Computer use at school is not positively associated with digital reading performance [...] access to computers at school is not the sole determinant of performance; students who use computers at school must also develop the knowledge and skills needed to locate and use the range of information available through the computer.”NOT TO BRING OUT-OF-SCHOOL-KNOWLEDGE:“In some lessons at school, students were frustrated about not being able to suggest different or better ways of using technologies, saying they got told off. Students also said that some teachers did not welcome students’ out-of-school knowledge more generally into the classroom: “if you try to link it [out of school activities] with something in lessons, it’s always wrong and they’ve got to be always right.”Bringing in out-of-school knowledge into the classroom can be seen as undermining teachers’ authority when it is framed as a question of who is ‘right’, or which knowledge is ‘legitimate’, but for other teachers it is simply a case of working with whatever students bring to a particular task.After identifying the gap between the ICT practices at the school and at home, Grant states a question that we think is quite important: “How schools could foster particular skills and components of digital literacy?, rather than How they [teachers-students] could build connections between home and school digital literacy practices?“.
  •ña-López, I. (2012). Las competencias digitales como medios de producción. Seminario RRHH Misión Chile-España. Citilab, Cornellà de Llobregat, 13 de septiembre de 2012. Cornellà de Llobregat: THP. RetrievedSeptember 13, 2012 from
  • e-habilidades auto adquiridas: no se traducen en maximizar las oportunidades de aprendizaje.
  • Presentación de Cristóbal Cobo en ExpoEnlacs 2012

    1. 1. nuevas formasde aprendizaje colaborativo Radar Networks 1
    2. 2. Superstorm Sandy, 10/2012. NY Andrew Burton / Getty Images Radar Networks 2
    3. 3. Paul Gilster, Digital Literacy(John Wiley & Sons, 1998). 1998 2001 Larry Cuban, Oversold and underused: computers in the classroom (Harvard University Press, 2001). Makers: The New Industrial Revolution By Chris Anderson (Crown Business, 2012) 2011 2012 Radar Networks 3
    4. 4. innovación estructural tecnología social contenido continenteinnovación social contexto 4 Radar Networks 4
    5. 5. La (permanente) crisis de laalfabetizacióGn Radar Networks 5
    6. 6. Oxenham (1980)Alfabetismos comosíndrome modernización(flexibildiad, adaptación, v Presentation Titleoluntad de cambio).A Nation at Risk (1983) "Lacrisis de la alfabetización"en naciones post-Industriales. ReformasEducativas > AlfabetismosFuncionales. The turn of the century millions of jobs will involve laser technology and robotics. Technology is radically transformingOCDE [1990- ]: Relación a host of other occupationentre ―… [the workers] lackalfabetización, crecimiento adequate 21st Century ITeconómico y skills to fuel the informationempleabilidad.Analfabetismo: ageLiteracies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning New economy...‖ 2011 by Lankshear and Knobel Radar Networks 6
    7. 7. Presentation Title Radar Networks 7
    8. 8. Lankshear and Knobel (2011) Gilster: Dominio de La alfabetización -> ideas sobre el de las metáfora de teclas. Presentation Title competencia funcional 1. "Post-tipográficas‖ (tecnológicamente Producción alfabetizados). de‗textos‘. De tinta a píxeles. Alfabetización 2. Comportamiento: mediática: uso crítico nuevas prácticas de medios (comprender sociales significado (participativa, colabo en contexto). rativa y distribuida).New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning Gilster, P. Digital Literacy. NY: John 2011 by Lankshear and Knobel Wiley & Sons, Inc.1997 Networks 8 Radar
    9. 9.‗Tecnologías‘ Emergentes Un año o menos De dos a tres años De cuatro a cinco años Contenido Abierto Entornos Personales Analíticas de de Aprendizaje Aprendizaje Aplicaciones Móviles Tabletas Cursos Masivos Computación en nube Abiertos en Línea Aprendizaje Basado Entornos en Juegos Aplicaciones Colaborativos Semánticas Geolocalización Realidad Aumentada Perspectivas Tecnológicas en Iberoamérica 2012-2017El Informe Horizon.Ib (eLearn Center de la UOC y del New Media Consortium). Radar Networks 9
    10. 10. Tipos dealfabetismo Radar Networks 10
    11. 11. Nuevos alfabetismos 11 Radar Networks 11
    12. 12. traditional literacy + 21st century literacies illiterate educational institutions 1950 Literacy: number of people (+15) who can read and 12 write Radar Networks 12
    13. 13. World (traditional) illiteracy 1900 Matthew White (1997) Increase 3 times Afghanistan/Niger 13 Radar Networks 13
    14. 14. United Nations Millennium Development Goals Increase adult literacy by 50% 2015 14 Radar Networks 14
    15. 15. World Illiteracy Rate 1970 – 2000 (prognosis for 2005 – 2015), age 15 years and over. Source UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). 15 Radar Networks 15
    16. 16. Global ICT developments, 2000-2010* 100 90 Mobile cellular telephone 80 subscriptions Internet users 70Per 100 inhabitants 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 *Estimates2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010* Source: ITU World Telecommunication /ICT Indicators database 16 Radar Networks 16
    17. 17. Access only 2 every 7 One (random) day in Wikipedia… Digital divide > 424,000 articles + 14,200 geo-tagged event [by Gareth Lloyd and Tom Martin.] connectivityAntarctica than any More Articles of 84% articles from EU and US other country in South America or Africa 17Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the World‘s Knowledge. London, Convoco! Edition. Radar Networks 17
    18. 18. Distribución de artículos de Wikipediaconnectors, amplifiers @timoreilly we are Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the Worlds Knowledge. Ed. Flick, C. M., London, Convoco! Edition. Multiplicar alfabetismos : prosumer – filtrar y (re)usar [economía de la atención] Radar Networks 18
    19. 19. 19 Radar Networks 19
    20. 20. El cambio es La cultural (no solo alfabetizació6n funcional), aprende Title digital no busca Presentation r a aprender y a conectar reemplazar la contextos. alfabetizació6n tradicional, sino ampliar y diversificar (cultura digital). (Littlejohn, Margaryan and Vojt, 2010). Digi-Log: "Briefcase Portability" (1976) (Carrington and Robinson, 2009; Selwyn, 2010, 2011)JISC/British Library commissioned Researchers of Tomorrow Radar Networks 20
    21. 21. 3 alfabetismos básicos OECD - [digital reading skills] 2011 Crear contenidosCompartirConocimiento Traducir/ integrarAlfabetización: capacidad para aplicar conocimientos y habilidades en áreas estratégicas afin de analizar, comunicar con eficacia, resolver problemas en diferentes situaciones (OCDE, 212004). Radar Networks 21
    22. 22. Transitar de la consulta a la curación/creac ión de Basic literacy #1Create/ Connect / translate knowledge contenidos. 22 Radar Networks 22
    23. 23. periscopio caleidoscopio (explora fuentes) (combina contextos) Radar Networks 23
    24. 24. aprendizaje emergente DIYFormación auto -básica y aprendizajemedia aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida Basic literacy #2Knowledge distribution, low cost, decentralization 24 resources-you-may-not-know-about-but-should/ Networks 24 Radar
    25. 25. The 4 Rs of Openness Reuse—The most Redistribute - People basic level of can share the work with openness. others Revise — People can adapt, modify, or translate the form the work Remix — Take 2 or more resources, combine them and create a new resource.Hilton, J. W. (2010, January 11). The 4 Rs of Openness and the ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources. Radar Networks 25
    26. 26. Creciente expectativasobre las capacidadesdocentes y recursos deaprendizaje disponibles Title Presentationen clases.La ‗cultura de RecursosEducativos Abiertos‘(con licencias abiertas)es un espacio ideal paracompartirconocimientos ydesarrollar nuevashabilidades digitalesconjuntamente. Digital Futures in Teacher Education Radar Networks 26
    27. 27. Howard Rheingold: Crap Detection To evaluate information from several sources, assessing the credibility (criteria) of the Basic Literacy # 3 Retrieve, select, analyze, contextualize 27 Radar Networks 27
    28. 28. Presentation TitleThe Essential Elementsof Digital Literaciesby Doug Belshaw Radar Networks 28
    29. 29. Jugar: Experimentar y resolverproblemas.Adaptación: adoptar roles,improvisar y descubrir.Simulación: Interpretar, crear Title Presentationmodelos del mundo realApropiación: Remezclarcontenido y medios.Multitarea:Administrar la atención.Cognición Distribuida: Sumarcapacidades de muchos.Criterio: Evaluar diferentesfuentes.Transmediación: navegaciónentre medios.Networking: Conectarinformación.Negociación: (Jenkins, 2006) Radar Networks 29
    30. 30. Tipos dehabilidades Radar Networks 30
    31. 31. fuentes y tiempo de aprendizaje, medios de evaluación, espacio de aprendizaje, 31 Radar Networks 31
    32. 32. Habilidades blandas (soft skills) uso de TIC experimentaciónfuera del aula aprendizaje entre pares (aprendizaje adaptación informal) habilidades blandas 32 Radar Networks 32
    33. 33. • Colaboración, trabajo (Problema de la Torre de Babel) • Pensamiento crítico: en resolución de red, negociación, creaci problemas, de gestiónTitle Presentation ón distribuida. complejidad. • Aprendizaje • contextual, adaptabilida Búsqueda, síntesis, s d cultural y conciencia elección y difusión de global. información. • Auto-Dirección: • asumir riesgos, espíritu Creatividad, curiosida emprendedor.Comparing Frameworks for ―21 st. Century Skills‖. Chris Dede. Harvard Graduate School of Education., 2009. d y exploración. • Comunicación Radar Networks 33
    34. 34. Escenarios de evolución Aprender n internacional sobre modelosHiper-estimulación – educativos de futuro (2012) F. TelefónicaExperimentación Presentation Title Hiper-estimulación – Experimentación Aprendizaje en red (individuo colectivo) Comunidad de aprendizaje Tribu Radar Networks 34
    35. 35. Collaboration Critical Thinking Habilidades para la innovación Contextual Learning Synthesizing of information Communication Self-Direction Creativity. Presentation Title cognitive skills Total soft and Self-Direction disseminating Collaboration required per Synthesizing information Contextual Creativity Critical- thinking learning Comm. org. andGreen Peace 8 7 1 7 4 2 2 31World Bank 10 3 1 15 9 5 4 47OECD 7 2 2 10 6 2 1 30Google 4 4 3 4 2 2 4 23Apple 6 4 1 7 4 4 5 31Samsung 6 NA NA 6 1 3 4 20Total of soft and 41 20 8 49 26 18 20cognitive skillsper dimension Radar Networks 35
    36. 36. Competencias TIC: Competencias n en interpersonales:medios, n, Flexibilidad habilidades Presentation Title n efectiva y sociales y colaboraciónTIC. y liderazgo.Pensamiento tico: lisis tico n, pensamiento tico, n deproblemas, creatividad. n internacional sobre modelos educativos de futuro (2012) F. Telefónica Radar Networks 36
    37. 37. ¿Qué pasó con (y sus amigos) Prensky? Radar Networks 37
    38. 38. Production of knowledgeDistribution of knowledge nuevos agentes y mecanismos 38 Radar Networks 38
    39. 39. "No podemos asumirque ser miembro de la Presentation Title‘Generación Net’ essinónimo de sabercómo emplear latecnología de maneraestratégica paraoptimizar laexperiencia deaprendizaje". Australia, Kennedy et al., 2008 found lack of homogeneity in technology adoption patterns Radar Networks 39
    40. 40. "No hay evidencia para sugerir que losPresentation Title estudiantes tengan un conocimiento profundo de la tecnología, su uso depende del contexto. In Canada, Bullen et al., 2008 investigated students‘ fit to the ―millennial‖ profile. Radar Networks 40
    41. 41. ”Falta evidencia paraapoyar que la actual Presentation Titlegeneración deestudiantes prefiereel aprendizajeexperimental, laalfabetizacióndigital, la conectividadconstante" In Canada, Bullen et al., 2008 investigated students‘ fit to the ―millennial‖ profile. Radar Networks 41
    42. 42. "La idea de quela Generación Presentation TitleNet es másproclive aparticipar Sólo 1/3 de adolescentes ‘brit’ manifestaron[mediante la profundo interés yweb] resulta facilidad por laexagerada" tecnología. In the United Kingdom, a 2007 survey by Synovate, Williams and Rowlands, 2008, Jones et al., 2010) Radar Networks 42
    43. 43. Las evidenciasPresentation Title no apoyan la premisa de que los jóvenes son universalmente conocedores de la web. In the United States, Hargittai (2010) Radar Networks 43
    44. 44. Existe claravariación Presentation Title entreestudiantes(100%‗conectados‗),Los estudiantes debajo nivel socio-económico (...)muestran nivelesmás bajos‗know-how‘de la web que el In the United States, Hargittai (2010)resto. Radar Networks 44
    45. 45. Gerontología digital Radar Networks 45
    46. 46. Presnky (2001) inmigrantes digitales y nativos digitales edad y habilidadCorrelación edad: tipos de relaciones y privacidad Radar Networks 46
    47. 47. Presentation Title Radar Networks 47
    48. 48. residentesWeb como espacio-comunidad-identidad visitantes Usuarios no miembros Depende del contextos: espacios, herramientas, motivaciones White & Le Cornu, 2011 Radar Networks 48
    49. 49. ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Cuántoaprenden? Radar Networks 49
    50. 50. Intensity of computer use in school lessons, and digital reading performance [OECD average-15] 50 Radar Networks 50
    51. 51. Críticas a la Es muy reciente para evaluación del evaluar impactos. impacto Presentation Title [OCDE]: Las evaluaciones seDificultad para medir realizanlos que se entiende inmediatamentepor despuééééeés deaprendizaje/habilida utilizar losdes.. dispositivos.Diferentes El efecto acumulativoexpectativas. de los medios digitales no es lo amnesia tecnológica Radar Networks 51
    52. 52. Algunos de losdominiospotencialmente más Presentation Titleinteresantes no han sidosuficientementedocumentadosempíricamente.Reflexión crítica; valores relacionalescreatividad y experimentación; habilidadesmeta-cognitivas; habilidades espaciales,. Radar Networks 52
    53. 53. Presentation Coursera: Evaluación P2P Radar Networks 53
    54. 54. Contextos de Radar Networks 54
    55. 55. Frederic Skinner, Harvard University 55Frederic Skinner, Teaching Machine, 1961 Radar Networks 55
    56. 56., ESADE 56 Radar Networks 56
    57. 57. 2011, Filipinas 57 Radar Networks 57
    58. 58. 58 Radar Networks 58
    59. 59. Escenarios de Aprendizaje Presentation Title comunidades geeks cualificación acreditación reconocimiento comunidades edx aprendizajeI.Peña, 2012 Radar Networks 59
    60. 60. 60 Radar Networks 60
    61. 61. Conclusion es Radar Networks 61
    62. 62. Sociedad/Economía conocimiento:insuficiente crítica a la mirada tecno-conectivista. 62 obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? Radar Networks 62
    63. 63. Mitología digital Efecto de las TIC: Insuficiente evidencia para demostrar efectos notables en desarrollo de 63 obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? habilidades cognitivas. Radar Networks 63
    64. 64. Acumulación deconocimiento (bancaria):Paso del‗just in case‘al‗just in time‘(flexibilidad). la primera brecha digital fue‗efecto‘ (de desigualdad) la segunda causa de nuevas 64 obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? Radar Networks 64
    65. 65. Software abierto sí, pero también hardware y, sobre todo, conocimientos abiertos. Sujetos híbridos digitales-analógicos: Traduzcan conocimientos de un ámbito a otro y que sean capaces de 65 conectar de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? disciplinas. Radar Networks 65
    66. 66. Más allá del currículum: Ampliar hacia el aprendizaje no formal y competencias blandas. 66obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? Radar Networks 66
    67. 67. Estereotipos: No es apropiadoreferirse a ‗milenials‘ nativosdigitales, etc.como distintivogeneracional(dicotómicasy generalistas).+ conexión nosiempre es mejor:clave está en loque se hace mientrasse está conectado. 67 obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? Radar Networks 67
    68. 68. Nuevos mecanismos: para reconocer los conocimientos habilidades (blandas ) adquiridos por vía no formal. 68obra de dan perjovschi. what happened to US? Radar Networks 68
    69. 69. @cristobalcobo 69Oxford Internet Institute Research Fellow. Radar Networks 69
    70. 70. Connected Minds Technology and TodaysLearners Centre for Educational Researchand Innovation OECD. F.Pedró Presentation Titleminds_9789264111011-enNew Literacies: Everyday Practices andSocial Learning 2011 by Lankshear andKnobel Report to the Nation and the Secretary ofEducation United States Department ofEducation by The National Commission onExcellence in Education. April 1983 Teens Do Research in the DigitalWorld. Nov 1, 2012 byPurcell, Rainie, Heaps, Buchananhttp://pewinternet.orgGlobal Education Digest 2009 ComparingEducation Statistics Across The World Radar Networks 70