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Malware's Most Wanted: CryptoLocker—The Ransomware Trojan


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The CryptoLocker Malware encrypts certain files with a private key and demands payment to regain access to the files. Nick Bilogorskiy, Director of Security Research, presents this deep dive into CryptoLocker and looks at the latest information around what is called one of the two most sophisticated and destructive forms of malicious software in existence. (The other being Gameover Zeus.)

Malware’s Most Wanted is a monthly series to inform IT security professionals on the details of the most dangerous advanced persistent threats. Attendees receive a special edition t-shirt.

Published in: Technology

Malware's Most Wanted: CryptoLocker—The Ransomware Trojan

  1. 1. Dissecting the Cryptolocker Ransomware Cyphort Labs Malware’s Most Wanted Series June 2014
  2. 2. Your speakers today Nick Bilogorskiy Director of Security Research Jean Krahulec Event Marketing Director
  3. 3. Agenda o What is Cryptolocker o Major incidents involving Cryptolocker o Dissecting the malware o Wrap-up and Q&A CyphortLabsT-shirt
  4. 4. We work with the security ecosystem ••••• Contribute to and learn from malware KB ••••• Best of 3rd Party threat data We enhance malware detection accuracy ••••• False positives/negatives ••••• Deep-dive research Threat Monitoring & Research team ••••• 24X7 monitoring for malware events ••••• Assist customers with their Forensics and Incident Response About Cyphort Labs
  5. 5. Poll #1 Who does Cryptolocker target? o Governments o Individuals o Corporations
  6. 6. What is Cryptolocker? o Began September 2013 o Encrypts victim’s files, asks for $300 ransom o Impossible to recover files without a key o Ransom increases after deadline o Goal is monetary via Bitcoin o 250,000+ victims worldwide (According to Secureworks)
  7. 7. If you see this screen - You are infected Image source: FBI
  8. 8. Who pays the ransom? Police department paid $750 to decrypt images and word documents
  9. 9. PGPCoder Trojan – 1024 RSA key, collects money via EGOLD Bitcoin was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto Reveton Trojan, aka Police Trojan. collects money via Moneypak BitCoin becomes popular, price increases Cryptolocker Ransomware History 2005 2009 2012 2013 2013
  10. 10. Cryptolocker History September 2013 October 2013 November 2013 December 2013 February 2014 May 2014 June 2014 Cryptodefense, BitCrypt Android - Simplelocker Cryptolocker author identified and added to most wanted list Cryptolocker 2.0 CryptoLocker Decryption Service introduced Cryptolocker 1.0 appeared
  11. 11. Attribution According to the FBI, losses are “more than $100 million.” Image source: FBI
  12. 12. Attribution Evgeniy Mikhailovich Bogachev, 30, of Anapa, Russia. nickname “Slavik” ,indicted for conspiracy, computer hacking, wire fraud, bank fraud, and money laundering . Bogachev is identified as a leader of a cyber gang of criminals based in Russia and Ukraine that is responsible both GameOver Zeus and Cryptolocker.
  13. 13. Cryptolocker Victims and Damages o Dell SecureWorks estimates that CryptoLocker has infected 250,000 victims. The average payout is $300 each o 1 million dollars a day. o $27 million in ransom in first 2 months (FBI)
  14. 14. Cryptolocker Victims and Damages Image source: FBI
  15. 15. Poll #2 What percentage of victims pay the ransom? o 0.1% o 1% o 25% o 41%
  16. 16. 41% of people pay ransom Data from a Jan 2014 survey by University of Kent
  17. 17. Cryptolocker overview z Bitcoin Ransom Sent C&C Server Private Key Sent Locked Files Unlocked Files
  18. 18. Cryptolocker analysis - Drops copy of itself in %APPDATA%{random}.exe - It creates the following autorun key. HKCUSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun "CryptoLocker":<random>.exe - It creates two processes of itself. The other acts as a watchdog. Later versions of CryptoLocker create an additional registry entry: HKCUSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunOnce "*CryptoLocker":<random>.exe
  19. 19. Cryptolocker C&C Domain Generation Algorithm It uses any of the following TLD for every generated domain: .com , .net , .biz, .ru , .org , , .info 1 2 3 4 Encrypt Files with the public key flow 5 6
  20. 20. Cryptolocker C&C CnC - Sinkholed – what does it mean?
  21. 21. CryptoLocker Victims Filename and Extensions Encrypted by CryptoLocker
  22. 22. Cryptolocker analysis It searches in all local and remote drives for files to encrypt. All files that are encrypted are also saved in the following registry for record: HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareCryptoLockerFiles The only way to decrypt is to buy the private key from the attackers.
  23. 23. Cryptolocker Ransom Payment options: moneypak, ukash, cashu, bitcoin Price: $300 USD or 2 BTC
  24. 24. Cryptolocker 2.0 Original Cryptolocker Cryptolocker 2.0 Compiler C++ .NET Encryption RSA-2048 RSA-4096 C&C servers Employs DGA No DGA Payment Scheme moneypak, ucash, cashu, bitcoin bitcoin only Around December 2013, a new ransomware emerged claiming to be Cryptolocker 2.0. Drops copy of itself in %system%. As msunet.exe
  25. 25. Cryptodefense aka Cryptowall o Cryptodefense is a newer variant of Cryptolocker. o appeared in Feb 2014 o no GUI o pops up a webpage, drops text file o Uses TOR for anonymous payments
  26. 26. Cryptodefense aka Cryptowall
  27. 27. Android SimpleLocker May 2014 – Simplelocker appears in Ukraine - Asks for $22 USD using Monexy - Uses TOR for C&C Checks SD card for: jpeg, jpg, png, bmp, gif, pdf, doc, docx, txt, avi, mkv, 3gp, mp4 Unlike Cryptolocker, Encryption key is hardcoded on the malware. Encrypted files are appended with “.enc”.
  28. 28. Conclusions 1. Cryptolocker evolved into a major threat allowing criminals to easily monetize malware infections via Bitcoin 2. Due to current geopolitical situation, Russian attackers will likely continue the barrage against US businesses and individuals while enjoying safe haven in their home country. 3. Cryptolocker needs public key to encrypt files so blocking known C&C servers may help prevent data encryption 4. Backup your files! Since decrypting the cryptolocker encrypted files is not impossible frequent backups become even more critical. And keep your backup offline.
  29. 29. Q and A o Information sharing and advanced threats resources o Blogs on latest threats and findings o Tools for identifying malware
  30. 30. Thank You!