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•EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE
Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical
expertise and patient values.
Evidence-based medicine is an interdisciplinary approach which uses techniques
from science, engineering, biostatistics and epidemiology, such as meta-analysis,
decision analysis, risk-benefit analysis, and randomized controlled trials to deliver
“the right care at the right time to the right patient.”
ANIL DHAKAL
HISTORY
• Medicine has a long history of scientific inquiry about the
prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease
• The concept of a controlled clinical trial was first described
in 1662 by Jan Baptist van Helmont in reference to the
practice of bloodletting.
• THALIDOMIDE TRAGEDY
• In 1961, McBride began to associate this so-called harmless
compound with severe birth defects in the babies he
delivered. The drug interfered with the babies' normal
development, causing many of them to be born with
phocomelia, resulting in shortened, absent, or flipper-like
limbs.
THE IMPACT OF EBM
• The basic principle of EBM
• – that we should treat where there is evidence of benefit and not treat
where there is evidence of no benefit (or harm) – is of relevance at all
levels of the NHS.
• ● Strategically: Bodies such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical
Excellence (NICE), the Scottish Medicines Consortium and the All Wales
Medicines Strategy Group use the principles of EBM, coupled with health
economic analysis, in directly commissioned health technology
assessments (HTAs) that inform guidance as to which treatments should
be available within the NHS (see What is healthtechnology assessment?9
for further discussion of HTAs).
• ● Tactically: Primary care organisations and hospital trusts formulate and
implement formularies, care pathways and guidelines based on HTAs and
other assessments issued by EBM-focused organisations.
• ● Individually: An understanding of the evidence base allows the clinician
to tailor treatment to the circumstances and risk–benefit profile of the
individual patient.
STEPS IN EBM
• 1. Recognize information needs and convert
them into answerable questions.
• 2. Conduct efficient searches for the best
evidence with which to answer these
questions.
• 3. Critically appraise the evidence for its
validity and usefulness.
• 4. Apply the results to patient situations to
best assist clinical decision making.
CLASSIFICATION OF GRADING
EVIDENCE
• • Meta-analysis: It is the result of an extensive search of published medical research, selecting the data from
valid, randomized controlled trials related to the selected topic. It uses complex statistical methods to pool
the results of various studies and includes inclusion and exclusion criteria for every selected study.
• Systematic Reviews: These are similar to meta-analyses and provide solution to a clinical question by an
extensive search from existing literature. They are generally provided by The Cochrane Library .
• • Randomized Controlled Trials: These are experimental, prospective clinical studies conducted on human
subjects. The subjects are randomly allotted to control group (receive placebo or no treatment) and
experimental group (receive treatment). The trial can be a single blind or double blind study to prevent study
bias.
• • Cohort Studies: These are observational studies unlike randomized controlled clinical studies. Large groups
of populations are studied over a period of time to know the effect of health condition or the exposure to a
pollutant, etc. They are not randomized. Cohort studies can either be prospective or retrospective. A
prospective study follows the enrolled subjects into the future and it can be expensive in cases the subjects
are lost to follow up. A retrospective study collects data from patient’s previous records. It is cheaper
compared to prospective study but the data may be incomplete or biased.
• Case-Control Studies: These are observational, retrospective studies similar to cohort studies. They are
performed in study subjects suffering from a condition to determine if exposure to something in the past has
caused the same condition and to estimate the level of exposure.
• • Case Series: It is report describing many individual cases in a single study subject. They are extremely useful
in case of rare or unusual diseases.
• • Editorials and Expert Opinions: They are based on experience of the editor or the expert providing the
advice. They are considered as weak evidence as they have no statistical significance.
• • In vivo studies: In vivo animal studies are used in preclinical research but the results in animal studies do
not always reflect the same in human studies. Hence they are not usually preferred in EBM.
• • In vitro studies: These are studies performed in controlled laboratory setting with cells or biological
molecules in culture media or solution simulating biological fluids.

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EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE.pptx

  • 1. •EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Evidence-based medicine is an interdisciplinary approach which uses techniques from science, engineering, biostatistics and epidemiology, such as meta-analysis, decision analysis, risk-benefit analysis, and randomized controlled trials to deliver “the right care at the right time to the right patient.” ANIL DHAKAL
  • 2. HISTORY • Medicine has a long history of scientific inquiry about the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease • The concept of a controlled clinical trial was first described in 1662 by Jan Baptist van Helmont in reference to the practice of bloodletting. • THALIDOMIDE TRAGEDY • In 1961, McBride began to associate this so-called harmless compound with severe birth defects in the babies he delivered. The drug interfered with the babies' normal development, causing many of them to be born with phocomelia, resulting in shortened, absent, or flipper-like limbs.
  • 3. THE IMPACT OF EBM • The basic principle of EBM • – that we should treat where there is evidence of benefit and not treat where there is evidence of no benefit (or harm) – is of relevance at all levels of the NHS. • ● Strategically: Bodies such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), the Scottish Medicines Consortium and the All Wales Medicines Strategy Group use the principles of EBM, coupled with health economic analysis, in directly commissioned health technology assessments (HTAs) that inform guidance as to which treatments should be available within the NHS (see What is healthtechnology assessment?9 for further discussion of HTAs). • ● Tactically: Primary care organisations and hospital trusts formulate and implement formularies, care pathways and guidelines based on HTAs and other assessments issued by EBM-focused organisations. • ● Individually: An understanding of the evidence base allows the clinician to tailor treatment to the circumstances and risk–benefit profile of the individual patient.
  • 4. STEPS IN EBM • 1. Recognize information needs and convert them into answerable questions. • 2. Conduct efficient searches for the best evidence with which to answer these questions. • 3. Critically appraise the evidence for its validity and usefulness. • 4. Apply the results to patient situations to best assist clinical decision making.
  • 6. • • Meta-analysis: It is the result of an extensive search of published medical research, selecting the data from valid, randomized controlled trials related to the selected topic. It uses complex statistical methods to pool the results of various studies and includes inclusion and exclusion criteria for every selected study. • Systematic Reviews: These are similar to meta-analyses and provide solution to a clinical question by an extensive search from existing literature. They are generally provided by The Cochrane Library . • • Randomized Controlled Trials: These are experimental, prospective clinical studies conducted on human subjects. The subjects are randomly allotted to control group (receive placebo or no treatment) and experimental group (receive treatment). The trial can be a single blind or double blind study to prevent study bias. • • Cohort Studies: These are observational studies unlike randomized controlled clinical studies. Large groups of populations are studied over a period of time to know the effect of health condition or the exposure to a pollutant, etc. They are not randomized. Cohort studies can either be prospective or retrospective. A prospective study follows the enrolled subjects into the future and it can be expensive in cases the subjects are lost to follow up. A retrospective study collects data from patient’s previous records. It is cheaper compared to prospective study but the data may be incomplete or biased. • Case-Control Studies: These are observational, retrospective studies similar to cohort studies. They are performed in study subjects suffering from a condition to determine if exposure to something in the past has caused the same condition and to estimate the level of exposure. • • Case Series: It is report describing many individual cases in a single study subject. They are extremely useful in case of rare or unusual diseases. • • Editorials and Expert Opinions: They are based on experience of the editor or the expert providing the advice. They are considered as weak evidence as they have no statistical significance. • • In vivo studies: In vivo animal studies are used in preclinical research but the results in animal studies do not always reflect the same in human studies. Hence they are not usually preferred in EBM. • • In vitro studies: These are studies performed in controlled laboratory setting with cells or biological molecules in culture media or solution simulating biological fluids.
  • 8. • ADVANCED EBM SKILLS • Critical Appraisal and Interpretation of Research on: • Therapies • Diagnostic Tests • Prognosis • Critical Evaluation and Interpretation of: • Systematic Reviews, Including Meta-analysis • Decision Analysis • Practice Guidelines • Pharmaceutical Advertising, Including Pharmaceutical Representatives • Assigning Levels of Evidence to Research Findings to: • Teaching Level 1 Skills • Written Communication of Research Findings • Physicians • Patients
  • 9. • ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN EBM • Many community pharmacists in developing and underdeveloped countries restrict their role only to dispensing medicines to patients. • Proper pharmaceutical care and evidence-based pharmaceutical care is a new concept for most of these pharmacists. • Lack of proper training, time and access to resources are the major barriers that impede pharmacists from employing evidence-based practice. • EBM helps to promote the rational use of medications making sure that patients receive the right medicine in the right dose for the right diagnosis at the right time at the lowest possible cost suitable to their individual requirements. • Pharmacist has a major role in this regard. Hospital/Community pharmacist is crucial in dispensing the medication prescribed the physician to the patient. • At times, a clinical pharmacist may be asked questions by physicians, nursing personnel and patients regarding drug information. • Hence, the pharmacist must have a vast knowledge about various drugs, their interactions and adverse effects, proper dosage and must have good communication skills. • It is advisable to have a proper awareness of newer medical conditions, their diagnosis, prognosis and prevention, etc. . Pharmacist must educate the patient about the proper usage of drugs while dispensing. Misinformation can be fatal to the health of the patient. • Guidelines must be developed in every country for the implementation of evidence-based practice. • Regular training and workshops on the advanced treatment practices, usage of latest drug information databases help in improving the pharmacist knowledge. • Many studies have suggested that proper EBM training improved the pharmacist knowledge and decision making process. • Query/Problem based pharmacotherapy courses promote the active participation of pharmacist in the healthcare process.