Capital punishment


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Capital punishment

  1. 1. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT Presentation by Ingmar May & Zeno Ziemke (K13-2, GK English Treis, 16.02.11)
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Brief historical overview </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Punishment Today </li></ul><ul><li>Methods used in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Selected Punishable Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Punishment in other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Apostasy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Brief H istorical Overview <ul><li>came to the U.S. with the first British settlers </li></ul><ul><li>1791: Bill of Rights 8th Amendment – no &quot;cruel and unusual punishment&quot; allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s: Moratorium on executions   </li></ul><ul><li>1972: capital punishment declared as unconstitutional   </li></ul><ul><li>1976: capital punishment restored by the United States Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Up until today: surrounded by controversy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Capital Punishment Today <ul><li>2010: </li></ul><ul><li>~40 executions </li></ul><ul><li>~3186 inmates on death row </li></ul><ul><li>Executions are often mass events </li></ul><ul><li>Media reports, People watch/wait outside </li></ul><ul><li>Most Americans support it </li></ul>
  5. 5. Which is the country with the highest number of executions of minors?
  6. 6. Every year in the U.S. there‘re more under-aged persons killed than in Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Libya together.
  7. 7. Lethal Injection <ul><li>primary method in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in 36 states + U.S. Military and U.S. Government </li></ul><ul><li>1066 executions since 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered as most „humane“ method </li></ul><ul><li>Causes immediate death  </li></ul><ul><li>Two cannula used, one for each arm, 2nd as backup </li></ul><ul><li>Three different drugs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st: unconsciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd: muscle paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd: stops the heart </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Electric Chair <ul><li>Former main method in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Now secondary method in 9 States: e.g. Alabama, Florida, South Carolina and Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>prisoners may choose it as alternative to lethal injection </li></ul><ul><li>157 executions since 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Cruelest method </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gas Chamber <ul><li>2nd most „humane“ method </li></ul><ul><li>Used in 4 states  </li></ul><ul><li>11 executions since 1976 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Judicial Hanging <ul><li>Only retained in Washington and New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>Short drop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes between ten and twenty minutes for the convict to die </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard drop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement: person's neck breaks immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long drop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  height, used to determine required dropping distance => ensure that neck breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 3x since 1976 </li></ul>
  11. 11.   Firing Squad <ul><li>Optional method in Utah </li></ul><ul><li>3 executions since 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Ronnie Lee Gardner (June 18, 2010) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Map of Captial Punishment in the U.S.
  13. 13. Selected Punishable Crimes + AGGRAVATING FACTORS crime has to be heinous (ruchlos), cruel, or depraved (verwerflich) (or involving torture) Crime: Jurisdiction: All kinds of m urder Treason  (fighting against your own country) Federal and Military courts, AR, CA, CO, GA, LA Aggravated Kidnapping CO, GA, ID, KY, SC Sex Crimes  against a victim younger than 14 by a repeat offender OK Willfully causing a Train Wreck CA Perjury  (lying under oath) CA, ID Drug Trafficking FL, NJ
  14. 14. The Pros and Cons of Capital Punishment <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate punishment/vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Life of the vicitm > murder </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>ethical acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>No effect on crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>not humane </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of wrongful executions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Minimum age in the U.S.
  16. 16. Executions in the U.S. since 1976
  17. 17. Overview - Capital Punishment in other countries
  18. 18. Capital Punishment in other countries <ul><li>Methods: beheading, hanging, lethal injection, shooting, stoning, stabbing </li></ul><ul><li>Selected punishable crimes (not effective in the U.S.): drug-related offences, rape (incl. paedophilia), treason, adultery, apostasy, piracy, terrorism, homosexual intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>International organisations demand a Moratorium </li></ul>
  19. 19. Apostasy
  20. 20. Apostasy Mauritania Sudan Somalia Saudi Arabia Yemen Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan Pfeile in anderer Farbe bitte ;)
  21. 21. Republic of China <ul><li>Most people worldwide executed </li></ul><ul><li>Method: Lethal injection (since 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Selected punishable crimes: </li></ul><ul><li>- corruption </li></ul><ul><li>- tax evasion </li></ul><ul><li>- procuration </li></ul><ul><li>- … </li></ul><ul><li>Organ trafficking </li></ul>
  22. 22. Germany <ul><li>While the „Grundgesetz“ was elaborated, Hans-Christoph Seebohm (DP) suggested, to abolish the Capital Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>1949: Art. 102, GG: „ The death penalty is abolished“ </li></ul><ul><li>Though: The last execution occured in 1951 (seven former NS-war criminals) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital punishment -> lifelong penal servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Art. 102 is nearly unneccessary </li></ul><ul><li>-> Art 1. Abs. 1 GG (human dignity) </li></ul><ul><li>Last execution in the SBZ/DDR in 1972 </li></ul>