1. BRIDGING MINES ANDCOMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA:A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION Team #20 Rosalyn Chan Duncan Pieterse Dennis Wang Lauren Tronick
2. Mining Matters.• Contribution to GDP: • 8.8% Direct, 18% Indirect/Induced• Economic Investment • Accounted for 29% of All-share index at the end of 2011• Employment and Absorption of an Unskilled Work force • Direct: 498,141 workers, Indirect: 500,000 workers• Foreign Exchange • Primary mineral sales exports are 28% of total merchandise exports • South Africa’s mines are the world’s largest producers of key minerals
3. Mining Comes at a Human Cost. Health Environment Social • Family Separation• TB • Acid Mine Drainage• HIV • Increased • Erosion and Engagement with• Noise-Induced Sedimentation Commercial Sex Hearing Loss Workers• Pneumoconiosis • Cyanide/Chemical Releases • Boom-and-Bust • Silicosis Development • Asbestosis • Dust Emissions • Lack of mining- • Combination with TB • Habitat Modification community integration• Chronic • Surface and • Unrest due to Obstructive Airway groundwater Disease insufficient compensation
4. The Mankanyi Approach: Prevent. Promote. Protect.
5. The Dust Initiative.Problem: Burden of Respiratory DiseaseSolution: Prevent.•Primary prevention: Engineering controls•Secondary prevention: Surveillance and screening•Tertiary Prevention: Diagnosis and rehabilitation Private Sector Mining MinersStrategy: Companies•Modification and extension of SIMRAC Phase 2 Public Sector Ministry of Ministry of Ministry of Health Finance Mining
6. Community Transformation Project.Problem: Lack of mining-communityintegration Promote.Solution:•Community development agreements•Conversion of hostels to family units•Procurement from HDSAs of consumables and Private Sector services Mining Miners CompaniesStrategy:•Legislation on when a CDA is required Public Sector•License forfeiture Ministry of Ministry of Ministry of Health Finance Mining
7. Miner Compensation Reform.Problem: Awareness, accessibility, andstructure of the compensation system Protect.Solution:•1. Awareness: Worker and health care professionals•2. Accessibility: Regional offices Private Sector•3. Structure: Surveillance, harmonization of entitlements, integrated inspection, payment system, addressing disease latency, levy reform Miners Mining CompaniesStrategy: Comprehensive compensationreform (Miners Compensation Public SectorCommission) Ministry of Ministry of Ministry of Health Finance Mining
8. Budget.4,000,000,0003,500,000,0003,000,000,000 Miner Compensation Reform2,500,000,000 ($20,000,000 per year)2,000,000,000 Community Transformation1,500,000,000 Project1,000,000,000 Dust Initiative 500,000,000 ($156,000,000 per year) 0 Years Years Years Years Years 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 Total: $17, 240,000,000
9. Benefits of The 3 Ps.• Utilization and modification of existing institutional arrangements• Restoring governmental popularity and credibility• Empowering local communities• Comprehensive reform
10. Looking Forward.• Good governance• Labor brokering• Union relations• Company transparency• Accountability• Home state liability
11. Conclusion. By preventing respiratory harm through The Dust Initiative, promoting a long term commitment to housing and health care through the Community TransformationProject, and protecting the welfare of miners and their families with The Miner Compensation Reform Plan, our proposaleffectively and sustainably improves the state and image of the mining industry in South Africa.
13. Appendix A:• Mining and Environmental Impact Guide, http://www.bullion.org.za/Departments/Environment/Downloads/Impact%20Guide/GDACE %20Mining%20and%20Environmental%20Impact%20Guide.pdf
14. Appendix B:
15. Appendix C:
16. Appendix D:• Lahiri, Levenstein, et al. “The Cose-Effectiveness of Occupational Health Interventions: Prevention of Silicosis.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 48:503-514. 2005.• Stanton, Belle, Dekker, and Plessis. “South African Mining Industry Best Practice on the Prevention of Silicosis.” Mine Health and Safety Council Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee. March, 2006.• Stuckler, Basu, and McKee. “Governance of Mining, HIV, and Tuberculosis in South Africa.” Global Health Governance. 4: 1-13. 2010.• Moshelanoka, Kisting, Rees, Sekudu, and Doyle. “National Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis.” South Africa Department of Labor.• Reid and Shah. “Approaches to tuberculosis screening and diagnosis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings.” Lancet Infectious Disease. 9: 173-184. 2009.• Stanton, Mbekeni, et al. “Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee Final Report: SIMRAC Silicosis Control Programme - Phase 1.” Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee. June 2003.• Rees, Murray, et al. “Oscillating Migration and the Epidemics of Silicosis, Tuberculosis, and HIV Infection in South African Gold Miners.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 53:398-404. 2010.
17. Appendix E:
18. Appendix F: References• “Mining Community Development Agreements Source Book.” World Bank. 2012. http://www.eisourcebook.org/cms/Mining%20Community%20Development%20Agreements%2 0Source%20Book.pdf• “Increasing Local Procurement By the Mining Industry in West Africa.” World Bank. 2012. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTENERGY2/Resources/8411-West_Africa.pdf• “Scorecard for the Broad-Based Socio-Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining Industry.” Mining and Minerals Industry. 2004. http://www.anglogold.co.za/NR/rdonlyres/073848D0-93CE-4BF1-AF56- 8574C4C1F4C1/0/MiningCharter.pdf• “Amended Mining Charter.” Newsroom. 2010. http://www.chartwellgroup.co.za/news-room/the- amended-mining/• “South Africa’s Burden of Disease.” Econex. 2009. http://www.mediclinic.co.za/about/Documents/ECONEX%20NHI%20note%202.pdf• “Water, mining, and waste: an historical and economic perspective on conflict management in South Africa.” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal. 2007. http://www.ehrn.co.za/publications/download/119.pdf• “Improving Mining Benefits for Communities.” World Bank Oil, Gas, Mining Unit. 2011. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTOGMC/0,,contentMDK:22616285~p agePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:336930,00.html• “Cost-Effective Interventions.” Disease Control Priorities Project. 2006. http://www.dcp2.org/sdirect/_/main/BrowseInterventions,interventionFilterForm.html
19. Appendix G:• Scorecard for the Broad-Based Socio-Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining Industry (2004), http://www.anglogold.co.za/NR/rdonlyres/073848D0- 93CE-4BF1-AF56-8574C4C1F4C1/0/MiningCharter.pdf
20. Appendix H: South Africa’s Burden of Disease (2009) Quadruple Disease Burden, http://www.mediclinic.co.za/about/Docume nts/ECONEX%20NHI%20note%202.pdf
21. Appendix I:Water, mining, and waste: an historical and economic perspective on conflictmanagement in South Africa (2007),http://www.ehrn.co.za/publications/download/119.pdf
24. Appendix L: References• Girdler-Brown, B., White, N., Ehrlich, R., and Churchyard, G. (2008) The Burden of Silicosis, Pulmonary Tuberculosis and COPD Among Former Basotho Goldminers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 51:640-647.• Chamber of Mines of South Africa (2007). The South African Mining Industry’s Sustainability and Transformation Report 2007.• Roberts, J. (2011). The Social Epidemiology of Silicosis: The hidden epidemic of silicotic gold miners in the Eastern Cape - A social disease with medical aspects, and a travesty of justice, presented at the 2011 Critical Studies Seminar Series Hosted by the Departments of Politics and International Studies & Sociology at Rhodes University• Trapido, A, Mqoqi, N., Williams, B., White, N., Solomon, A., Goode, R., Macheke, C., Davies, A., and Panter, C. (1998) Prevalence of Occupational Lung Disease in a Random Sample of Former Mineworkers, Libode District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 34:305-313.• Steen, T., Gyi, K., White, N., Gabosianelwe, T., Ludick, S., Mazonde, G., Mabongo, N., Ncube, M., Ehrlich, R. and Schierhout, G. (1997) Prevalence of occupational lung disease among Botswana men formerly employed in the South African mining industry. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54:19-26.• Republic of South Africa (2011). National Treasury: The Compensation Fund Preliminary Report 2nd Draft [online] Available: http://www.treasury.gov.za/publications/other/ssrr/Session%20One%20Papers/Compensation %20Fund%20Project%202nd%20draft.pdf.• Ehrlich, R. (2012). A Century of Miners’ Compensation in South Africa, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55:560–569.• Mining-Technology (2011). Safeguards Against Silicosis in Mining. http://www.mining- technology.com/features/feature130267