Social ScientistLiterary and Theatre Movements in Colonial Andhra: Struggle for Left Ideological LegitimacyAuthor(s): V. R...
V. RAMAKRISHNA*Literaryand TheatreMovementsin ColonialAndhra:StruggleforLeftIdeologicalLegitimacyThepaperproposestoassessa...
70 SOCIAL SCIENTISTaremadeinthem,keepingintunewiththetransitionoftimes,inform,contentandtechnique.The presentpaper,as alre...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 71conveyedthemessageofthedawnofa newera,i.e.,socialistsociety.A studyofthese...
72 SOCIAL SCIENTISTnon-SanskritizedTeluguproseand poemsso thata popularculturalresponsecould be generatedto theirmovementi...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 73richpeasantrywiththesupportof smallpeasantryand agriculturallabourers.20Th...
74 SOCIAL SCIENTISTSocialistPartyand who laterJoinedtheCommunistParty.Amma(Mother),nameofthetranslation,becamea householdn...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 75indicationwas thegrowinginfluenceofsocialistideasamongeducatedyouth,intell...
76 SOCIAL SCIENTISTbackwardnessand politicalsubjection,so thatit mayhelp us tounderstandthoseproblems,andthroughsuchunders...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 77translatetheancientsayingsarvejana sukhinobhavantuintoreality.TheCommunist...
78 SOCIAL SCIENTISTBythe1940sthepoliticalscenario,bothin India and abroad,hadchanged.Theworldsituationunderwenta radicalch...
UTERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 79namely,thetraditionalpopularperformingarts.Ofall theartsformstheyadopted,Bu...
80 SOCIAL SCIENTISTThe writersand artistswho had strongpartyaffiliationswentundergroundandsomeofthemwerekilled.Theothersbe...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 81instrumentssuchas harmonium,mridangam,tabla,etc.Rehearsalsofartformssuchas...
82 SOCIAL SCIENTIST6. K.V.RamanaReddy,Mahodayam(Telugu)Vijayawada,1969,see in particularchapterII, pp. 17-41Thebookis a ma...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 8323. Thepoemwas translatedbyB. NaliniKanthaRao,a studentat Kakinadaattheins...
84 SOCIAL SCIENTIST42. Fora comprehensiveandcriticalassessmentofthePWAsee V. NarayanaRao,TeluguKavitaViplavalaSwaroopam,(T...
LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 8563. Examplesare many.A remarkablecollectionofautobiographicalaccountsoftwe...
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Literary and theatre movements in colonial ap

  1. 1. Social ScientistLiterary and Theatre Movements in Colonial Andhra: Struggle for Left Ideological LegitimacyAuthor(s): V. RamakrishnaReviewed work(s):Source: Social Scientist, Vol. 21, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Feb., 1993), pp. 69-85Published by: Social ScientistStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3517839 .Accessed: 20/02/2013 10:25Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org..Social Scientist is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Social Scientist.http://www.jstor.orgThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  2. 2. V. RAMAKRISHNA*Literaryand TheatreMovementsin ColonialAndhra:StruggleforLeftIdeologicalLegitimacyThepaperproposestoassessand analysethestruggleofleft-orientedculturalmovements,specificallyrelatingto literatureand theatre,inthe Andhraregionof theerstWhileMadras Presidency,duringthecolonialrule,and theirbid forideologicaland politicalhegemony.The progressive writersmovementand the peoples theatremovementwereconcernedwithproductionandpropagationofpopularliteratureand peoplestheatrerespectively.Eliteand popularstrandsare twostreamsofcultureofanysocietythatexistsimultaneouslyasparallel forms with differentlevels of mutually influencinginteractions.Hopes and aspirations,joys and sorrows,travailsandtribulationsof the popular classes of society are embodied invernacularfolkliterature.1Womensliteratureconsistingmainlyoffolk songs is available in plenty.2They forma part of the oraltraditionthoughtheauthorshipis anonymous.Songs dealing withritualsperformedby women-both religiousand secular-puberty,marriage,child birthand fertility,sumangalirites,romanticandhumoroussituationsbetweenmother-in-lawand daughter-in-law,situationsexpressingintimaterelationshipsbetweenmembersofclosekinshipinfamilies,3songsrelatingtoagriculturaloperations-sowing,weeding,harvesting,milling,etc.,are some of theexamplesin thiscontext.4Theuse ofpopularidiomand similiesdrawnfromeverydaylifewhichmarkedtheirsingingare typicalofruralfolk-traditionandthisgenreofliteratureis simpleinitsexpressionwithoutanyliteraryembellishments,whicharecommonlyseenineliteformsofliterature.Similarly,performingartforms,as partofpopularculture,are alsoseenas off-shootsoflifeand itsstruggles.SomeoftheTelugufolkart-formsare Harikatha,Burrakatha,Veedhi natakam(streetplay)Kolatam,Golla Suddulu,Bhajanalu,ChenchuVeshalu,etc.Onecannoticeherethatsonganddanceconstitutetheessentialcomponentsoffolkart.Manyoftheseartformsofpopularculturehave been inexistencefromthepre-moderntimes.However,thenecessarychangesDepartmentofHistory,UniversityofHyderabad.SocialScientist,Vol.21,Nos. 1-2,January-February1993This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  3. 3. 70 SOCIAL SCIENTISTaremadeinthem,keepingintunewiththetransitionoftimes,inform,contentandtechnique.The presentpaper,as alreadystated,is aboutthecontinuationofthepopular culturaltraditionin literatureand theatre,thoughthemotivesand aimsaredifferent.Bothprogressivewritersand peoplestheatremovementsinAndhrahavetobe viewedas a partofall Indiamovementsthataroseduringthelate1930s,inthewakeofthespreadof socialistideas withinthenationalistmovement,as a reactiontoGandhijisprinciplesand methodsof struggleand also under theimpactofsocialistexperimentinSovietRussia,economicdepressionof1929-30 and the rise of Fascism.Consequently,a studyof thesemovementswhich were closelyconnectedwithsocialistideologywouldalsohelpusunderstandtheriseandgrowthofpopulareconomicand politicalstrugglesin Andhra,inspiredby socialistideologyandtheirmutualinteractionand spreadduringthisperiod.Also,one can,througha studyofthesemovements,studytheimpactofleftideologyon thepeopleand theirstrugglesagainstimperialism,feudalismandother formsof exploitation.It is an interestingbut significantcoincidencethatpopularmovementsinspiredbyleftideologysuchasKisanSabhas,Agriculturallabourorganisations,tradeunions,youth,studentand womenfederationson one side, and popular culturalmovements-literary and theatre-one the other, developedsimultaneouslyalongwitheach other,one motivatingthegrowthofthe other.5A revivaland activeuse of thepopularartformsby apoliticallyinspiredideologyalso helpedimmenselyin thegrowthofthenationalmovement.Thusitis preciselyinthisculturalareawherewe can see therelationshipbetweenthestruggleforleftideologicallegitimacywithinthe anti-colonialstruggleand its influenceonGandhiannationalistmovementand also,ultimately,on thepositivegrowthofradicalmovements.Literatureand art,hithertomainlyconfinedto educatedsections,eruditeand scholarlygatherings,Zamindarsdurbarswithemphasison literarygimmickssuch as Avadhanas, Padabandha Kavita,ChitraKavita(experimentswithinconventionalmetreand prosody),indulgingliberallyin depictingSringara,Viraha,have now beenchangedand broughtto thelevelofthepeople.6Similarly,theatre,which became highlytechnique-orientedwith large settingsandlightingarrangementsundertheinfluenceof Maharashtra(Surabhitheatre)and Karnataka(Dharwad theatre)styles,7now gave up allits ostentatiousexternalitiesand broughtwithinthe reach of thepeople.Moreoftenthannot,thepopularartformswerestagedon adais whichused tobe madeoutoftwobullockcartsoron thecentralpial of the village (Rachchabanda), withparticipantsputtingonimprovisedmake-upand dress.Thesesimplifiedaspectsofstage-craftwereignoredbythepeopleas theydid notdilutetheactingtalentoftheartisteswhodepictedthroughtheirart,thelifeofthepeopleandThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  4. 4. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 71conveyedthemessageofthedawnofa newera,i.e.,socialistsociety.A studyofthesemovementswould also revealthechangesbroughtaboutin thecontentand formofliterarycreations,an increasingbiastowardstheproblemsof thepeople, use of spokendialectin bothliteraryformsand theatrescripts,newgenresofliteraturesuchas freeverse,givingup conventionalrulesofprosodyand metre.8Thechangeinformand contentand a closecollaborationbetweenthemovementswerenecessitatedtomeetthedemandsofpopularculture.A newcrpoofwriters,emergingfroma differentsocialmileu,neverthelessfromliteratesectionsof middle and lower middle classes and theatreartists,comingsometimesfromeven the semi-literateand the so-called lower castesand oppressedsegmentsof the society.This isimportantas itexplainsthenew toneand vigourofthenew literaryand artforms,modelledon folktraditionand totallydifferentfromtheexistingforms.Beforewe getto knowthebackgroundofthegenesisofthenewmovements,we need know,thoughbriefly,the changesthatwerebroughtaboutin Teluguliteratureduringthemodemperiodand itspositionand status.Beginning,broadlyfromthemiddleofthe19thcentury,withVeerasalingamand hiscontemporarieswhotransformedthe traditionalcharacterof TeluWulanguage and literatureinto amodern tool of communication,Gurajada Apparao and GiduguRamamurthyintroducedtheuse ofspokendialectand producedfineliteraryworks of lasting value. If kandukuri Veerasalingambroadenedthebase ofliteraturebytakingup newliteraryformssuchas thenovel,play,satire,essay,Gurajada throughhis new literaryformcalled mutyalasaralu,was the founderof modem poetryinTelugu.His Kanyasulkam(brideprice),was thefirstmodem Teluguplay thatespoused thecause of social reform.11SimilarlyGiduguVenkataRamamurthydemocratisedtheTelugulanguagebylaunchingan organisedmovementto populariseand makethespokendialectaccepted by scholarsand others.12The effortsof Gidugu, in thisdirection,assumedsuchlargeproportionsthatGurajadadaimed itaspeoples movementand said he would notgive up itsespousal toplease anybody.13The effortsof thetrio-Kandukuri,Gurajada andGidugu,areacclaimedas epoch-makingand theyarerightlydescribedas thefoundersofa new epoch in modem Telugu literature.Theireffortsshould be understoodin therealmof buildingup a broadcultural movementinto which the so far neglected sections ofpopulationaredrawn.TheirmodemisinginfluencesliberatedTelugulanguage and literaturefrom the fettersof medievalism andcontributedtothegrowthofpoliticalconsciousnessamongtheTeluguwriters.From1870sonwardstheliteraryproductionstartedrespondingtothedemandsof thetheatremovement,forthemainconcernof thetheatretroupeswas toenactthetraditional/mythologicalstoriesin aThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  5. 5. 72 SOCIAL SCIENTISTnon-SanskritizedTeluguproseand poemsso thata popularculturalresponsecould be generatedto theirmovementin society.The bestexampleis thelifehistoryof ChilakamarthiLakshminarasimham.14Here,of course,the theatremovementdoes not identifywithanypoliticalmovements,perhapsdue totheverynatureoftheirthemes.Withthe heraldingof nationalistliteratureapproximatelyfrom1905 onwards, a number of writers like ChilakamartiLakshminarasimham, Garimella Satyanarayana, SripadaKrishnamurthySastry, Damaraju Pundarikakashudu publishedpoetical worksand plays incorporatingnationalistideology.5By1920s,Teluguliteraturereacheda stagewhen,barringa fewtalentedpoetswho werestillwritingromanticisingthepast,creativewriterscarvedouta clearpathofputtingliteraturetonotonlysocialusesbuteven makinguse ofit to politicalcauses. Here thetheatrebecomesmessage bearers of Gandhian politics.16This was a significantbreakthroughintheliterarymovementsincolonialAndhra.The 1920sbroughtaboutfurthersignificantchangesin thefieldofTeluguliteraturewiththeestablishmentofa socialiststatein sovietRussia.TheimpactoftheBolshevikrevolutioncouldbe clearlyseennthewritingsofcontemporarywriterspublishedin newspapersandjournals such as Krishna Patrikaand Andhra Patrika and, inparticular,theirannual numbers.17Unnava LakshminarayanasMalapalli (Harijan Hamlet) reflectedthe influenceof Bolshevism.Malapalliis thefirstTelugunovelpublishedduringthe1920s,which,throughone of thecharactersin thenovel,expoundedthesocialistprinciplesof economicand social equalityand the eliminationofexploitation.A Gandhianby faithand an activepoliticalagitator,Unnava,forthefirsttime,showedthealternativepathofeconomicdevelopmentandevenindicatedthatfailuretoensureeconomicjusticetothelargenumberoftheexploitedin societywould lead toviolentrevolutions.18He juxtaposedGandhismand socialismand finallyresolvedin favouroftheformer.Thisindicatedthetypicaldilemmaoftheintellectualsofthisperiod.The post-Bolshevikrevolution period and the political andeconomicchangesthatwerebroughtabout,bothat thenationalandinternationallevels, provided the necessarybackgroundto theemergenceofpopularliteraryand theatremovementsin Andhra.Asmentioned earlier, creative works such as Malapalli clearlyprescribedthesocialistideology.The IndianCommunistmovementbegan to emerge during the 1920s. Socialist ideas throughthetheoreticalworksof Marx,Engels and Lenin were being secretlysmuggledintoAndhra,whichinturnweretranslatedandpublishedinTelugu.19 Secretpublishinghouses with printingfacilitieswereestablished.Booksweresold amongtheeducatedsectionsespeciallytheyouthand students.Andhra,beingpredominantlyan agriculturalregion,thenationalmovement,had mainlydrawnintotheirrankstheThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  6. 6. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 73richpeasantrywiththesupportof smallpeasantryand agriculturallabourers.20Thiswas evidencedin theirparticipationin Palnad andPedanandipaduSatyagrahamovementsduringthenon-cooperationmovementof1921-22.WhentheJusticeparty,led byZamindarsandlandlords,was predominent,peasantsinAndhrawereorganisedbytheCongressSocialistPartyand theagriculturallabourbytheCommunistPartyfrom1934.In the post-CivilDisobedienceperiod,when theCommunistPartyofIndiawasbannedin1934,Communistsconductedtheiractivitiessecretlyamong workers,peasants and agriculturallabourclassesandsteadilybuiltup thebase forMarxistideology.21In the wake of the withdrawal of the Civil Disobediencemovement,generalfrustrationand disenchantmentwiththeCongresspoliciesgrewamongthepeople. A sizable sectionof CongressmenparticularlytheyouthweredrawntowardstheCommunistmovement.In 1935 the firstconferenceof the AndhraCommunistPartymetsecretlyat Kakinada.22This was precededby theAndhraCongressSocialistPartyconferenceand also the AndhraYouthConference,besidesthevariousotherKisan,TradeUnionand otherconferencesinwhichCommunistswereactivelyinvolved.23Thisestablishesthefactthatthecommunistparty,by thistime,was an organisedpoliticalforcespreadingitsactivitiesinseveralspheresofpubliclifeincludingtheculturalfront.Thus the 1930sbroughta radical changein thethinkingofthewriters.Unemploymentand economicmiseryofthepeople in the wake of the GreatDepressiondrove the writerstoSocialism.TheyhaveobservedthegrowthofSovietUnionintoa statewithouteconomicexploitationand believedstronglythatSocialismwastheonlysolutiontotheproblemsofthepoor.Thenew mood was reflectedin thetranslationofEugenePottiersinternationalanthemoftheworkingclassintoTelugu.24Alltheorphanswhoaresufferingfromthepangsofhunger,ariseAtthesametimeanotheryoungpoetPendyalaLokanathamwhowasdrawntowardssocialistideaswrotea poemaboutthecollectivepoweroftheworkingclassZ25Ifall theworkersunitewilltherebe dearthofbread?Writerslike Tummala Venkataramaiah,who later became anactivistin theprogressivewritersmovementand also itssecretary,wrotea poemabouttheredflag,thesymboloftoilingmasses.should fly,shouldflyour red flagtillthereis last breathin thethroatof workersand warmblood flowingin theveinsof poorpeasant,shouldfly,shouldfly,ourredflag.At aboutthesame time,in 1934,GorkisMotherwas translatedbyKrovvidiLingarajuwho was, to beginwith,activein theCongressThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  7. 7. 74 SOCIAL SCIENTISTSocialistPartyand who laterJoinedtheCommunistParty.Amma(Mother),nameofthetranslation,becamea householdnovelformen,womenandyouth.27Againin1934anothersignificantpublication,thistimean anthologyofsongs,Rytu-Bhajanavali(BhajansofPeasants)was published by N.G. Ranga. Ranga was activelyinvolved inorganisingpeasantsall overAndhraintoRytuRakshanaSamithis(PeasantProtectionLeagues) and thisanthologyconsistsofsongsbyseveral peasant activistwriterswho were involved in strugglesagainst landlords, Zamindars and the Government.What issignificantis thata good numberof contributorsin thisanthologybecameleadingwritersoftheprogressivewritersassociationin the1940s.Thesongsdepictedeconomicoppressiononpeasants,especiallyin thecontextoftheGreatDepression,and projectedsocialismas thealternativeframeworkforthewell beingofpeasants.Its popularitycouldbe gaugedintermsofthefivequickeditionsithadinfouryearsbetween1934and 1937.Tummala,a poetalso wroteaboutthefallinpricesofagriculturalproductsandconsequentdeclineinagricultureandexcessivetaxation.29Nellori Venkataramanaidu,the stalwart of anti-ZamindaristruggleofVenkatagiriinNelloredistrict,declared.30We do notwantthisZamindarisystemGarimellaSatyanarayana,themostpopularofthepoetsoftheperiodwhose songs became the day to day renderingsof people wroteviolentlydenouncingtheBritishrule.31Wedo notwantthewhitemansruleThissongwas bannedbytheBritish;thepoetchargedwithtreasonwas imprisoned.His otherwellknownsongadvocatedforthedawnofthedaywhenlandsand richeswouldbelongtoallpeople,thusopenlyexhortingpeopletotaketosocialistideals.32Intheirquestforsocialandeconomicjustice,thewriterswenttotheextentofquestioningtheexistenceofGod.AccordingtothemifGod istheembodimentofloveandkindnessanda dispenserofequaljusticetoall,theglaringeconomicinequalitieswillnotbe toleratedbyHim.33Asseenfromtheabovefewexamples,thelanguageusedinthesongsis quitesimple,withfullofTeluguidiomsappealingdirectlyto thepeoplewhocouldeasilysingthem.Simultaneously,thedecadeofthe1930salso witnessedtheriseofanumberof socialist left-orientedjournals such as Vauhini (ed.GarimellaSatyanarayana),Prabha(ed. Gadde Lingaiah),Jwala(ed.Muddukrishna)and CommunistPartysjounal Navasakti;publishinghouses like Progress Publishers,Viswa Sahityamala,etc., wereestablished.34Thenecessaryliteraryclimatewas thusprevalentevenduring1930sfortheopenlaunchingoftheProgressivewritersmovement.A strongThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  8. 8. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 75indicationwas thegrowinginfluenceofsocialistideasamongeducatedyouth,intelligentsiaand also peasantsand workingclasses.The civildisobediencemovementdid notleavea lastingimpressionon literaryworld.On theotherhand,theliteraryworldwas markedbya growingdisillusionmentwithGandhianideologyand was in favourofmoreradicalchange.The influencesofliterarytrendsfromotherpartsofthecountrytoo had an impactover theirthinking.PremChandsGodanwhichdepictedpeasantmiseryand penuryand,inparticular,his last literarypiece beforehis death,Mahajani Sabhayata,leftadeeper impressionon theirminds.Mahajani Sabhyatawas a bittercritiqueof capitalistprofitmotive with the appreciationof thesocialist experiment.35 Similarly the writings of poets likeMadkholkarfromMaharastrawho, in turn,was influencedby theBombay labour movement had reached them. The Bengaliintelligentsia,itis stated,was neverseriouslyinfluencedbyGandhi.Tagorekepthimselfalooffromthethickof theCivil Disobediencemovement.Moreoverhis lettersfromSoviet Russia which wereappreciativeof the new experimentbeing carriedout there,lentsupport to the growingpositive feelingtowards Socialism. TheBengaliliterarymonthlyParichaystartedin 1931was moreconcernedabout internationaldevelopmentssuch as theworld wide struggleagainstFascismand questionslikeMarxisttheoryand practice.The new thinkingamong the writersin differentpartsof Indianecessitated the startingof an All-India left-leaningwritersassociation,theProgressiveWritersAssociation(PWA),bya groupofUrduspeakingintellectualsledbySazzad Zahirand MulkRaj Anand.However,beforetheAssociationhelditsfirstsessionin Lucknowin1936,underthepresidentshipof Premchand,the manifestoof theIndianProgressiveWritersAssociationwas draftedinLondonin1935.About50IndiansstudyinginEngland,afterconsultingRalphFox,metand finalisedthe manifestowhich was later published in LeftReview.36Thoughtbrief,it is welldraftedand reflectsthehopesandaspirationsoftherisingcropofnewgenerationofwritersinIndia.Radicalchangesare talkingplace in Indian society.... It is thedutyofIndianwriterstogiveexpressiontothechangestakingplaceinIndianlifeand toassistthespiritofprogressinthecountry....Itis theobjectofourassociationtorescueliteratureand otherartsfromthepriestly,academicand decadentclasses in whose handstheyhave degeneratedso long,to bringtheartsintotheclosesttouchwiththepeople .... whileclaimingtobe theinheritorsofthe best traditionsof Indian civilization, we shall criticiseruthlessly,in all its political,economicand culturalaspects,thespirit of reaction in our country. . . We believe that the newliteratureof India must deal with the basic problemsof ourexistence today-the problem of hunger and poverty,socialThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  9. 9. 76 SOCIAL SCIENTISTbackwardnessand politicalsubjection,so thatit mayhelp us tounderstandthoseproblems,andthroughsuchunderstandinghelpustoact.37To thefirstsessionofPWA,AbburiRamakrishnaRao alone attendedfromAndhra.It was Abburiwhobecamea linkin theinitialstagesbetween the national organisationand the Andhra writersandprovidedthemnecessaryintellectualsupportto startthe PWA.38Tagore,in 1938,senta warmandunusuallyself-criticalmessagetothePWAconference,regrettinghisownrelativeisolationfromthemasses.The All India PWA attaineditsgreateststrengthin Urdubecauseofitsinter-regionalspanand itsleadingfiguresincludedHasratMohani,FirqGorakhpuri,KishenChander,and KaifiAzmi.Its contributionwasimmenseintermsofoutput,newthemesandcontentandform.Thismaybe illustratedby thesuccessfulconferenceof peasantpoetsatFaridabadin 1938.TherevolutionarymushairasbyKaifiAzmiamongBombayworkerswhichforeshadowedthemajorcommunisteffortsatmobilizationby folkculturethroughthe IPTA (Indian PeoplesTheatreof Arts)in 1940s.The PWA was also strongin BengalandKeralawheretheleftmovementswerecomparativelystronger.In Andhrait tooksevenyears(afterthefirstSessionofAll IndiaPWA in 1936)tobringtogetherall thesocialist-orientedwritersintotheAssociationand thefirstconferencewas heldinTenali(a coastalAndhratownanda culturalcentreinGunturdistrict)in1943underthepresidentshipofTapi DharmaRao.39As statedearlier,evenwithouta formalorganisation,poetslikeSriSriwhois consideredas theepochmakerof theprogressiveliterature,werewritingpoems from1929onwards.40His firstpoem was Suptastikalufollowedby Jayabheriand Maroprapancham.Sri Sri Was followedby many talentedwriterswho, pursuing the same technique, made everlastingcontributionsto themovement.New journalssuch as Abhyudaya,TeluguTalli wereadded to theexistinglistof literaryjournals.41Hundredsofliteraryworksin theformofpoetry,plays,shortstoriesand fiction,literarycriticismwere written.The contentwas clearaboutthenew society-an alternativeto theexistingunequal socio-economicand politicalorder.Undertheinfluenceof Marxism,thewritersmade sincereefforts,thoughlackingin theoreticalrigour,totakethemessageofsocialismtothemasses.Itwas a new voice,freshand pure,withstrongcommitmenttousherina classlessand castelesssocietywherethecreativefacultiesofhumanbeingswould blossomwithouthindrance.All thosedrawnintothePWA werenota partoftheCommunistPartycadre.Someofthemwerefellowtravellersandsomewerenoteventhat.Quitea fewofthemweretraditionalistsinthesensethattheywerebornand broughtup in theatmosphereoftraditionallearmingand yetcameintothePWA as theygraspedthequintessenceof Marxismin termsof broad humanismthatwouldThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  10. 10. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 77translatetheancientsayingsarvejana sukhinobhavantuintoreality.TheCommunistPartylinkagesweretherebutonlyina covertfashionand infacttheselinkageshelpedthePWAtogetintotheprogrammeof mass contactthroughwhichwritersfelta sense of fulfillment,which,afterall is theultimateaim ofanycreativeendeavour.Whatindeed the remarkable achievement of the movement is therealisationofalmostall writersthatall artincludingliteraturehas asocial purpose.42Thatartformsshould be expressedin easy anduninhibitedmanner,discardingtheconventionalfettersofgrammarand prosodyand literaryembellishments.To drivehomethispointand also toprovidesoundtheoreticalgrounding,thePWAin Andhraorganisedliteraryschoolswhichincludedin theircoursecontentacriticalstudy of ancientliterature,knowledge of social sciencesincluding philosophy and historyand historicalmaterialism.43Eminentliteraryfiguersactedas teachersin theseschools.UntiltheCommunistPartyopenlyinterferedwiththeworkingofthePWA,inno wayCommunistpartyinhibiteditsgrowthon a broadunitedfrontmodel.INDIAN PEOPLESTHEATREASSOCIATIONIrrespectiveoftimeand space,therehas beenan activelinkbetweendominantliteraryproductionandpopulardrama.Duringthelate19thcentury,to startwith,playsdepictingepic themeswere produced.Theybecamepopularas theywerepattemed,primarily,on themodelof folkfromof Veedhinatakam(open stage or streetplay). Theproductionoftheseplaysbecamea partofthecollectiveimaginationofthepeople.Bytheendofthe19thcenturya noticeablechangecameaboutin thecontentofplaysas theynow tookup thecause ofsocialreform.Prahasanas of Veerasalingam and Chilakamarti andGurjada Apparaos Kanyasulkamare only a few examples to bementionedin this regard.44Once the nationalmovementgainedmomentum,plays portrayingpatriotismon themes relatingtoChandragupta,Shivaji,JhansiRani,Tilak,Punjabatrocitiesand thelikewereproduced.4UndertheimpactofGandhianphilosophyandstruggles,playswereproducedon themessuchas untouchabilityandvillage reconstruction.As a part of nationalmovement,adoptingpeasant problemsas the subjectmatter,Rytubidda(peasant) waswrittenbySabnavisRamaRao and stagedduringthe1920s.46Bythe1930s,anotherstreamofwriters,undertheinfluenceofthewritingsofIbsen,BernardShaw, Chekovand also Freudbroughtout quite anumberofplaysadvocating womenslibertyand rightsincluding,divorce,and property.47suchplay-wrightsincludedP.V.Rajamannar,Malladi Avadhani, Bellary Raghava, Chalam, KallakuriHanumanthaRao,and GaliBalaSundaraRao whocouldbe calledtheearlyfeministwritersinTelugu.48This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  11. 11. 78 SOCIAL SCIENTISTBythe1940sthepoliticalscenario,bothin India and abroad,hadchanged.Theworldsituationunderwenta radicalchange.AsdiscussedearlierthespreadofMarxistideas and peoplesstrugglesresultedintheestablishmentofthehegemonyoftheCommunistPartyofIndia.The PWA,throughitsnationwideactivities,had spreadthemessageofsocialismand worldpeace (anti-Fascistpropaganda)inthewakeoftheoutbreakoftheSecondWorldWar.Thestruggleforlefthegemonyrequiredthehelp of thetheatre,thepowerfulinstrumentof visualarts-to supplementtheliteraryactivitiesof thePWA,whichwerehithertoconfinedprimarilyto middleclass intellectualsand also, tosomeextent,totheliterateand marginallytoa fewpeoplefromlowermiddleand middleand poorpeasantand workingclass sections.Byand large,themajorsectionsoflowerorderwereleftoutofitsimpact.The IPTA,foundedin 1943in Bombaywas meantto fillthisgap.49Approachingthemassesthroughpeoplestheatrewas themainaimofthismovementand as suchitwas tobe an adjuncttothePWAwhichwas alreadyworkingon theliteraryfront.50The All India PeoplesTheatreAssociationConference(1943) declaredinitsdraftresolutionthatitrecognisestheurgencyoforganisingpeoplestheatremovementthroughoutthewholeofIndiaas themeansofrevitalisingthestageand thetraditionalartsand makingthemat oncetheexpressionandorganiserofourpeoplesstruggleforfreedom,culturalprogressandeconomic justice. The organisersidentifiedthe fascistforcesasenemiesoffreedomandculture,progressandeconomicjustice,51andtheinternalrepressionbyan aliengovernmenttobe foughtagainst.Theywantedtoworkfortherevivalofthefolkarts,masssingingandopen air stageto achievetheiraim.52An all India Committeewasconstituted,thecompositionof whichshows thatall leadingmassorganisationssuch as AITUC, Kisan Sabha, PWA were associatedwithit and representativesfromdifferentprovinceswereincluded.TheprovincialorganisingCommitteeswerealsoformed.53FromAndhraonlyGarikapatiRajaRao attendedtheconference,butintheorganisingcommitteetwootherswereincluded,Krishnamurthyand Chandalavada Pitchaiah.54 The IPTA in Andhra (PrajaNatyamandali) revivedtheold folkformsofartnumberingaboutthirty.The artistswere youngand mostof themcame fromruralworkingmasses.Theywrotesongsandcomposedmusic,scriptedplaysandskitsandpresentedthembeforelargegatherings.Itindeedbecamea peoplesmovementregisteringa breakthroughinAndhrasculturalarena.Revivedformsoffolkartreachedpeoplewitha socialpurpose.Largelybased on thecountryside,drawingitsworkersand artistesfromthemiddle,lowermiddleand poorpeasantrywithlittleor noformaleducation,thePrajanatyamandalisucceededin popularisingthe Communist Party programmes and politics through itsperformances.55Itssuccesswasas muchduetoitsclasscompositionasalso due to the power of mediumthroughwhichtheyoperated,This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  12. 12. UTERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 79namely,thetraditionalpopularperformingarts.Ofall theartsformstheyadopted,BurraKatha (Bardicrecitals)was themostpopularitemas itincludes,a story,music,rhythmicmovementsofbody,make-up and also thesatiricalremarksthatplayersmakeon contemporarypolitics.56It was enrichedby SunkaraSatyanarayana,thepoetwhowrote most powerful and popular burra kathascriptssuch asKashtajivi (the toiler)Alluri Seetharama Raju, Veeresalingam(Biographyof a social reformer)BengalFamine,Tanya, (Russianheroine),and Nasser, the performer.About halfa dozen dalams(squads) wereperformingthroughoutAndhra.The Harikathaformwas popularisedby KosuriPunnaiahand PittalaDora and KoyaDora formsbyKogantiGopalakrishnayyawhoseperformancesinthefirstconferenceofIPTAatBombaywerehighlyappreciated.57Activitiesof Praja Natyamandalireached a peak during theTelanganaarmedstruggle(1946-51)whenmanymorepopularformsofculture were used.58 Particularmentionshould be made of thephenomenalsuccessoftheplay Maabhoomi(our land) authoredbySunkaraand Vasireddy.It stirredand rousedtheurbanitesand theruralmasses alike withits splendid performances,even winninglaurels fromCongresspoliticiansand ministerswho proscribeditlater.59In one year,during1947,theplayMaabhoomi,was stagedaroundthousandtimesby 125troupesto an audienceoftwomillionpeoplewhich,accordingtoK.A.Abbas,wasa worldrecord.60ThevigourandvitalityoftheTheatremovementcouldbe seenfromitsorganisationalnetworkfromthegrassrootslevel.Thereweremorethan two hundred village level branches. Each districthad acoordinatingcommittee.The bodyat theprovincialleveloverseeredthe work of the lower bodies. District trainingcentres wereorganised.61Rigorousrehearsals,groupdiscussionsofthescriptandattentionto minutedetailsin productionwerethehallmarksofthePrajanatyaMandali.Mutualrespect,close affinityand camaraderiemarkedtheatmosphereamongthemembersofdalams(squads) whoused toruna commonmess.Aftera prolongeddiscussionwithintheCommunistParty,itwasdecidedthatrolesofwomenshouldbeplayedonlybywomen.Women,inparticular,familywomenofyoungeragebecameactiveparticipantsin themovement.Womenactivelytookpart in the plays. They were also trained in the technique ofBurrakathaand exclusivefemalesquadsofthiswereorganised.62ThegloriousepochoftheculturalrevivalinAndhra-bothliteraryand theatre-receiveda rude shockin 1948 when,along withtheCommunistParty,all itsfrontorganisations,includingtheIPTA,werebannedand largescale repressionwas unleashed.The officeswereraidedand ransacked,artistesarrestedand someactivistsamongthemkilled,printingpressesand librariesweredestroyedwiththeresultthatthewholemovementgotparalysedtemporarily.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  13. 13. 80 SOCIAL SCIENTISTThe writersand artistswho had strongpartyaffiliationswentundergroundandsomeofthemwerekilled.Theothersbecamepassiveand took to theirearlierprofessions.Quite a few of the talentedwriters,actorsand otherartistesmigratedto Madrascityand to thecinemaindustry.Literatureand theatrein colonialAndhracan be dividedbroadlyintothreemainstages.1. 1870-1920,Thetraditionaland socialreformthemesrelatingtotheearlyculturalfront.2. 1920-1934, Message Bearers for Gandhian politics anddominantbourgeoisideology.3. 1934-1948Movementsrefractedtheleftideologyand also theshiftintheterrainofstruggleofhegemony.In theforegoingaccountwe haveendeavouredtoanalysehow theliteratureand the theatreinteracted,one influencingtheotherinrelationtoshiftscomingup inthehegemonicstruggle.We lookedatthenatureoftheworldviewpositedand propagatedbothinliteraryproductionand populardrama.The worldviewas projectedby leftideologyand reflectedin literatureand theatrefromthelate 1920sonwardsbroughtabuta noticeableshiftinthecourseofthedominantbourgeoisnationalistideology.Thiscouldbe seeninthewritingsofthedominantbourgeoisideologieswhentheywroteaboutproblemsofuntouchablesmainlytouchingupon theireconomicproblems.After1934,a totalbreakcameaboutamonga sectionofintellectualswithbourgeoisnationalistideology,who now advocated class-orientednationalism.The dominantnationalistideologywas anti-colonialbutsupportedtheexistingpro-propertyrelations.On theotherhand,theleftideology,no doubt,was anti-colonialbutanti-dominantpropertyrelations.The struggleby theLeftsucceededonlyto a limitedextent.ThedominantnationalistideologyundertheimpactoftheLeftchallenge,incorporatedintoitsagendatheproblemsofthepopularclasseswhichcould perhapsbe seen in themeasuressuchas Zamindariabolition,promisestocarryoutlandreformsandand thelike.However,therealimpactofthestruggle,as discussedinthepaper,was in therealmofdemocratisationofculturethroughtherevivalofpeoplesartforms.TheLeftideologywas takentothepeoplethroughtheseartforms.Alinkagebetweenideologyand struggleswas clearlyestablishedbypopularisingliteratureand theatrewhencreativewritersand artisteswroteand spokein thelanguageofthepeople,depictingthroughartformstheirbasic problems.Realismin literatureand art becamepredominant,anditcamethroughpopularstruggle.In thedistrictswheretheleftmovementwas popular,each villagehad a smalllibrary,nightschool,youthassociationand a smallofficeroom equipped withminimumfurnitureand a couple of musicalThis content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  14. 14. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 81instrumentssuchas harmonium,mridangam,tabla,etc.Rehearsalsofartformssuchas drama,burrakthaandgroupsingingwereconductedthere.Theybecamecentresofeducationaland culturalactivitiesinthevillages,as centresofcounter-culture.Thousandsofartistssprangup fromtheranksofcommonpeople.Itwas indeeda gloriouspeoplesculturalmovementin Andhra.The Lefthegemonicstrugglealsoincludeda popularlibrarymovement.Numberoflow-pricededitionson basics of science, philosophy,economicsand literaturewerepublished.TranslationsofMarxistclassicsintoTeluguwerecarriedout.Sales weekswereorganised.Disseminationofprogressiveideaswas meantto bringabout the necessaryideological revolutioninsociety.Literatureand art are closely intertwinedwith people. Theirinseperablenatureleads to theadoptionof new culturalformsbypeopleintheirstrugglesforchange.Thiswas amplydemonstratedinthe case of popular culturalmovementsin Andhra.Thereforeananalysisofthesemovementswouldlead us toa studyofthestruggleswaged by theoppressedsectionsin thesociety,theirvictories andfailures.Thesetwomovementsowed theiroriginand growthto theCommunistmovementin Andhraand the Telangana struggleinHyderabadstate.Between1935and 1939,theCommunistsin Indiaadopted the popular-frontpoliciesas outlinedin theDutt-Bradleythesis.Itwas preciselyduringthisperiodboththemovementsbecamewellorganised.Progressivemindedand forwardlookingpeopleinthesociety came into the Communist party through the culturalmovement.63I amgratefultomycolleagues,Dr P. SudhirandDr A. Muraliforgoingthroughthefirstdraftofthepaperandofferingusefulcomments.NOTES AND REFERENCES1. A numberofwell-researchedworksareavailableon thisaspectinTelugu.Seeforexample,N. Gangadharam,lanapadageyaVangmayaVyasavali,(Telugu),Rajahmundry,1961;R.V.S.Sundaram,AndhrulaJanapadaVignanam(Telugu),Hyderabad,1983.2. ChintaDikshitulu,Praja Vangmayamu(Tel), Vijayawada,1955.The bookfocussesparticularattentionon popularwomensliteratureand also populartraditionrelatingtochildren.3. Forthisaspectsee in particular,Krishnasri(ed), StreelaPauranikapuPatalu(Telugu),Hyderabad,1963;To. Donappa, JanapadaKala Sampada(Telugu)Hyderabad,1987,(FirstEdn.1972).4. Fora comprehensiveaccountofthis,see B. RamRaju,TeluguInapadaGehyaSahityamu,Hyderabad,1978:N. Gangadharam,Aatalu-Patalu (Telugu),Rajahmundry,1965.5. Arudra,Prajaka1aloo-Pragathivaduloo(Telugu)Vijayawada,n.d.pp 139-72.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  15. 15. 82 SOCIAL SCIENTIST6. K.V.RamanaReddy,Mahodayam(Telugu)Vijayawada,1969,see in particularchapterII, pp. 17-41Thebookis a masterlyaccountofthelifeand workofGurajadaApparo.7. K.V. Gopalaswamy(ed.), TeluguVagmayam(Telugu),Tenali,1960,articleonthehistoryofTeluguplays,pp.272-312.8. A discussionofthesesignificantchangesinTeluguliteraturearecarriedoutbymany.To citean importantsource,seeK.V.RamanaReddysdetailedarticleonProgressivePoetry-AnAnalyticalReview,In Bbhyudaya(monthlyjournalofPWA,Andhra),special issue of theV PWA conference,Vijayawada,1955,pp.86-112.9. V. Ramakrishna,Socal ReforminAndhra,New Delhi,1983,pp. 71-74;AlsoV.R.Narla,Veeresalingam,New Delhi,1968.10. KV. RamanaReddy,Mahodayam,op.cit.,See fora discussionon this,ChapterIV,pp.274-327.11. Ibid.,pp.361-426.12. G.V. Sitapati,HistoryofTeluguLiterature,New Delhi,1968,see chapterIXThe Modem TeluguMovement.pp. 139-45;ChekuriRama Rao, MarosariGiduguRamamurthy(Telugu),a collectionof articleson thecontributionofGidugutothemodernTelugumovement,Hyderabad,1968.13. A Suryarao,(ed.,) GurajadaRachanalu-Lekhalu,(Telugu),Vijayawada,1958,pp. 105-106.14. ChilakamarthiLakshminarasimham,Sweeyacharitramu,(Autobiography,Telugu),Visakhpatnam,1957).15. Severalworkshavebeenwrittenonnationalmovementand Teluguliterature,Mostoftheseworkshavepresentedmainlytheliteraryoutputoftheperiodwithoutmuch analysis. See in this contextM. Subbareddy,TeluguloJateeyodyamaKavitvam(Telugu) (The impactof National MovementonModernTeluguPoetry),Tirupati,1982.16. A Murali,Non-Cooperationin Andhrain 1920-22:NationalistIntelligentsiaand theMobilizationofPeasantry,in TheIndianHistoricalReview,Vol. XII,No. 1-2,July1985,January1986,pp. 188-217;s.TheodoreBaskaran,TheMessageBearers:The NationalPoliticsand theEntertainmentMedia in SouthIndia1880-1945,Madras,1981.17. For details see K. Satyanarayana,Artha Satabda Kalamlo AndrulapainiOctoberViplava Prabhavam,(Telugu), (hereafterreferredto as OctoberViplavam),Madras, 1973. The book gives in briefthe literaryand otherinfluencesofOctoberRevolutiononAndhra.18. K.V. RamanaReddy(ed.,) UnnavaRachanalluKonni(Telugu),Kaval, 1979;Bangorey,Malapallipai Nishedhalu,(Telugu),Madras,1979.Also A. Murali,ChangingPerceptionsand Radicalisationof the National MovementinAndhra,1922-34,inSocialScientist,August1988.19. K. Satyanarayana,OctoberViplavam,op.cit.,pp. 38-40;K. SatyanarayanainthefirstvolumeofhisHistoryoftheCommunistMovementin AndhraPradesh(Telugu)(hereafterreferredtoas CommunistMovement),Vijayawada,1983,discussedin detailin II and III chaptersthebackgroundoftheoriginsoftheCommunistmovementin Andhra.In appendiceshe also providedusefuldocumentsinthisregard.20. Interestinginformationonlthisisprovidedinabundancewithparticularsoftheactivitiesofagriculturallabourorganisation,studentsandyouthwingsandalsodetailsabouttheCongresssocialistpartyinwhichtheCommunistswereactive.See Ibid.,ChapterIV,pp. 106-66.21. V. KrishnaRao,Communismin AndhraPradesh,Hyderabad,1989,p. 7. TheAndhraCommunistPartywasofficiallyorganisedin1934.22. K. Satyanarayana,CommunistMovement,op.cit.,pp. 126-27and 153.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  16. 16. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 8323. Thepoemwas translatedbyB. NaliniKanthaRao,a studentat KakinadaattheinstanceofP. Sundaraiah.Ibid.,Appendix,12,pp. 233-34,Arudra,op.cit.,pp.142and157-58.24. See Kambhampati,CommunistMovement,op.cit,Appendix-7,pp.208-10.ThePoem was firstpublishedin Prabha,fortnightly,5 June,1935. PendyalaLokanathamwrotethispoemstressingthepoweroftheunitedworkingclass.He is consideredas thefirstworkingclasspoetin Andhra.Forbiographicalparticularssee K.V. RamanaReddy,AdhunikayugamloKavilokam(Telugu),Nellore,1984,pp. 19-24.25. See Kambhampati,CommunistMovement,op.cit.,Appendix-11,p. 232.Thispoemwas also firstpublishedin Prabha20 June1935.Prabhawas editedbyGudde Lingaiah.Thejournalwas startedduringtheban on theCommunistParty.Itservedthepartyin disseminatinginformationon partypoliticsandwas also publishingthe writingsof budding poets with socialistideas.Linagaiahwas thesecretaryoftheKrishnadistrictCongressSocialistparty.26. GorkysMotherwas earliertranslatedin a summaryformby TummalaVenkataramaiahCalled Matruhridayam(mothersheart).See fordetailsonthisArudra,op.cit.,p. 160.27. N.G. Ranga,(ed.) RytuBhajanavali,(Telugu),Nidubrolu,1949,(12thedition).Itwas firstpublishedin1934.OntheactivitiesofN.G.RangaamongpeasantsinGunturdistrictseeKambhampati,CommunistMovement,op.cit.,117-18.28. N.G.Ranga,ed.,op.cit.29. Ibid.30. Jatiya Geethamulu (Telugu) (Volume of 40 National songs),Rajamahendravaram,n.d.,p. 12.31. On the lifeand workof GarimellaSatyanarayanasee, Ch. RadhakrishnaSarma,GrimellaSahityam(Telugu)Madras,1989.32. Ibid.33. N.G. Ranga,op.cit.Narla VenkateswaraRao, a writerand a well knownjournalistwroteNetashya(RussiaToday)inJuly1934,highlyappreciatingthesocialiststate.Thebookwas bannedwithinfourmothsafterthepublication.34. Kambhampati,CommunistMovement,op.cit.,pp. 116 and 163.Manymoredetailsofthepublishinghousesofthisperiodaregivenin K. Satyanarayanashistoryof the CommunistMovement,Volume 2, 1936-42,pp. 291-93. AKameshwaraRao establishedAtivadaGrandhamandaliin Guntur,AshwiniKumarDattasPragatiPrachuranaluin Nidamarru,WestGodavariDistrict,ProletarianSeries in Bheemavaramby Dharh Sririamurthyare otherpublishers.35. WehavenodefiniteinformationwhetherornotthewrifingsofPremchandweretranslatedintoTelugu.Nevertheless,itis knownthatby1935thattherewereregularculturalcontactsbetweentheNorthandtheSouth.36. Suddhi Pradhanin his MarxistCulturalMovementin India-ChroniclesandDocuments(1936-47),Calcutta,1979,publishedthemanifestoin an amendedforminpp.20-21andaddeda partoftheoriginaltextinpp.97-98.Forthefulltextoftheoriginalmanifesto,seeArudra,op.cit.162-63.37. Ibid.38. Ibid.,pp.158and161.39. Fordetailssee, Y. Prasad (ed.) CollectionofDocumentsofPWAfor50 years(Tel)broughtoutbyA.P.P.W.A.,Hyderabad,1988,pp. 19-28.40. K.V. RamanaReddy,(ed.,) Sri Sri Sahityam(CompleteworksofSri Sri)-2(poetry),1933-1945,Madras,1970,inparticularseeIntroduction.Alsosee foracriticalappraisal of Sri Sri s work K.V. Ramana Reddy, JagannadhaRadhachakralu(CariotWheelsofJagannadha),Vijaywada,1986.41. V. Prasad,(ed.,)op.cit.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  17. 17. 84 SOCIAL SCIENTIST42. Fora comprehensiveandcriticalassessmentofthePWAsee V. NarayanaRao,TeluguKavitaViplavalaSwaroopam,(Telugu), Hyderabad,1987, ChapterVII, pp. 120-44.Also ChandramVyasalu,(Telugu) (articlesof MaddukuriChandrasekharaRao), Vijayawada,1974.43. ForfulldetailsseeV. Prasad,op.cit.,pp. 59-83.Theschoolwas organisedforamothfromMay 11thtoJune10th1946at Pedapudiin Gunturdistrict.DeviPrasad Roy Choudaryinauguratedthe school. Eminentliteraryfigures,historiansartists,Gadar Partyactivistssuch as Nidadavolu VenkataRao,Korada Ramakrishnaiah, Sripada Gopalakrishnamurthy, Sri SriKodavatigantiKutumbaRao, MallampalliSomasekharaSarma,ChilukuriNarayanaRao, MadhavapeddiGokhalae,Darsi Chenchaiah,to mention afew,actedas teachers.Te participantsincludedyoungand promisingwritersand artistswhoare tobecomelatertheleadinglightsin thepopularliteraryandtheatremovementsinAndhra.44. M. RadhakrishnaMurthysarticle,TeluguloSamajikaNatakaluis TeluguNatakaSahityam(Collectionof lecturearticles)(Telugu),Hyderabad,1986,pp. 20-43;AlsoK.K.Ranganathacharulus(ed.,)NooreUaTelugunadu(hundredyearsofAndhra)(Telugu),Hyderabad,1984.pp. 131-56.45. Ibid.,alsoM. RadhakrishnaMurthy,op.cit.,p. 30.46. Ibid.,p. 33.47. Ibid.,pp.31-32.48. Ibid.49. SudhiPradhan,op.cit.,pp. 129-30.50. InterviewwithK.A. AbbasbyKausarKhanin IPTA IX NationalConferenceandFestivalSouvenir,Hyderabad,1986,pp. 38-39.51. SudhiPradhan,op.cit.,pp. 130-32.52. Ibid.53. TheGeneralSecretaryoftheAITUC,N.M. Joshiwas electedthepresidentoftheIPTA.BankimMukherjee,PresidentAllIndiaKisanSabha,S.A. Dange,thePresidentoftheAITUC,Saj)adZaheer,theGeneralSecretary,All IndiaPWA,ArunBose,theGeneralSecretary,AISF weretakenas themembersof theExecutiveCommitteeoftheITA. Ibid.,pp. 132-34.54. Ibid.,p. 134.55. All LeagueforRevolutionaryCulture,InauguralConferenceSouvenir, NewDelhi,1 Oct, 1983;Also, Krishna,PrajanatyamandaliGnapakalu,(Telugu)Hanumakonda,1984,p. 12. The authoran activistof IPTA recordedhisreminiscencesinthis.56. Ibid.,pp.9 and21-22.SudhiPradhan,op.cit.,pp.273-57. Sudhi Pradhangives a detailed accountof theseperformancesin Ibid.,pp. 354-0.58. Thisaspecthas beenelaboratelydealtwithbymanypeopleofwhichonlyafew referencesare givenhere.JayadhirTirumalaRao threewell researchedbooksbased on extensivefieldworkare,Prajakala-RoopaluPatalu(Telugu),Hyderabad 1987,TelenganaRytangaPortam(Telugu), Hyderabad,1988)TelenganaPorataPatalu (Telugu), Hyderabad 1990. Also see D.V. Rao,TElenganaPrajala SayudhaporataCharitra,Hyderabad,1988,pp. 519 and576-793,KVR,TelenganaPortam-Sahityam(Telugu),Guntur,1984.59. Vasireddy,Sunkaa, Maabhoomi(playinTelugu),Vijayawada,1984(Fristedn.1947);See PratapReddysarticlePeoplesTheatreStarsthePeoplein IPTASouvenir,op.dt.,p. 46.60. M. RadhakrishnaMurthysarticle,op.cit.,p. 34.61. K.K.Ranganathacharyulusartide,op.at.,pp. 143-45.62. Krishanop.cit.,pp. 9 and 21-23; forfurtherdetails see Kambhampati,CommunistMovement,Vol.2,pp.301-303.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
  18. 18. LITERARYAND THEATREMOVEMENTSIN COLONIALANDHRA 8563. Examplesare many.A remarkablecollectionofautobiographicalaccountsoftwelvepeoplepublishedin1946revealthisfact.TheycameintotheCommunistpartfromdifferentprofessionssuchas medicine,law,agricultureand labour.Some of themare poets and singersand also housewives.Theybelongtodifferentreligionsand also castes,See MukkamalaNagabhushanam,ed.,NenuCommunistElaayyanu,(Telugu),(How did I becomea Communist),Bezawada,1946.This content downloaded on Wed, 20 Feb 2013 10:25:33 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

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