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Criminal Justice Sector Reform and Prison Conditions and Torture in OSCE region
 

Criminal Justice Sector Reform and Prison Conditions and Torture in OSCE region

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Presentation conducted at UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre by Prof. Manfred Nowak from Universitat Wien

Presentation conducted at UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre by Prof. Manfred Nowak from Universitat Wien

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    Criminal Justice Sector Reform and Prison Conditions and Torture in OSCE region Criminal Justice Sector Reform and Prison Conditions and Torture in OSCE region Presentation Transcript

    • Criminal Justice Sector Reform, Prison Conditions and Torture: Recent Trends and Challenges in the OSCE Region UNDP Regional Office 25 June 2012, UNDP BratislavaManfred NowakProfessor of International Law and Human Rights, University of ViennaDirector, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, ViennaFormer UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2004 – 2010)
    • OVERVIEW1. Maps & Statistics on the Prison Situation2. Council of Europe – European Court of Human Rights Statistics3. CPT Statistic4. Statistics Regarding the CCPR/Human Rights Committee5. Death Penalty Statistics6. UN Special Rapporteur on Torture – Fact-Finding Missions7. Guantanamo Bay and Secret Detention8. Conclusions
    • 1. MAPS & STATISTICS on the PRISON SITUATION- 10 out of the 25 States with the highest number of prisoners are OSCE States- 42% of the world prison population from OSCE countries (compared to 18 % of overall world population)- OSCE States (US, Russia, Georgia, …) among those with the highest prison population rates in the world- Overcrowding of prisons: only 8 OSCE States have a prison occupancy rate of less than 80% (e.g. Central Asian States)Sources:- World Prison Brief (http://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/; retrieved 20/2/2012)- UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision 3
    • PRISON SITUATION World Prison Population – 10 out of the 25 States with the highest number of prisoners are OSCE States 1 United States of America 2.266.832 2 China 1.650.000 3 Russian Federation 755.600 4 Brazil 513.802 5 India 376.969 6 Iran 250.000 7 Thailand 224.292 8 Mexico 222.947 9 South Africa 160.54510 Ukraine 157.86611 Indonesia 141.68912 Turkey 127.83113 Ethiopia 112.36114 Vietnam 108.55715 Philippines 104.71016 United Kingdom 97.16417 Colombia 84.44418 Poland 81.38219 Pakistan 75.58620 Japan 74.47621 France 73.14922 Spain 70.41423 Germany 69.69724 Bangladesh 69.65025 Italy 68.047
    • United States of America (1)* 2.266.832Total Prison Population of OSCE Russian Federation (3)* 755.600 Ukraine (10)* 157.866Countries 4.251.737 (42% of total Turkey (12)* 127.831world prison population of United Kingdom (16)* 86.919 Poland 81.38210.053.162) France 73.149 * no. indicates position in the Spain 70.414 world ranking Germany 69.697 Italy 68.047 Kazakhstan 52.464 Uzbekistan 42.000 Canada 39.099 Belarus 36.533 Romania 30.810 Georgia 24.187 Czech Republic 23.435 Azerbaijan 20.470 Hungary 16.328 Netherlands 14.488 Portugal 12.918 Serbia 12.000 Greece 11.364 Turkmenistan 10.935 Belgium 10.561 Slovakia 10.031 Kyrgyzstan 9.828 Tajikistan 9.317 Lithuania 9.139 Bulgaria 9.071 5
    • Austria 8.694Total Prison Population of OSCE Sweden 7.106 Latvia 7.055Countries 4.251.737 (42% of total Moldova (Republic of) 6.476world prison population of Switzerland 6.181 Croatia 5.16510.053.162) (ctd.) Albania 4.689 Armenia 4.514 Ireland, Republic of 4.279 Denmark 4.091 Norway 3.602 Estonia 3.381 Finland 3.189 Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of) 2.329 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 1.671 Montenegro 1.438 Slovenia 1.311 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 1.046 Cyprus (Republic of) 883 Luxembourg 645 Malta 580 Greenland (Denmark) 194 Iceland 149 Andorra 61 Monaco 23 Liechtenstein 7 6
    • United States of America 730PRISON POPULATION RATES Georgia 539per 100.000 inhabitants in the OSCE Russian Federation 529States Belarus 381 Ukraine 347 Greenland (Denmark) 340 Kazakhstan 323 Latvia 314 Lithuania 276 Estonia 252 Azerbaijan 228 Montenegro 227 Turkmenistan 224 Czech Republic 222 Poland 213 Slovakia 184 Moldova (Republic of) 182 Kyrgyzstan 181 Turkey 171 Serbia 164 Hungary 163 Uzbekistan c.153 Spain 152 Albania 147 Armenia 146 7
    • United Kingdom 146PRISON POPULATION RATES Romania 144per 100.000 inhabitants in the OSCE Malta 141States (ctd.) Tajikistan 130 Luxembourg 124 Portugal 121 Bulgaria 120 Canada 117 Croatia 117 Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of) 114 Italy 112 France 111 Cyprus (Republic of) 110 Austria 104 Greece 101 Belgium 97 Ireland, Republic of 95 Netherlands 87 Germany 86 Switzerland 79 Sweden 78 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 75 Denmark 74 Andorra 73 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 73 Norway 73 Monaco 70 Slovenia 64 Finland 59 Iceland 47 Liechtenstein 19 8
    • PRISON POPULATION RATESper 100.000 inhabitants in the OSCEStates 9
    • Haiti 335.7% Benin 307.1%PRISON OCCUPANCY RATES Philippines c.300% Iran 294.1% Sudan 255.3% Serbia 157.9% Bulgaria 155.6% Italy 149.1% Croatia 147.5% Cyprus (Republic of) 147.9% Spain 138.0% Hungary 132.4% Greece 129.6% Montenegro 127.3% Belgium 119.6% Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of) 119.3% Slovenia 117.6% Romania 115.5% Uzbekistan 113.5% Czech Republic 113.4% France 113.0% Turkey 110.4% United States of America 110.1% Albania 107.1% Belarus 106.7% Portugal 105.8% Malta 102.9% Armenia 102.7% Georgia 101.8% Sweden 101.5% 10
    • Greenland(Denmark) 101.0% Lithuania 100.0%PRISON OCCUPANCY RATES (ctd.) Finland 99.6% Denmark 99.0% Austria 98.0% Estonia 97.2% BosniaandHerzegovina:Federation 96.4% Canada 96.4% Ireland,Republicof 94.9% Slovakia 94.5% Poland 94.3% Norway 94.1% Ukraine 92.7% Iceland 92.5% Switzerland 92.5% RussianFederation 91.6% Luxembourg 90.8% UnitedKingdom 90.4% Germany 88.5% Netherlands 85.3% Turkmenistan 85.0% Moldova(Republicof) 81.2% BosniaandHerzegovina:RepublikaSrpska 78.1% Azerbaijan 77.7% Kyrgyzstan 72.6% Kazakhstan 72.5% Latvia 70.4% Tajikistan 61.5% Andorra 54.4% Liechtenstein 35.0% Monaco 28.4% 11
    • PRISON OCCUPANCY RATES 12
    • Mali 88.7% Liberia c.85%PRE-TRIAL DETAINEES/ Bolivia 83.6% Togo c.80%REMAND PRISONERS Nigeria 77.6%(percentage within the prison Malta 64.0% Monaco 60.9%population) Montenegro 45.8% Andorra 42.6% Turkey 42.6% Cyprus (Republic of) 42.2% Italy 41.8% Switzerland 41.0% Netherlands 40.6% Luxembourg 38.2% Canada 37.0% Belgium 35.0% Denmark 34.0% Albania 33.6% Greece 31.2% Hungary 29.4% United Kingdom 28.8% Liechtenstein 28.6% Latvia 28.3% Kyrgyzstan 27.6% Norway 27.2% Armenia 26.0% Ukraine 24.5% Serbia 24.4% Sweden 24.4% Croatia 22.9% Slovenia 22.7% 13
    • Greenland (Denmark) 22.6% France 22.5%PRE-TRIAL DETAINEES/ Moldova (Republic of) 21.4% Austria 21.2%REMAND PRISONERS United States of America 20.8%(percentage within the prison Estonia 20.3% Portugal 19.3%population) (ctd.) Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 18.2% Finland 18.1% Belarus 17.7% Romania 16.4% Spain 16.4% Ireland, Republic of 16.0% Russian Federation 15.6% Germany 15.5% Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 15.3% Tajikistan 15.0% Slovakia 14.6% Azerbaijan 13.5% Lithuania 13.1% Kazakhstan 12.6% Turkmenistan 12.4% Uzbekistan 11.5% Czech Republic 10.9% Bulgaria 10.4% Poland 10.0% Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of) 8.6% Iceland 8.1% Georgia 6.7% Laos 1.0% Tonga 0.6% 14
    • PRE-TRIAL DETAINEES/ REMAND PRISONERS(percentage within the prison population) 15
    • 2. Council of Europe – European Court of Human Rights - Relating only to 47 member States of the Council of Europe (not US, Canada, Belarus, Central Asian States) - Statistics about relevant cases - Judgments in 2011 finding violations of Articles 2, 3, 5, 6, 13 ECHRSource: European Court of Human Rights, Annual Report 2011 and Facts and Figures 2011 (available at http://www.echr.coe.int/ECHR/Homepage_EN) 16
    • CoE - ECtHR17
    • 18
    • 19
    • ECtHR - Violations Judgments by States in 2011 (174) (133) (105) (73) 20
    • ECtHR - Violations by Article and by State in 2011 Right to Life - Deprivation of Life (Art 2 ECHR) Russia 53 Turkey 6 Romania 3 Belgium 2 Ukraine 2 Bulgaria 1 Georgia 1 Italy 1 Poland 1 Total 70 21
    • Right to Life - Lack of Effective Investigation (Art 2 ECHR)Russia 58Romania 8Ukraine 7United Kingdom 5Bulgaria 4Croatia 2Georgia 2Turkey 2France 1Italy 1Total 90 22
    • Prohibition of Torture (Art 3 ECHR)Russia 6Ukraine 3Turkey 2United Kingdom 2Bulgaria 1France 1Total 15 23
    • Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (Art 3 ECHR)Russia 62Turkey 36Romania 20Ukraine 15Greece 10Republic of Moldova 8Belgium 6France 5Poland 5Bulgaria 3Croatia 3Hungary 3Italy 2Slovenia 2Germany 1Lithunia 1Slovakia 1Total 183 24
    • Art 3 - Lack of Effective InvestigationTurkey 37Russia 22Ukraine 9Romania 6Republic of Moldova 5Croatia 4Bulgaria 3Lithunia 1Serbia 1Spain 1Total 89 25
    • Right to Liberty and Security (Art 5 ECHR)Russia 68Ukraine 42Turkey 38Latvia 17Poland 16Slovakia 12Bulgaria 10Germany 8Greece 8Republic of Moldova 7Belgium 6Croatia 5Hungary 5Netherlands 4Armenia 3Azerbaijan 2Bosnia Herzegovina 2Italy 2Romania 2Czech Republic 1Estonia 1France 1United Kingdom 1Total 261 26
    • Right to Fair Trial (Art 6 ECHR)Russia 40Turkey 30Ukraine 21Poland 14Czech Republic 13France 11Romania 9Croatia 8Azerbaijan 7Italy 7Republic of Moldova 7Greece 6Hungary 4Serbia 4Spain 4Malta 3Lithunia 3(The FYR of) Macedonia 3United Kingdom 3Albania 2Belgium 2Bulgaria 2Slovakia 2Estonia 1Luxembourg 1Montenegro 1Netherlands 1Portugal 1Slovenia 1 27Total 211
    • Length of Proceedings -(Art 6 ECHR)Ukraine 66Turkey 53Greece 50Bulgaria 21Germany 19Hungary 19Italy 16Poland 15Portugal 13Russia 13Romania 10Slovenia 6Austria 5Lithunia 5Slovakia 5Croatia 3Malta 3Serbia 3Czech Republic 2Ireland 2Finland 2France 2(The FYR of) Macedonia 2Cyprus 1Latvia 1Republic of Moldova 1Montenegro 1Spain 1United Kingdom 1 28Total 341
    • Effective Remedy (Art 13 ECHR)Russia 58Greece 32Bulgaria 26Germany 10Portugal 10Ukraine 9Slovenia 7France 6Turkey 6Republic of Moldova 5Romania 4Albania 3Slovakia 3Belgium 2Austria 1Croatia 1Czech Republic 1Estonia 1Hungary 1Ireland 1Total 187 29
    • 3. European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)- 1990-2011: 315 visits (191 periodic visits + 124 ad hoc visits)- 264 CPT reports published (Russian Federation: only 1 report published out of 18) Source: CPT, General Report 2011 (available at http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/annual/rep-21.pdf) 30
    • CPT 31
    • 4. 4. Statistics Regarding the CCPR/Human Rights Committee Statistics Regarding the CCPR/Human Rights CommitteeViews finding violations in relation to CCPR articles 32
    • Statistics Regarding the CCPR/Human Rights Committee (cont’d)Views finding violations in relation to States 33
    • 5. Death Penalty- Europe as a death penalty free zone (except Belarus, Abkhazia, Transnistria)- Central Asia: recent abolition of capital punishment in Uzbekistan (for all crimes, 2008); Kyrgyzstan (for all crimes; 2007); Kazakhstan (for ordinary crimes, 2007); Turkmenistan (for all crimes, 1999); Tajikistan (abolitionist in practice: no execution in the past ten years)- USA: retentionist; 5th highest number of executions worldwide in 2010 Source: Amnesty International, Death Sentences and Executions Report 2010 34
    • 35
    • 36
    • DEATH PENALTY37
    • 6. UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2004 – 2010)- 18 Fact-Finding Missions- 5 Fact-Finding Missions to OSCE Countries (Georgia, Denmark & Greenland, Moldova, Kazakhstan,Greece)- Joint UN Reports on Guantanamo Bay and Secret Detention in the Context of Countering Terrorism 38
    • FACT-FINDING MISSIONS – OVERVIEW Denmark & Greenland Moldova Greece (Russia) Georgia Jordan May 08 July 08 Oct. 10 Oct. 06 Feb. 05 June 06 Kazakhstan May 09 (Cuba) Mongolia Autumn 10 June 05Guantanamo China Feb. 06 Nov. 05 Jamaica Nepal Feb. 10 Sept. 05 Paraguay Papua New Guinea Nov. 06 May 10 Uruguay Indonesia March 09 Nov. 07 Sri Lanka Oct. 07 Sudan Togo Nigeria Equatorial Guinea (Zimbabwe) Oct. 06 April 07 March 07 Nov. 08 Oct. 09
    • FACT-FINDING MISSIONS IN OSCE COUNTRIES- Georgia: February 2005- Denmark and Greenland: May 2008- Moldova: July 2008- Kazakhstan: May 2009- Greece: October 2010
    • GEORGIA (Feb. 2005) FACT-FINDING MISSION19 – 25 February 2005Outcome: Routine practice of tortureIn particular, in the first 72 hours of police custody toextract confessions. Methods: beatings with fists, butts ofguns, use of electric shocks, cigarette burns, brokenbones, etc.Impunity for perpetrators of tortureNot under Government control: Abkhazia: applicability of death penalty South Ossetia: very bad conditions of detentionsGovernment recognizes some of these problems and undertakes certain reforms,e.g.: comprehensive police reform, modernization of prisons and establishment of National PreventiveMechanism (OPCAT); issue of impunity still unresolved, strong increase of prison population, problemof plea bargaining [Atlas of Torture (EIDHR) - Follow-up Mission April 2011] 41
    • DENMARK and GREENLAND (May 2008) FACT-FINDING MISSION 2 – 9 May 2008 Outcome: no torture Herstedvester Institution, Albertslund‣ High standard of conditions of detention‣ Prison system: “Principle of normalization“, meaning that life behind bars reflects life outside to the greatest possible extent 42
    • MOLDOVA (July 2008) FACT-FINDING MISSION 4 – 11 July 2008 Joint Visit with UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women Outcome: Widespread ill-treatment and isolated tortureChisinau Police HQ‣ Conditions of detention do not conform to international standards ‣ Restricted access to medical care ‣ Poor quality of food‣ Transnistrian region: ‣ Lack of complaint and monitoring mechanism ‣ Torture is not criminalized, death penalty‣ Follow-up Missions (Sept. 2009; Sept. 2011; Nov./Dec. 2011; Jan/Feb 2012): ‣ Willingness to implement relevant recommendations relating to the prevention of torture and improvement of prison conditions Prison in Chisinau 43
    • KAZAKHSTAN (May 2009) FACT-FINDING MISSION5 – 13 May 2009 Preparations of detention facilities prior to inspection; contradicts the idea of unannounced visits and independent fact-finding Overall, physical conditions and food supply is in line with international minimum standards Outcome: Routine torture and ill- treatment Almaty UVD 2  Follow-up Mission (Sept./Oct. 2010): Willingness to implement relevant recommendations relating to the prevention of tortureAstana Investigation Isolator 44
    • GREECE (Oct. 2010) FACT-FINDING MISSION 10 - 20 October 2010 Outcome: isolated cases of torture Venna Migration Detention Centre‣ Prisons and police facilities are overcrowded due to high number of irregular migrants entering via Turkey ‣ Law enforcement officials are overwhelmed ‣ Very bad conditions of police and special migration detention centres Fylakio Migration Detention Centre
    • GUANTANAMOJOINT UN REPORT ON GUANTANAMO BAY (2006)• International law applicable Human Rights Law is applicable also during times of emergencies and armed conflict War on Terror does not constitute an armed conflict in terms of international humanitarian law• GITMO: arbitrary detention Detainees are arbitrarily detained for a prolonged period of time and entitled to challenge their deprivation of liberty (ICCPR Art 9)• Interrogation techniques led to torture Attempts to “redefine” torture Confusion re: authorized/unauthorized interrogation techniques Excessive violence during forced feeding amounting to torture=> Urging closure of GITMO. 46
    • SECRET DETENTION & TERRORISMJOINT UN REPORT ON SECRET DETENTION IN THE CONTEXT OF COUNTERINGTERRORISM (2010)• Black Sites Secret detention is irreconcilably in violation of international human rights law, including during states of emergency and armed conflicts Geneva Conventions, applicable to all armed conflicts, prohibit secret detention under any circumstances secret detention amounts to an enforced disappearance.• Rendition Flights Responsibility of third countries, incl. European States Corroborates findings of earlier investigations (Council of Europe, European Parliament, investigative journalists)• Detention by Proxy disregard of the principle of non-refoulement “outsourcing” of torture. 47
    • CONCLUSIONS- Prison crisis in the OSCE: disproportionally high number of prisoners, both in absolute and relative terms; overcrowding; in many countries continuing practice of torture and inhuman prison conditions- Strong reliance on retributive justice and malfunctioning of administration of justice (corruption, being „tough on crime“, excessive length of proceedings) as main reasons for torture and prison crisis- Undermining of the rule of law in the fight against terrorism (secret detention, torture, illegal rendition flights, unfair trials)- Significant disparities between best practice (e.g. Denmark) and serious violations of international human rights law 48
    • ATLAS OF TORTURE WEBSITE Web portal on the factual and legal situation of torture in countries and topics of special relevance for the prohibition of torture www.atlas-of-torture.org
    • Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna http://bim.lbg.ac.at Atlas of Torture http://www.atlas-of-torture.orgJoin us on Facebook „Atlas of Torture“