Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues (ischemia of the kidneys). The internal structures of the kidney, particularly the tissues of the kidney tubule, become damaged or destroyed. ATN is one of the most common structural changes that can lead to acute renal failure. ATN is one of the most common causes of kidney failure in hospitalized patients. Risks for acute tubular necrosis include: Blood transfusion reaction Injury or trauma that damages the muscles Recent major surgery Septic shock or other forms of shock Severe low blood pressure (hypotension) that lasts longer than 30 minutes
In most people, acute tubular necrosis is reversible. The goal of treatment is to prevent life-threatening complications of acute kidney failure during the time the lesion is present.
Treatment focuses on preventing the excess build-up of fluids and wastes, while allowing the kidneys to heal. Patents should be watched for deterioration of kidney function.
Treatment can include:
Identifying and treating the underlying cause of the problem
Restricting fluid intake to a volume equal to the volume of urine produced
Restricting substances normally removed by the kidneys (such as protein, sodium, potassium) to minimize their buildup in the body
Taking medications to help control potassium levels in the bloodstream
Taking water pills (diuretics) to increase fluid removal from the kidney
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection that can happen anywhere along the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections have different names, depending on what part of the urinary tract is infected.
Bladder -- an infection in the bladder is also called cystitis or a bladder infection
Kidneys -- an infection of one or both kidneys is called pyelonephritis or a kidney infection
Ureters -- the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the bladder are only rarely the site of infection
Urethra -- an infection of the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside is called urethritis
Causes Urinary tract infections are caused by germs, usually bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. This can lead to infection, most commonly in the bladder itself, which can spread to the kidneys. Most of the time, your body can get rid of these bacteria. However, certain conditions increase the risk of having UTIs. Women tend to get them more often because their urethra is shorter and closer to the anus than in men. Because of this, women are more likely to get an infection after sexual activity or when using a diaphragm for birth control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI.
UTI-Symptoms & Treatments The symptoms of a bladder infection include:
Cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul or strong odor
Pressure or cramping in the lower abdomen (usually middle) or back
Strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied
Treatments Your doctor must first decide whether you have a mild or simple bladder or kidney infection, or whether your infection is more serious. MILD BLADDER AND KIDNEY INFECTIONS Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually recommended because there is a risk that the infection can spread to the kidneys. For a simple bladder infection, you will take antibiotics for 3 days (women) or 7 - 14 days (men). For a bladder infection with complications such as pregnancy or diabetes, OR a mild kidney infection, you will usually take antibiotics for 7 - 14 days. It is important that you finish all the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat. Commonly used antibiotics include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, Augmentin, doxycycline, and fluoroquinolones. Your doctor will also want to know whether you could be pregnant.
A kidney, Ureters, and bladder (KUB) x-ray may be performed to assess the abdominal area for causes of abdominal pain, or to assess the organs and structures of the urinary and/or gastrointestinal (GI) system. A KUB x-ray may be the first diagnostic procedure used to assess the urinary system.
Reasons for the Procedure
A KUB x-ray may be performed to diagnose the cause of abdominal pain, such as masses, perforations, or obstruction. A KUB x-ray may be taken to evaluate the urinary tract before other diagnostic procedures are performed. Basic information regarding the size, shape, and position of the kidneys, Ureters, and bladder may be obtained with a KUB x-ray.
Clean Catch Specimen (CC) Alternative Names: Urine collection - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen According to out text, a urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia. How the test is performed: Children or adults: After cleaning the genital area, urinate a small amount into the toilet bowl to clear the urethra of any contaminants. Then, collect a sample of urine in a clean or sterile container. About 1 - 2 ounces of urine is needed for a test. Remove the container from the urine stream without stopping the flow. You may finish urinating into the toilet bowl. Return the sample to the health care provider, as directed.
Catheterization (cath) The process of inserting a tubular instrument into a body cavity to permit passage of fluid. Urinary catheters are used to drain the bladder. Your health care provider may recommend a catheter for short-term or long-term use because you have or had:
Urinary incontinence (leakage of urine or the inability to control when you urinate)
Urinary retention (being unable to empty the bladder when you need to)
Surgery that made a catheter necessary, such as prostate or gynecological surgery
Other medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or dementia