Selection Of Indicators For Hospital Performance Mesurement

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Indikator Hospital Performance Project PATH WHO Europe

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Selection Of Indicators For Hospital Performance Mesurement

  1. 1. Selection of indicators for Hospital Performance Measurement A report on the 3rd and 4th Workshop Barcelona, Spain, June and September 2003 This report has been prepared by: Jérémy Veillard, Technical Officer Ann-Lise Guisset, Technical Officer Mila Garcia-Barbero, Head of WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services, Division of
  2. 2. ABSTRACT The current restructuring of health care services among European countries, the development of new common policy orientations, focusing on accountability and quality improvement strategies, and a growing interest in patient satisfaction assessment highlight the importance of efficient and high quality hospital organization throughout Europe. These orientations are strong incentives for raising the value of hospital performance assessment. The WHO Regional Office for Europe decided to run a project on hospital performance assessment. The aim of the project is to build and validate a flexible and comprehensive model of hospital performance assessment enhancing quality improvement and evidence-based management. Since January 2003, the following outcomes were achieved: definition of the main concepts and identification of key dimensions of hospital performance assessment; design of the general architecture of a performance measurement tool enhancing evidence-based management and quality improvement through benchmarking; expansion of the theoretical work on the expansion of the key dimensions of hospital performance; definition of a framework to select performance indicators on the basis of evidence and availability of data (through a survey in 10 European countries); review of 200 hospital performance indicators; selection of a draft core set of 25 performance indicators and of a broader tailored set; design of a draft balanced dashboard enhancing quality improvement and evidence-based management. During a final workshop dedicated to finalizing the balanced dashboard for future pilot implementation and possible expansion, the core balanced set of performance indicators was agreed on; the trade-offs between the measures were identified and highlighted; the presentation of the dashboard was discussed in order to maximize its educational value; the educational aspects were discussed and a strategy was defined in order to maximize the chances of success of a pilot implementation; a strategy for future expansion of the model was discussed and eventually the orientations of the pilot implementation were agreed on. Keywords HOSPITALS – STANDARDS QUALITY INDICATORS, HEALTH CARE – STANDARDS QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY OF HEALTH CARE HEALTH POLICY – TRENDS EUROPE Address requests about publications of the WHO Regional Office to: • by e-mail publicationrequests@euro.who.int (for copies of publications) permissions@euro.who.int (for permission to reproduce them) pubrights@euro.who.int (for permission to translate them) • by post Publications WHO Regional Office for Europe Scherfigsvej 8 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark © World Health Organization 2004 All rights reserved. The Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Where the designation “country or area” appears in the headings of tables, it covers countries, territories, cities, or areas. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. The views expressed by authors or editors do not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization.
  3. 3. CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1 1.1. RATIONALE ...........................................................................................................................1 1.2. BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................1 1.3. OBJECTIVES ..........................................................................................................................2 1.4. STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT...................................................................................................2 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS................................................................................................2 2.1. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................................................................................2 2.2. SURVEY IN 11 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ...................................................................................3 2.3. PRE-SELECTION OF INDIVIDUAL INDICATORS .........................................................................4 3. RESULTS...................................................................................................................................4 3.1. SUB-DIMENSIONS OF THE OPERATIONAL AND CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF HOSPITAL PERFORMANCE..............................................................................................................................4 3.1.1. It was agreed that prerequisites to the conceptual model were:...................................4 3.1.2. Conceptual and operational model ...............................................................................4 3.2. SELECTION OF INDICATORS ....................................................................................................7 3.2.2. Selection of indicators by dimension.......................................................................9 3.3 FEEDBACK OF RESULTS TO PARTICIPATING HOSPITALS ...................................................16 4. CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................................................17 4.1. SUMMARY OF PRODUCTS ................................................................................................17 4.2. RECOMMENDATIONS ON DATA RELATED ISSUES .............................................................18 4.2.1. Collection and quality control of hospital data...........................................................18 4.2.2. Data aggregation ........................................................................................................18 4.3. RECOMMENDATIONS ON ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PILOTING THE FRAMEWORK FOR HOSPITAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ......................................................................................18 4.3.1. Beneficiaries................................................................................................................18 4.3.2. Project management/leadership..................................................................................19 4.3.3. Selection of indicators at local /national level............................................................19 4.3.6. Training implications ..................................................................................................20 4.4. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR HOSPITAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT.......................................................................................................20 4.5. THE STEPS FORWARD ...........................................................................................................20 ANNEX 1 .....................................................................................................................................22 ANNEX 2 .....................................................................................................................................25 ANNEX 3 .....................................................................................................................................27 ANNEX 4 .....................................................................................................................................32
  4. 4. EUR/03/5038066 page 1 1. Introduction 1.1. Rationale The restructuring of health care services among several European countries aims at increasing accountability, cost-effectiveness, sustainability and quality improvement strategies, and shows a growing interest in patient satisfaction. These reforms highlight a major challenge throughout Europe for efficient and high quality hospitals. They demand evidence-based policies and management strategies for hospital performance assessment. In this context, The WHO Regional Office for Europe provides a flexible and comprehensive framework called the Performance Assessment Tool for quality improvement in Hospitals (PATH). It includes i.e. Product 1. A conceptual model of performance (dimensions, sub-dimension and how they relate to each other), Product 2. Criteria for selection of indicators Product 3. Lists of indicators (e.g. including, rationale, operational definition, data collection issues, support for interpretation), Product 4. An operational model of performance (how indicators relate to each other, and also to explanatory variables and to standards), Product 5. Strategies for feedback of results to hospitals, mainly through a “balanced dashboard”, Product 6. Strategies to foster benchmarking. 1.2. Background This report is the summary of the two last workshops in a series of four dedicated to building a framework for hospital performance assessment. The two first workshops on hospital performance assessment led to an agreement on the objectives of the project, definitions of the main concepts (performance, quality, indicators, etc.), identification of six dimensions of performance (product 1) and criteria for indicators selection (product 2). The conceptual model encompasses six dimensions: clinical effectiveness, safety, patient centeredness, responsive governance, staff orientation and efficiency. The criteria for indicator selection are there importance and relevance to European hospitals, reliability and validity (of each individual indicator and of the set of indicators as a whole), and burden of data collection. A preliminary list of indicators was established, based on an extensive review of the literature of the current national and/or regional performance assessment projects (almost 300 indicators were reviewed). The indicators were tested against the selection criteria described above and a shortlist of indicators was drawn.
  5. 5. EUR/03/5038066 page 2 The group decided to organize indicators into two “baskets”: - a “core” basket gathering a limited number of indicators generally available, applicable and valid; relying on the best scientific evidence, for which data are available in most European countries and which are very responsive in different contexts; and - a “tailored” basket gathering indicators proposed for use only in specific situations because of variability of data availability, applicability to specific settings (e.g. teaching hospitals, rural hospitals, etc.) or validity (cultural, financial, organisational contexts). 1.3. Objectives Based on this previous work, the objectives of the third and fourth workshops were: • To refine the operational model by clarifying sub-dimensions of performance, • To select a core basket of indicators and propose a tailored list, • To build an operational model of performance • To discuss strategies for dissemination and follow-up of the framework and more specifically its pilot implementation. 1.4. Structure of the report In this report we first describe the steps, material and methods for achieving these objectives (section 2: material and methods), the main products of both workshops (section 3: results) and conclude with a discussion on the next steps of the project with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for implementation (section 4: discussion). 2. Material and methods 2.1. Review of the literature The first step taken was the identification of indicators for sub-dimensions of performance not covered or partly covered by current hospital performance assessment systems under use. In this way, the list of potential indicators pre-selected during the second workshop was enlarged to cover the sub-dimensions added during the further conceptualization phase and included indicators used in research projects and not widely used by hospitals. Next, an extensive review of the grey and scientific literature was performed. Evidence for each indicator on the rationale for use, prevalence, validity and reliability, current scope of use, supposed and demonstrated relationship with other performance indicators, exogenous factors and verification of standards was collected. The review of the literature showed that some dimensions and indicators, such as clinical effectiveness, have been well researched and built on a scientific tradition of evaluation. But others, such as responsive governance and efficiency are not so well represented in the literature and tend to be based primarily on empirical evidence or expert judgment.
  6. 6. EUR/03/5038066 page 3 A distinction between “reflective” and “formative” indicators was drawn. Formative indicators (causal) determine changes in the value of the latent variable while reflective indicators (effect) work the other way around. For instance, length of stay is a formative indicator of efficiency as efficiency is partly determined by length of stay, but at the same time as clinical effectiveness affects length of stay and hence length of stay is also a reflective indicator of clinical effectiveness. This distinction is important from a methodological point of view to evaluate indicators validity. During implementation phase it will support the interpretation of indicators results. 2.2. Survey in 11 European countries A survey was conducted in 11 European countries in May 2003. It aimed to define the hospital management’s scope for decision-making, the relevance of various indicators and the burden of data collection. Questions were circulated to volunteer members of the Health Promoting Hospitals network and to countries participating in the pilot project. Twelve responses came from the 11 countries. One questionnaire was sent to each one of the countries. Surveys were filled in either by individuals or by large multi-professional working groups. Each working group was asked to fill in the survey for a so-called “lay hospital” in the country. Survey results have to be interpreted with great caution. Inference is limited because of a sample bias. Recipients of the questionnaire were identified from a self-selected group (Health Promoting Hospital network). There may also be a “social desirability” bias. It means that respondents answer the way they believe they are expected to answer and overrate the importance of socially desirable components of performance (e.g. health promotion, staff satisfaction). The survey only captured limited information on the content and quality of national data sets. Moreover, two questionnaires from one country showed intra-country discrepancies. Although these factors limit the interpretation of the survey, they do not render it unhelpful. The empirical findings of the survey were considered crucial to reconcile theory with practice and to develop a strategy to monitor the integrity of the model and its application to different health care systems. To evaluate applicability was extremely important because indicators were drawn from a mainly Anglo-Saxon literature and applicability of tools and extrapolation to other contexts is often questionable. The purpose of the survey to facilitate the selection of indicators with a first input from the countries was met. This purpose will be completed in the next steps with the input from countries that will pilot the balanced dashboard of performance indicators. Responses to the survey showed wide variations in data availability and data quality, including: • continuing use of ICD-9 instead of ICD-10, • relative or absolute lack of secondary diagnosis coding, • over/under recording reflecting funding and culture, • delineation of episodes, readmissions, attribution to hospitals, and • variable, usually limited, linkage between hospitals and primary health care In general, respondents supported the values and the measures proposed in the survey. Many of the issues, such as staff orientation, were considered to be very important, although few countries actually have systems to measure it.
  7. 7. EUR/03/5038066 page 4 2.3. Pre-selection of individual indicators The pre-selection was based on evidence in the literature, results of the survey in participating countries and expert judgement. Discussions took place at the third and fourth workshops. During the third workshop, four working groups composed of international experts (see appendix) in the different dimensions selected (clinical effectiveness and patient safety, staff orientation and staff safety, efficiency and patient centeredness, responsive governance and environmental safety) were asked to select indicators using a modified nominal group technique. They first scored them individually on a scale from 1 to 10 according to importance, validity and burden of data collection. Individual scores were reported to the group and discussed. Then indicators were allocated to a “core” or “tailored” baskets or excluded from the framework. During the fourth workshop, the list of indicators was reviewed to guarantee the content validity of the set of indicators as a whole. 3. Results 3.1. Sub-dimensions of the operational and conceptual models of hospital performance 3.1.1. It was agreed that prerequisites to the conceptual model were: - to be consistent with WHO policy and language; - to share a common understanding of seemingly very similar concepts e.g. dimensions/perspectives; indicators / standards /criteria; outputs / results / performance whose complexity is increased by its translation from English to other languages; - to clearly define concepts included under each sub-dimension e.g. emotional support, empowerment and autonomy; - a glossary of terms for the purpose of the project will be useful and - the need to design indicators around practical customers (hospitals). 3.1.2. Conceptual and operational model The conceptual model encompasses four vertical dimensions (clinical effectiveness, efficiency, staff orientation and responsive governance) that cut across two horizontal perspectives (patient centeredness and safety) (see figure 1). Sub-dimensions for each of the six dimensions/perspectives are described in table 1.
  8. 8. EUR/03/5038066 page 5 Figure 1: The WHO Regional Office for Europe theoretical Model for Hospital Performance Error! Staff orientation Reponsive governance Clinical effectiveness Efficiency Safety Patient centeredness Table 1: Description of the dimensions and sub-dimensions of performance Dimension Sub-dimensions Clinical effectiveness - Conformity of processes of care - Outcomes of processes of care - Appropriateness of care Efficiency - Appropriateness (added after discussions during the workshop) - Input related to outputs of care - Use of available technology for best possible care Staff orientation - Practice environment - Perspectives and recognition of individual needs - Health promotion activities and safety initiatives - Behavioural responses and health status Responsive governance - System / Community integration - Public health orientation Safety - Patient safety - Staff safety - Environment safety Patient centeredness - Client orientation - Respect for patients It was made clear that several issues deserve special consideration: 1 Highlight the central role of both patient centeredness and safety values in guiding health systems and hospitals management: a patient’s perspective on clinical effectiveness, efficiency, staff orientation, responsive governance 2 Make explicit the relationships between indicators. The difference between determinants and measures of performance is helpful in constructing and balancing the indicator set, as many measures e.g. length of stay may be seen as associated with a range of variables which may be characterised as formative drivers or reflective images.
  9. 9. EUR/03/5038066 page 6 3 The distinction between formative and reflective indicators was crucial. However, it may be difficult to understand and might cause confusion to potential users of the indicators. For the educational material, terms such as “the indicator reflects…” and the “indicator acts upon…” will be preferred. The overall structure for each dimension and the main points described are presented below. a. Clinical effectiveness Within clinical effectiveness, a focus on team working and on clinical conditions, rather than on individual specialties or professions, was recommended. Although it was acknowledges that several indicators have major limits, nevertheless they should be considered to guarantee content validity of the set of indicators as a whole. Some of the main problems are that: - complications and sentinel events are seriously underreported, - indicators based on data extracted from the medical record, e.g. on appropriate and timely care, depend on content which is commonly not recorded, and represent a very high burden of data collection. b. Efficiency There are practical limitations of linking inputs to health care outputs or outcomes due to: • lack of activity based costing; • inconsistency of case-mix classification and • difficulty in standardising costs in monetary terms between countries Despite these limitations, opportunities for measuring efficiency include optimal use of available technology (e.g. machine time), utilisation rates, staffing ratios, and financial management. Following the discussion, appropriateness of health services utilization was added as a sub- dimension. Efficiency without appropriateness is considered a meaningless dimension. Given the wide variations in the availability, training and functions of personnel and even within countries, indicators based on staffing ratios would be difficult to interpret. Moreover, they are largely outside the hospital’s control. Hence, they are not treated as performance indicators but as background information, as an important measure to understand and interpret other performance indicators. In market economies hospitals manage finances. In other contexts, hospitals only manage or even administer line-budgets. Because of those wide disparities in financial responsibilities, indicators on financial performance and profitability are only in the tailored set. c. Staff orientation Many potential indicators are sensitive to context. In this area there are wide variations between countries and priorities vary widely. In some countries the preoccupation is overstaffing, job security and timely payment while in others, overworking, turnover and vacancy rate, professional identity, self-regulation, team working and a main reliance on nurses (who are usually in short supply) are overreaching challenges.
  10. 10. EUR/03/5038066 page 7 These conditions largely affect indicators on staff orientation. Staffing levels, team working and continuity of care bear also on patient safety and clinical effectiveness. Staff orientation should recognize knowledge management and its application i.e. competence and practical skills. d. Responsive governance Responsive governance relates to the hospital role, responsibilities and influence within the health care systems. It is also very sensitive to context and culture. There is also a general lack of literature on responsive governance indicators. Attention should focus on: - continuity of care, focusing on patient perception (patients surveys) or factual issues (discharge letters) - patient discharge planning (over which hospital has control) and - responsiveness to the health needs of the community served. e. Patient centeredness Patient centeredness is usually assessed through patients’ surveys. There are three broad approaches to patient surveys. They measure patient experience with care received, patient satisfaction or the gap between patient’s expectations and perceived experience. The three surveys are complementary and one approach is not advocated over the other. What is really important is that hospitals listen to the patients, use the results from the survey to improve services and do it in a standardized way to allow comparisons between all major sub-dimensions. But it is unrealistic to have a same standardized questionnaire for all hospitals in Europe. f. Safety This transversal dimension is divided into patient, staff and environmental safety. It should link clusters of ideas such as: - patient centeredness and continuity of care and - staff orientation and patient safety: training / adequacy. Sub-dimensions of patient safety include issues such as quality monitoring, development and use of standardized guidelines, drug prescribing and delivery organization, infection control mechanisms, continuity of care, professional qualifications and job content. 3.2. Selection of indicators The selection of indicators was a very complicated process because of the different understanding, systems and purposes. Methodological discussions reflected below facilitated the clarification of different issues and facilitated the selection of indicators. - Indicators or standards? Discussion centred on the definition of an indicator in relation to criteria, standards and norms. On the one hand, some members of the group considered that indicators have to be quantified, continuous variables and related to a denominator. On the other hand, the Ontario definitions include qualitative 0/1 variables, which may present a confusing message to many European
  11. 11. EUR/03/5038066 page 8 countries. It was concluded that assessment of structural characteristics might be more appropriate questions for periodic surveys rather than for continuous measurement purposes. It was decided that ultimately the selection of indicators should be based on functionality rather than academic classifications. This would allow the inclusion of rate/ratio measures, supported by dichotomous questions, which may relate to internal or external organisational assessment. The final set of indicators does not include self-assessment against standards because of contextual validity (standards who proved useful in a setting may not be applicable to all other settings) and burden of tool development. - Evidence and usefulness Evidence of validity may be relatively weak for some measures. For example, the indicator “return to ICU” is widely adopted by hospitals but there is very little hard evidence that this is a construct valid measure. Indicators such as waiting times and caesarean sections rates may be affected by local values, practices and norms. There is no robust evidence that they inform about the quality of clinical practice. Furthermore, even if evidence exists it may not be useful in one country but very useful in others. For instance, the implications of “overtime” in the employment environment of the USA may not be directly transferable to Europe. Similarly, turnover is only an indicator of staff satisfaction and morale in context where nurses have the opportunity to move job and unemployment rates are very low. However, it was agreed that, despite this, some indicators might be valuable for individual hospitals to use as comparative measures between hospitals even if there is no agreement on best practices for clinical decision-making. When no or little evidence is available to support the indicator but that the indicator is considered useful and is used by many hospitals or included in many systems, it has strong face validity. It was agreed that, unless there is clear evidence to the contrary, it is acceptable to recommend measures that are based on usefulness rather than hard scientific evidence. Indicators included in the core set have been selected on the basis of best available evidence and relevance to the European hospitals context. - Content validity of the set as a whole Indicators lists aim to support a balanced and realistic view of hospital performance, progressing from a comprehensive list of known measures to a structured core set which is appropriate in most acute general hospital, and a supplementary “tailored” set for more specific situations or where data were available. Whether the balance is correct or not depends on the agreed aims and use of the indicator set. The core set is more outcomes focused, the tailored set more process focused, and structure is amenable to simple descriptive measures. But many outcomes e.g. staff satisfaction may also be seen as structural inputs to the care process. A good overall mix of input (or structure) / output (or process) / outcomes measures seems the best strategy for having an impact on quality improvement. - Challenges with data collection and operational definitions Ultimately the reliability of hospital performance indicators rests upon the quality of data from a variety of sources, such as:
  12. 12. EUR/03/5038066 page 9 • Clinical and administrative database: need linkage, standardized definitions, coding procedures, clinical validation • Self assessment surveys: much used in Ontario but liable to inconsistent application and thus results • Patient surveys • Staff surveys • Abstraction of medical records: e.g. occurrence screening, retrospective clinical audit A conclusion was that indicators (e.g. complications) should not be excluded merely because they require regularly missing or inaccurate data. On the contrary, they should be used as an opportunity to identify and respond to a need for education and improvement leading to more effective information systems. Similarly, indicators based on data abstracted manually from records should not be excluded; the exercise is educational for staff and improves the quality of the clinical records. If indicators are to be used for international comparisons, operational definitions (and the underlying data) need to be standardised rather than left for local determination within national contexts. Although standardisation between countries should be aimed at, its achievement will be gradual. A commitment to start working for convergence is preferred to the unrealistic aim to seek immediate conformity. International comparisons are a secondary objective, aimed for at a later stage of the project. 3.2.2. Selection of indicators by dimension In this section, indicators are presented crossing vertical dimensions and horizontal perspectives. Clinical effectiveness and patient safety Initially 25 indicators were selected: 11 indicators for the core basket and 14 for the tailored basket (see both baskets on table 2). Indicators which use return home as an endpoint, and which describe merely volume of care were excluded. The following indicators were selected: - Sentinel events especially related to surgery - Mortality in hospital (core) and out of hospital (advanced), disease specific at 30 days e.g. neonatal, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG), hip fracture, Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). - Readmission within 28 days to same hospital (core) or other hospital (tailored) for asthma and diabetes, separated for children and adults - Return to ICU within 48 hours, admission after day surgery - Appropriate use of services: core set caesarean section and prophylactic antibiotic use (by audit of indications rather than overall rate). An advanced level questionnaire could be used to assess availability and application of hospital policies and clinical guidelines. Table 2: Final list of indicators for clinical effectiveness and patient safety Dimension / Sub-dimension Core Tailored Interpretative information Appropriateness of care Caesarean section rate Result of audit of indications for Caesarean section rate in Caesarean section area Conformity of processes of care Result of audit of medical records for Door to needle time
  13. 13. EUR/03/5038066 page 10 prophylactic antibiotic use Percent of patients with CT scan (3 hours) after stroke Percent of AMI patient discharged on aspirin Outcomes of care and safety processes Mortality rates for selected tracers Ditto CORE, with more advanced Readmission rates for selected tracers risk-adjustment procedures and Rate of admission after day surgery follow-up of patients (e.g. different Rate of return to ICU for selected hospitals for readmission and fixed tracer conditions follow-up for mortality) Prevalence of sentinel events Post-tonsillectomy bleeding Reporting procedures for Rate of pressure ulcers for stroke sentinel events, surveillance and fracture patients systems Rate of nosocomial infections Rate of third degree perineal tear Rate of ureteric/bladder damage associated with hysterectomy The tailored basket includes many of the core indicators, but refined by record linkage and adding other specific conditions, for instance readmission within 28 days after surgery, door to needle time, computer assisted tomography scan within 3 hours stroke, acute myocardial infarction patients discharged on aspirin, post-tonsillectomy bleeding, pressure ulcers on neurology (stroke) and orthopaedic wards (hip fracture), hospital-acquired infection (central veinous percutaneous lines, artificial ventilation, total hip replacement), third degree perineal tear, ureteric/bladder damage associated with hysterectomy, diabetes control (see COMAC guidelines). Technical problems arise with tracers due to diagnostic variability, low prevalence rate and small samples. As a result of a focus on clinical groups many small hospitals with statistically small samples may be excluded. Due to this limitation, further work on selection of tracer conditions needs to be done. To support the interpretation of indicators, a preliminary questionnaire on safety structures and standards might include: guidelines development, committees, existence of an emergency trauma register, triage system, blood transfusion-related safety procedure (standard ordering list, haemovigilance), autopsies, technical maintenance e.g. lasers. Other questions and comments need to be taken into consideration: - Sentinel events: are the American Medical Association (AMA) list and definitions of incidents transferable to Europe? Should reporting mechanisms be standardised in order to make any results comparable? Does the prevailing culture promote “zero reporting” and the denial of adverse events? Sentinel events should be used as reflections of safety – by their analysis rather than their measurement. - Appropriateness and conformity: these should be combined as “process of care”, assuming the availability of evidence-based or locally defined guidelines to define what is appropriate. - Staff overtime: this is an invalidated determinant of safety but is an important issue to many hospitals. It may be better focused on nursing care (where evidence is clearer than medical) as a measure of staff welfare rather than patient safety.
  14. 14. EUR/03/5038066 page 11 Efficiency Efficiency needs to be linked to complexity as can be measured by DRG if data is available. It should also include waste of resources e.g. blood, operating rooms, CT scanning, clinical time, X-ray film, and food. The use of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) was discussed and was postponed because its usefulness in the European context was still unclear. A further analysis still needs to be done before AEP can be recommended in a wider context than the one it was designed for. The final selection of efficiency indicators is presented in table 3. Table 3: Final list of indicators for efficiency Dimension / Sub-dimension Core Tailored Interpretative information Appropriateness of services - Ambulatory surgery rate (extension: - Result of audit of medical acute care) for selected Appropriateness Evaluation tracers Protocol (AEP – European version) Productivity (input related to output) - Median length of stay for selected - LOS case-mix adjusted Staff ratios (per tracers - # dosage unit (or cost) professional category - Percent of patients admitted on day antibiotics per patient day and per department) of surgery, for selected tracers - Cost of corporate services per patient day Use of capacity - Average inventory in stock, for - Operating Room Bed occupancy rate pharmaceuticals, blood products, utilization rate surgical disposable equipment - Operating room unused sessions Financial performance - Cash-Flow/Debt Patient centeredness Patient centeredness is primarily assessed through patient surveys. Many hospitals will need help in introducing patient surveys; others may be encouraged to ensure broad coverage for internal benchmarking even if they do not use a standard instrument. Hospitals should include results of their “home-made”, non-standardized, survey into the reporting scheme and monitor evolution over time. Although results may only be used for internal comparisons, the introduction of standardized questionnaires tested for validity and reliability on a large scale are strongly preferred. Table 4: Final list of indicators for patient centeredness Dimension / Sub-dimension Core Tailored Interpretative information Patient centeredness - Average score on overall perception/satisfaction items in patient surveys Interpersonal aspects - Average score on interpersonal aspects items in patient surveys Client orientation: access - Percent of cancelled one- - Average score on access day surgical procedures cancelled items in patient surveys on day of surgery Client orientation: amenities - Average score on basic amenities items in patient surveys Client orientation: comprehensiveness ? ? Client orientation: information and - Average score on empowerment information and empowerment items in patient surveys Client orientation: continuity - Average score on continuity of care items in patient surveys
  15. 15. EUR/03/5038066 page 12 Staff orientation and staff safety The following issues around indicators were raised: - Operational definition of training days: How are “training days” to be defined? How would in-service training be included? Are they measures of structure or of process? Would training budget as a percentage of staff budget be a better measure? Both training days and training budget as a percentage of budget staff were retained after having been considered complementary tools and will be tested through the pilot implementation. - Staff surveys should be a priority for further developments of indicators. However, no indicator based on staff surveys results is included in the core set because even if standardised staff survey tools exist, they are not widely applicable in the participating countries. They will have to be widely adapted to the situation. Moreover, many countries do not have a culture of surveying either patients or staff and would be slow to adopt such recommendation. Table 5: Final list of indicators for staff orientation and staff safety Dimension / Sub-dimension Core Tailored Interpretative information Economic factors Wages paid on time Salary and benefits Variation in workforce Practice environment Results of staff survey on job HR survey on strategies to content adequate staffing to needs Perspective and recognition of individual Number training hours on total needs number of working hours Training budget on total budget dedicated to staff Health promotion and safety initiatives Budget dedicated to staff HP Percent job descriptions with risk activities on total number of full time assessment equivalent staff Staff experience Result of staff survey on organizational climate Behavioural responses Number of days of short-term Turnover rate absenteeism (1 to 3 days) on total number of days contracted (stratified by department and profession) Number of days of long-term absenteeism (more 42 days) on total number of days contracted (stratified by department and profession.) Staff safety Number of work-related injuries Number of assaults on staff (stratified by type) on total number of staff Safety processes Staff excessive working hours Responsive governance and environmental safety Waiting time must be analysed by urgency and interpreted to discriminate between the efficiency of waiting list management as opposed to the stewardship of health system resources. Potential medical conditions should be added to potential surgical procedures in waiting times.
  16. 16. EUR/03/5038066 page 13 Table 6: Final list of indicators for responsive governance and environmental safety Dimension / Sub-dimension Core Tailored Interpretative information Responsive governance and environmental safety System integration and continuity - Average score on items on - Result of audit of discharge Description of roles and perceived continuity in patient preparation functions implemented to surveys - Result of Appropriateness foster integration of care - Percent discharge letters sent to Evaluation Protocol for geriatric GPs within 2 weeks patients Public Health Orientation: access - Waiting time for selected - Score on items on Description of strategies tracers (median & variance) perceived financial access in implemented for the patient surveys management of waiting list Public Health Orientation: Health - % women breastfeeding at - % AMI and CHF with lifestyle Self-assessment of WHO promotion discharge counselling (audit) documented Baby Friendly standards in record Equity and ethics ? ? Environmental concerns ? ? Summary definitions of the core set of indicators Table 7: The final set of indicators and their definition, numerators and description are included in Table 7 Dimension / Sub- Definition of the indicator dimension 1- Clinical effectiveness Primary caesarean section delivery Numerator: Number of cases within the denominator with caesarean section Denominator: Number of cases with first time deliveries Alternative definition: caesarean section deliveries rate primigravidae Numerator: total number of caesarean section delivery cases Processes of care Denominator: total number of deliveries Appropriateness of prophylactic antibiotic use for selected tracer procedures Numerator: Number of patients who receive prophylactic antibiotics in adherence to accepted guidelines for selected procedures Denominator: Total number of patients for selected procedures in the random sample of medical records audited Readmission for selected tracer conditions / procedures within the same hospital Numerator: Total number of patients readmitted to the emergency department of the same hospital within a fixed follow-up period relevant to initial condition procedure and with a readmission diagnosis relevant Outcomes of processes to the initial care of care Denominator: Total number of patients admitted for selected tracer condition (e.g. asthma, diabetes, pneumonia, CABG) Exclusion criteria: Patients admitted for the same tracer condition who died during the first spell Admission after one-day surgery Numerator: Number of patients transferred from the day procedure facility following an operation procedure (by selected procedure, e.g. cardiac catheterization, digestive, respiratory or urinary system diagnostic endoscopy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one-day cataract surgery, curettage and dilatation of uterus) to an overnight facility, directly or within 12 hours Denominator: Total number of patients who have an operation / procedure performed in the procedure facility Exclusion criteria: Readmission for further planned operation to be excluded from both numerator and denominator
  17. 17. EUR/03/5038066 page 14 Return to ICU Numerator: Total number of patients with selected conditions / procedures discharged from intensive care unit who return to ICU within 48 hours Denominator: Total number of patients with selected conditions / procedures discharged alive from ICU 2- Efficiency Ambulatory surgery use Numerator: Number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, one-day cataract surgeries, curettage and dilatation of the uterus and oncology procedures performed in the day procedure facility (no overnight stay expected) over a period Denominator: Total number of procedures over the same period Appropriateness Admissions on day of surgery Numerator: Total number of admissions on day of surgery Denominator: Total number of patients admitted for surgery Median (or average) length of stay for specific procedures and conditions: hip replacement, CABG, diabetes and asthma, appendectomy Numerator: Total number of days for specific procedures and conditions: hip replacement, CABG, diabetes and asthma, appendectomy Input related to output Denominator: Total number of patients admitted for hip replacement, CABG, diabetes and asthma, appendectomy Exclusion criteria: transfer to / from other hospitals. Inventory in stock Numerator: Total value inventory at the end of the year for pharmaceuticals, blood products, surgical disposable equipment Denominator: Total expenditures for pharmaceuticals, blood products, surgical disposable equipment / 365 days Use of capacity Operating rooms unused sessions Numerator: Number of sessions used. Denominator: Number of sessions staffed Exclusion: Night surgical session (8 PM – 8 AM?) 3- Staff orientation (or staff responsiveness) Practice environment Staff training Training days Numerator: total number of training hours Perspectives and Denominator: total number of working hours recognition of individual needs Stratification proposed: by professional category Training budget Numerator: total amount of budget dedicated to staff training Denominator: total amount of budget dedicated to staff Health Promotion budget Health Promotion Numerator: total amount of budget dedicated to staff health promotion activities activities Denominator: total number of EFT staff
  18. 18. EUR/03/5038066 page 15 Absenteeism Short-term absenteeism Consequences Numerator: total number of short-term absenteeism days (from 1 to 3 days) Denominator: total number of working days Desegregation proposed: to be considered at hospital level but also stratified by department and professional category Long term absenteeism Numerator: total number of long-term absenteeism days (> 42days) over a period Denominator: total number of working days over a period Stratification proposed: to be considered at hospital level but also stratified by department and professional category 4- Responsive governance System / community Perceived continuity through patient survey (see patient centeredness) integration Discharge letters to general practitioners Numerator: Number of discharge letters sent to general practitioners within a maximum period of two weeks Denominator: Total number of discharge Waiting time for selected procedures and conditions Variance of waiting time for specific surgical procedures and conditions: total hip replacement, hallux valgus, varicose veins surgery, breast cancer surgery, cataract surgery, cardiac surgery (differentiated by degree of emergency) Public health orientation Breastfeeding at discharge Numerator: Total number of women breastfeeding at discharge Denominator: Total number of deliveries Criteria for inclusion: singleton, born at greater or equal 37 weeks, weight >2,500 grams Environmental safety 5- Patient centeredness Score on patient experience/satisfaction questionnaire, including items on: - Overall perception / satisfaction Client orientation - Interpersonal aspects - Client orientation: information and empowerment - Client orientation: continuity Cancelled one day surgical procedures Numerator: Number of patients booked for a one day surgical procedure cancelled on the day of the procedure or after admission Respect for patients Denominator: Total number of patients booked for a one-day surgical procedure
  19. 19. EUR/03/5038066 page 16 3.3 Feedback of results to participating hospitals The main message to convey is that indicators should not be interpreted in isolation because: - the six dimensions are interrelated; - each dimension has its own conceptual model and sub-dimensions; - each indicator relates to other indicators within its dimension or other dimensions. Trade-offs between indicators need to be highlighted and being taken into consideration when reporting. Reporting is a crucial step towards the interpretation of results of indicators as part of a process of quality improvement. The discussions on the reporting tool, focused on its function as a retrospective, strategic summary (“scorecard”) or as a real-time operational system (“dashboard”). The second approach was chosen for this project. Moreover, the term “scorecard” implies a score, which is very much value-loaded and implies a judgement. Though the opposite message should be conveyed: indicators cannot be used as definite judgement on hospital’s quality, they should be used as flags and as a starting point in a quality improvement process. The purpose of the balanced dashboard is to provide information to guide decision-making and quality improvement. Therefore the reporting scheme will relate results to external references as well as internal comparisons over time, and give guidance on interpretation. The structure of a balanced dashboard to report results to participating hospitals was proposed. Indicators are organized in “embedded levels”. On the first page, a synthetic overview over all dimensions is given. The following pages focus on specific dimensions and the dashboard ends up with a detailed description of each individual indicator with comparisons with different references, a focus on evolution over the past assessments, identification of relevant variables and other indicators that may influence or be influenced by. The specifications of the dashboard will initially be defined during the field implementation of the project in a limited number of countries. Constant feedback from the field will be incorporated to ensure that the tool is really valuable and usable by future participating hospitals. The design of reports should comply with the structure of accountability and authority within the institution. Implementation, the Danish experience Two current projects (one national, one in Copenhagen hospitals) provide practical experience of the development and use of clinical indicators relying largely on routine clinical data held in disease specific registers. These produce monthly and quarterly reports focused by clinical specialty with comparative data and thresholds defined by peer group providers. Evaluation showed that clinicians need to learn skills in the use and interpretation of data as well as inducement to supervise the quality of clinical data abstraction and coding.
  20. 20. EUR/03/5038066 page 17 4. Conclusions 4.1. Summary of products A number of products were developed in the frame of this project: - identification of WHO strategic orientations related to hospital performance - emerging conceptual model of performance standards and measures, identification of the key dimensions of hospital performance (Product 1) - a framework for evidence-based indicator selection (Product 2) - growing catalogue of performance standards and indicators, and review of the literature on their importance and usefulness, reliability and validity, contextual factors, current uses, etc. (Product 3) - the definition of a core set of indicators that represent the different dimensions and sub- dimensions of performance in a balanced way (Product 3) - the identification of the relationship betweens indicators within dimension and between dimensions and exogenous factors that affect them (Product 4) - an insight into the importance, usefulness, impact on quality and general availability of potential indicators in ten European countries, through a survey in 10 countries (May 2003) - a framework for the design of a reporting instrument called “balanced dashboard” (Product 5). After having agreed on the final selection of indicators, the following orientations were agreed on: - indicators are not measures but flags signalling potential problems that need a deep analysis of variations and understanding of factors that influence them. These variations may either reflect variations in quality of care, or may just reflect variations in the quality of data, or variations in the context and exogenous variables. - evidence is often used as an absolute value, but the discussions made clear that evidence may change over time and may depend on the context and not be of global value. - specific training is needed in skills for handling complex tools; while simple tools could be handled without advanced expertise. Some target countries do not have a tradition for using complex tools in quality management of health care, so the hospital performance model must be tailored to them. - the aim of this project is to develop a model giving maximal value for quality improvement at hospital level and not especially for international benchmarking. A tool for performance measurement may deviate from its purpose and therefore it must be carefully assessed if the tool developed could have any unwanted incentives built in. This must be considered carefully in the pilot implementation period.
  21. 21. EUR/03/5038066 page 18 4.2. Recommendations on data related issues 4.2.1. Collection and quality control of hospital data Collection and quality control of hospital data should be the responsibility of each hospital; i.e. clinical data capture, coding, validation. This could be monitored by meta-indicators such as average number of ICD codes per discharge for each hospital or by showing compliance with agreed internal processes and checks (such as “data accreditation”). If hard measures are not available for quality control of hospital data, a self-assessment of data quality will be performed by participating hospitals. Regarding its resources and overall objective, the role of WHO might be limited in terms of concrete implementation support for collecting, validating, aggregating and presenting indicators. The role of WHO is to support its Member States to develop national capacities for assessing hospital performance. The indicators could be used (piloted initially) by individual hospitals and by aggregated databases at national level. This will support the simultaneous validation of the model, the indicators and the implementation. 4.2.2. Data aggregation Data aggregation ideally would be done by an independent agency at national or international level. To maintain objectivity, this agency would audit data, standardise aggregation; make adjustments and the calculation of distributions, norms and significance. The agency needs for time and resources should be realistically projected and funded. However even if hospital performance networks are configured at national level, they should be linked at international level. WHO could support this linkage either by directly or through other institutions or NGOs as the International Hospital Federation. In addition to data aggregation, there will be a continuing need for revising guidance on the application and interpretation of the indicators. The demonstration of “success stories” will depend heavily on internal assessment and external benchmarking that will have to be adjusted for risk and case-mix, and stratified to promote genuine peer comparison. In the short term, reference comparisons will be mostly internal until results are available for aggregation and pooling. 4.3. Recommendations on roles and responsibilities for piloting the framework for hospital performance assessment 4.3.1. Beneficiaries The main beneficiaries are the hospitals themselves. The first contact should be the chief executive or governing body of an institution, although it is important to ensure that clinicians are involved, at least enough to be committed to contributing to the accuracy of clinical data. This assumes that managers actually have the authority to manage and to improve performance.
  22. 22. EUR/03/5038066 page 19 For this reason, pilot sites need to be selected on the basis of shared objectives and timescale and managers need to be able to take executive decisions to respond to the issues addressed by the indicators. Governments could also support the project by providing funding for the initial testing and validation of data and development of norms and benchmarks. Even if government funding is not provided, hospitals may have difficulties in keeping the resulting data from their regulatory bodies. It is therefore important to make clear the limitations of the indicators when applied for purposes other than internal management. Hospital-specific results are not for public reporting. However, a communication plan focusing on the public to describe the nature of the project and subsequent quality improvement actions could be designed by hospitals and national bodies. The initiative is fostering quality improvement actions and hence the public will indirectly benefit from the project. A compromise on explicit conditions including data quality, information management, use of indicators etc. should be fostered with WHO European Hospital Performance project. Mechanisms for monitoring and reporting back to WHO should also be established. 4.3.2. Project management/leadership Hospitals need to define terms of reference to identify the general requirements on skills and experience, including leadership and credible academic links. The leadership role may correspond to a senior manager or clinician, assuming he/she has the required technical skills. The project manager would need to be “the charismatic” leader and should be supported by a technical team. A national level committee or group may be valuable at governmental level (especially if the project is centrally sponsored), or through an NGO such as hospital or medical association where these exist (especially if private and public hospitals are to be involved). 4.3.3. Selection of indicators at local /national level There should not be a minimum number of indicators collected by individual hospitals in order to participate in the WHO programme, but sites should be strongly encouraged to take as many indicators as possible and to avoid the misuse of data. There would be no upper limit to the number of indicators in the “tailored” basket, to which any existing local indicators could be added. In practice, hospitals are likely to adopt any indicators that can be derived at minimal costs and effort from their existing data, but they should be strongly advised to include some core measures – preferably all – in each dimension and stick to the strategy of the project, which consists in assessing interrelated indicators in the context of the overall performance of the hospital. Certainly each country should be encouraged to identify some hospitals that will collect data for all of the core measures.
  23. 23. EUR/03/5038066 page 20 4.3.6. Training implications Most potential users would not have the necessary to make effective use of the proposed indicators. There must be arrangements for initial and continuing training for pilot sites, and for cascading this at national level. WHO will prepare a user manual (in process), but local induction will be essential for the principal users. An initial two days workshop for hospital project leaders in each country would facilitate understanding and implementation. A further training of data technical staff and coding staff in technical procedures and in meeting data accreditation standards will also be needed. This could be integrated with formal management and clinical training but can also be achieved informally though user networks. 4.4. General recommendations for implementation of the framework for hospital performance assessment The following points were agreed on: - It is important to identify the project leader (senior managers, clinicians, other) to avoid the political barriers and seek local support from authorities - The validity of the model and indicators (the “product”) should be evaluated – including its uptake and impact on hospital performance (improvement as well as perverse behaviour) - over a period of defined years - Regarding the pilot of the overall model, it should be referred to implementation rather than pilot testing (it will avoid the idea of scientific validation but will rather insist on the practical use and refinement of the model) - The implementation should be designed according to the national context (i.e. a country- by-country approach) - Intergovernmental relationship between WHO and potential partners e.g. NGO such as the IHF should be considered for possibly hosting in the future a European database allowing benchmarking between the hospitals of the different European countries - Develop expanded guidance on the collection and interpretation of individual indicators - Identify the resources (time, data, training, money) which hospitals need to implement the package 4.5. The steps forward Hospital performance is an ongoing work and indicators will need to be regularly reviewed in light of new evidence. Remaining gaps that reduce the content validity of the core set were identified, such as indicators of comprehensiveness and internal continuity are lacking. When such indicators will become available they will need to be included in the set. In summary, the group has developed a prototype but has not tested it or defined “after-sales” service or longer-term development. Remaining actions will include:
  24. 24. EUR/03/5038066 page 21 - develop user manual, - define data quality standards and capacity needs for hospital data systems, - define selection criteria for hospitals participating to the pilot implementation, - define a strategy for cascade training of hospital project leaders, - develop and maintain participant networks, - identify agencies or mechanisms for data validation and aggregation, - design scope and schedule of programme for development and revision of indicators. Within these actions, the next steps agreed upon are the following: - Refinement of the indicator model and the specifications of individual measures using, where available, existing published guidance on numerators, denominators, sample frames, coding criteria and interpretation notes (January 2004 workshop). - Develop an introductory manual to describe the project (as work in progress), the conceptual model, some well-tested and agreed indicators and examples of others which need further development - Further presentation of each indicator selected in the core or tailored basket. Include preface guidance on each indicator to identify the values and related standards. - Development of educational support as a primary product for pilot sites and then other users. - Pilot implementation in 6 countries in a limited number of hospitals to evaluate the usefulness of the framework for hospitals and identify the resources (time, data, training, money) which hospitals need to implement the package. Define expected outcomes of the pilot implementation. - Run three-day workshop for country representatives (January 2004 workshop). - As participants and experience grow, a mechanism should be developed to evaluate the indicators (technical) and the impact of the project (behavioural); this could be channelled through periodic meetings of user hospitals to pool and exchange data and indicator results. A number of WHO Member States showed interest in hospital performance management during 2003, and are potential users of the indicator set; the maximization of the use of this model for country-specific work was consequently addressed.
  25. 25. EUR/03/5038066 page 22 Annex 1 SCOPE AND PURPOSE June 2003 The WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona, Division of Country Support, is organizing a third workshop on Hospital Performance measurement from 13-14 June 2003. Continuing the second meeting, held in March 2003, this workshop is part of a WHO initiative to develop a Hospital Quality Improvement Strategy to support Member States in the implementation of Hospital performance assessment strategies and use of key indicators. The project has three main objectives: 1. Collect evidence on the use of hospital performance assessment models to support countries in their implementation. 2. Support the Member States for producing benchmarking tools to allow hospitals to compare themselves to peer groups in order to improve the quality of care provided. 3. Build an experts’ network on hospital performance assessment to support country implementation and analyze outcomes. The work will be done in three stages: analysis of existing models worldwide and definition of a model, congruent with WHO’s policy orientations, which could be used throughout Europe; piloting of the agreed model, validated by groups of experts in a range of different countries (between 6 and 9 countries); and development of guidelines to facilitate country implementation. Conclusions of the first workshop were the proposal of generic definitions adapted to the context of this project, definitions of key dimensions of hospital performance promoting a comprehensive model of hospital performance measurement and recommendations regarding the design of a benchmarking network allowing participants to compare their own performance to peer hospitals through relevant performance indicators. The group of experts agreed on six key dimensions for assessing hospital performance: • Clinical effectiveness • Safety • Patient centeredness • Production efficiency • Staff orientation • Responsive governance During the second workshop, the expansion of the key dimensions of hospital performance, the design and the test of a framework to select evidence-based performance indicators, the review and first assessment of performance indicators, and the pilot test of the future set of indicators were discussed.
  26. 26. EUR/03/5038066 page 23 The following conclusions were reached: progress was made in the definition of the main concepts of hospital performance; agreement on the sub-dimensions of hospital performance; agreement on a framework for selecting evidence-based indicators and on the orientations of the pilot test. The purpose of the third workshop will be to: i. discuss the results of the questionnaire on indicators conducted in 25 European countries in May 2003; ii. select the set of indicators and performance tools which will be pilot tested in a range of European countries (October 2003-April 2004); iii. discuss the overall model of Hospital performance, agree on all definitions, dimensions, sub-dimensions and on the general architecture of the model; and iv. discuss the orientations and agree on the principles of the pilot test. September 2003 The WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona, Division of Country Support, is organizing a fourth and final workshop on Hospital Performance measurement from 12-13 September 2003. Continuing the third meeting, held in June 2003, this workshop is part of a WHO initiative to develop a Hospital Quality Improvement Strategy to support Member States in the implementation of Hospital performance assessment strategies and use of key indicators. The project has three main objectives: 1. Collect evidence on the use of hospital performance assessment models to support countries in their implementation 2. Support the Member States for producing benchmarking tools to allow hospitals to compare them to peer groups in order to improve the quality of care provided 3. Build an experts’ network on hospital performance assessment to support country implementation and analyse outcomes The work will be done in three stages: analysis of existing models worldwide and definition of a model, congruent with WHO’s policy orientations, which could be used throughout Europe; piloting of the agreed model, validated by groups of experts in a range of different countries (between 6 and 9 countries); and development of guidelines to facilitate country implementation. The following outcomes were achieved between January 2003 and June 2003: - Identification of the key dimensions of hospital performance assessment - Identification of WHO strategic orientations related to the project - Clarification of the key dimensions and definition of the general architecture of the model - Review of literature on hospital performance indicators and definition of a framework to pre-select evidence-based indicators - Survey on the importance, usefulness, impact on quality and general availability of potential indicators by hospital managers in different European countries (May 2003 – 12 European countries) - Pre-selection of performance indicators on a scientific basis - Selection of the sets of indicators and completion of the first draft of the model
  27. 27. EUR/03/5038066 page 24 The overall purpose of the fourth workshop is to finalize the design of a balanced scorecard model, which could be pilot tested in 6 European countries. The three major objectives of the workshop will be to: 1. Finalize the core set of performance indicators included the balanced scorecard and characterize the trade-offs between the selected indicators 2. Design a dashboard (balanced scorecard model) enhancing evidence-based management and related challenges 3. Consequently define relevant strategies for the preparation of the pilot test The expected detailed outcomes of the workshop are: For the first objective 1.1. To reach an agreement on the final core set of indicators to be included in the balance scorecard 1.2. To agree on the trade-offs between hospital performance indicators and selected in the core set For the second objective 2.1. To reach an agreement on the design of a dashboard enhancing evidence-based management 2.2. To agree on the main challenges and strategies for facilitating the appropriation of the results For the third objective 3.1. To agree on the strategies for preparing the pilot test in six European countries (implementation test of the balanced scorecard in Albania, Denmark, France, Germany, Georgia, Lithuania)
  28. 28. EUR/03/5038066 page 25 Annex 2 PROVISIONAL PROGRAMME Friday, 13 June 2003 09.00 – 09.10 Introduction: Jeremy Veillard 09.10 – 09.20 Outline of the project: Jeremy Veillard 09.20 – 09.30 Discussion 09.30 – 09.50 Theoretical frame of Hospital Performance Assessment: Niek Klazinga 09.50 – 10.30 Discussion Chair: Vahe Kazandjian 10.30 – 11.00 COFFEE BREAK 11.00 – 11.30 Presentation of the pre-selected list of indicators: François Champagne and Ann-Lise Guisset 11.30 – 12.00 Discussion Chair: Brian Collopy 12.00 – 12.15 Presentation of the results of the European questionnaire on indicators 12.15 – 12.45 Discussion Chair: Brian Collopy 12.45 – 14.00 LUNCH BREAK 14.00 – 16.00 Sub working groups – selection of indicators 16.00 – 16.30 COFFEE BREAK 16.30 – 18.00 Sub working groups – selection of indicators (continuation) 18.00 Closure of the first day Saturday, 14 June 2003 09.00 – 10.30 Sub working groups – selection of indicators (continuation) 10.30 – 11.00 COFFEE BREAK 11.00 – 13.00 Plenary session – presentation of the indicators selected by the working groups Chair: Ann Rooney 13.00 – 14.00 LUNCH BREAK 14.00 – 14.30 Synthesis and identification of major issues François Champagne and Ann-Lise Guisset 14.30 – 15.30 Discussion Chair: Niek Klazinga 15.30 – 16.00 COFFEE BREAK 16.00 – 16.15 First orientations for pilot testing the set of indicators: Jeremy Veillard 16.15 – 16.45 Discussion Chair: Dr Pierre Lombrail 16.45 – 16.55 Wrap-up of the meeting: Charles Shaw 16.55 – 17.00 Conclusions: Jeremy Veillard 17.00 Closure of the meeting Friday, 12 September 2003
  29. 29. EUR/03/5038066 page 26 09.00 – 09.15 Opening and introduction: Jeremy Veillard Selection and interrelations of indicators 09.15 – 10.00 Selection of the core set of indicators: principles, choices and main challenges Ann-Lise Guisset and François Champagne 10.00 – 10.30 Discussion Chair: Vahé Kazandjian 10.30 – 11.00 COFFEE BREAK 11.00 – 13.00 Discussion (continuation) Chair: Vahé Kazandjian 13.00 – 14.00 LUNCH BREAK 14.00 – 14.30 Interrelations and trade-offs between performance indicators selected in the core set Ann-Lise Guisset and François Champagne 14.30 – 15.30 Discussion Chair: Niek Klazinga 15.30 – 16.00 COFFEE BREAK Appropriation of the results and related challenges 16.00 – 16.45 Identification of main challenges: from indicators to interpretation to action Ann-Lise Guisset and François Champagne 16.45 – 17.45 Discussion Chair: Adalsteinn Brown 17.45 – 18.00 Wrap-up: Svend Jorgensen 18.00 Closure of the first day: Jeremy Veillard Saturday, 13 September 2003 09.00 – 09.30 Educational aspects on assessing hospital performance: Part 1: Presentation of the dashboard 09.30 – 10.30 Discussion Chair: Adalsteinn Brown 10.30 – 11.00 COFFEE BREAK 11.00 – 11.30 Educational aspects on assessing hospital performance: part 2: tools for facilitating the use of the dashboard and preliminary steps for pilot testing the model Ann-Lise Guisset and François Champagne 11.30 – 13.00 Discussion Chair: Johann Kjaergaard 13.00 – 13.15 Wrap-up of the workshop: Charles Shaw 13.15 – 13.30 Conclusions and future steps: Jeremy Veillard 13.30 Closure of the workshop
  30. 30. EUR/03/5038066 page 27 Annex 3 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Temporary Advisers Mr Onye Arah Telephone: +31 20 566 5049 Health Services & Systems Research. Room K2- Fax: +31206972316 203, Department of Social Medicine E-mail: o.a.arah@amc.uva.nl Division of Clinical Methods and Public Health Academic Medical Center P.O. Box 22700 1100 DE Amsterdam NETHERLANDS Dr Adalsteinn D. Brown Telephone: +1 416 946 5023 Department of Health Policy, Management and Fax: +1 416 978 1466 Evaluation E-mail: adalsteinn.brown@utoronto.ca University of Toronto 150 College Street, Fitzgerald Bldg., Room 147A M5S 1A8 Toronto, ON CANADA Dr François Champagne Telephone: +15143432226 Professeur titulaire Fax: +15143432207 GRIS et Département d'administration de la santé E-mail: francois.champagne@umontreal.ca Université de Montreal B.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville H3C 3J7 Montreal, Quebec CANADA Dr Brian T. Collopy Telephone: +61 3 9419 3377 Director Fax: +61 3 9416 1192 CQM Consultants E-mail: cqm@sprint.net.au Level 4. 55 Victoria Pde Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 AUSTRALIA Mr Thomas Custers Telephone: +31205664786 Department of Social Medicine Fax: +31206972316 Academic Medical Center E-mail: t.custers@amc.uva.nl P.O. Box 22700 1100 DE Amsterdam NETHERLANDS Ms Pilar Gavilán Telephone: +34 93 482 43 33 Responsible for the Projects Unit Fax: +34 93 482 45 27 Directorate on Organization, Information Systems, E-mail: pgavilan@ics.scs.es Projects and Evaluation (DOSIPA) Catalan Institute for Health Gran via de les Corts Catalanes, 587 08007 Barcelona SPAIN
  31. 31. EUR/03/5038066 page 28 Dr Alicia Granados Navarrete Telephone: +34 93 200 22 53 c/ Alfons XII, 23-27, 3r 3a Fax: 08006 Barcelona E-mail: aliciagranados3@hotmail.com SPAIN Dr Ann-Lise Guisset Telephone: GRIS et Département d'administration de la santé Fax: Université de Montreal E-mail: ann-lise.guisset@umontreal.ca B.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville H3C 3J7 Montreal, Quebec CANADA Dr Svend Juul Jørgensen Telephone: +34 93 241 82 70 WHO Consultant Fax: +34 93 241 82 71 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: sjj@es.euro.who.int Marc Aureli, 22-36 08006 Barcelona SPAIN Mr Vytenis Kalibatas Telephone: +370 37 32 63 23 Deputy Managing Director Fax: +370 37 32 66 01 Kaunas Medical University Hospital E-mail: kalibata@kmu.lt Eiveniu str. 2 LT-3007 Kaunas LITHUANIA Dr Vahé Kazandjian Telephone: +1 410 379 9540 President Fax: +1 410 379 9558 Center for Performance Sciences (CPS) E-mail: Vkazandjian@cpsciences.com 6820 Deerpath Road Elkridge, MD 21075-6234 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Dr Johan Kjaergaard Telephone: +45 3531 2852 Head of Unit for Clinical Quality Fax: +45 3531 6317 Copenhagen Hospital Corporation E-mail: jk02@bbh.hosp.dk Bispebjerg Bakke 20C 2400 København NV DENMARK Dr Niek Klazinga Telephone: +31 20 5664892 Department of Social Medicine Fax: +31 20 6972316 Academic Medical Center E-mail: n.s.klazinga@amc.uva.nl P.O.Box 22700 (Meibergdreef, 9) 1100 DD Amsterdam NETHERLANDS
  32. 32. EUR/03/5038066 page 29 Dr Pierre Lombrail Telephone: +33 2 40 84 69 20 Director Fax: +33 2 40 84 69 21 Pôle Information Médicale, d'Evaluation & de E-mail: pierre.lombrail@chu-nantes.fr Santé Publique (PIMESP) Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes. Hôpital Saint Jacques. 85, rue Saint Jacques 44 093 Nantes cedex 1 FRANCE Ms Ehadu Mersini Telephone: +355 4 364614 Chief of the Planning and Medical Programs Sector Fax: +355 4 364270 Hospitals Department E-mail: ehadmers@hotmail.com Ministry of Health Tirana ALBANIA Dr Etienne Minvielle Telephone: +33144236000 INSERM Fax: +33145856856 101 rue de Tolbiac E-mail: minviel@kb.inserm.fr 75654 Paris Cedex 13 FRANCE Ms Anne L. Rooney Telephone: +1-630-268-7445 Executive Director Fax: 1-630-268-7405 International Services E-mail: ARooney@jcrinc.com Joint Commission Resources, Inc. One Lincoln Centre, Suite 1340 IL 60181 Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Dr Henner Schellschmidt Telephone: +49 228 843 135 Wissenschaftliches Institut der AOK Fax: +49 228 843 144 Kortrijker Str. 1 E-mail: 53177 Bonn henner.schellschmidt@wido.bv.aok.de GERMANY Dr Rosa Suñol Telephone: +34 93 207 66 08 Foundation Avedis Donabedian Fax: +34 93 459 38 64 Provença 293 pral E-mail: fad@fadq.org 08037 Barcelona SPAIN Rapporteur
  33. 33. EUR/03/5038066 page 30 Dr Charles Shaw Telephone: +44 20 7307 2879 Director, Audit and Quality Fax: +44 20 7307 2422 CASPE Research E-mail: cshaw@kehf.org.uk 11-13 Cavendish Square London W1G 0AN UNITED KINGDOM Observer Professor Mohammed Hoosen Cassimjee Telephone: +27 33 3879000 Head Fax: +27 33 3979768 Department of Family Medicine E-mail: professorcassimjee@mail.com Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Hospital Complex and Midlands Region Northdale Hospital. Old Greytown Road. Private Bag X9006 Pietermaritzburg 3200 SOUTH AFRICA World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Dr Manuela Brusoni Telephone: +34932418270 Intern Fax: +34932418271 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: mbr@es.euro.who.int; Division of Country Support manuela.brusoni@uni-bocconi.it c/ Marc Aureli, 22-36 08006 Barcelona SPAIN Dr Mila Garcia-Barbero Telephone: +34932418270 Head of the Office Fax: +34932418271 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: mgb@es.euro.who.int Division of Country Support c/ Marc Aureli, 22-36 08006 Barcelona SPAIN Mr Oliver Gröne Telephone: +34932418270 Technical Officer, Health Services Fax: +34932418271 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: ogr@es.euro.who.int Division of Country Support Dr Isuf Kalo Telephone: +45 39 17 12 65 Regional Adviser for Quality of Health Systems Fax: +45 39 17 18 64 Division of Country Support E-mail: ika@who.dk 8, Scherfigsvej DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø DENMARK
  34. 34. EUR/03/5038066 page 31 Mr Sergio Pracht Telephone: +34932418270 STP- Patients Pathways Fax: +34932418271 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: spr@es.euro.who.int Division of Country Support Dr Carles Triginer Borrell Telephone: +34932418270 Technical Officer, Emergency Medical Services Fax: +34932418271 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: ctr@es.euro.who.int Division of Country Support Mr Jeremy Veillard Telephone: +34 93 241 82 70 Technical Officer, Hospital Management Fax: +34 93 241 82 71 WHO Office for Integrated Health Care Services E-mail: jveillard@es.euro.who.int Division of Country Support

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