GET YOURSELF SCREENED,
THAT WAY YOU'LL KNOW
AND CAN DO SOMETHING
WHAT IS THE POSITION WITH HEPATITIS B
AND C WORLDWIDE?
HOW ARE THE VIRAL FORMS OF HEPATITIS
Hepatitis is very widespread - 410 million people worldwide
are chronic hepatitis B or C carriers and the viruses kill almost
a million people every year. They are especially common in
Africa, Southern Asia (China, India, etc.) and Eastern Europe.
There are 500,000 people who are affected in France and
almost half of them do not know that they are infected.
There are several forms of viral hepatitis: A, B, C, Delta and E.
Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and sexual ﬂuids,
hepatitis C only through blood.
They are highly resistant even to the open air (alcohol and
bleach do not kill them) and there are many situations in
which they can be transmitted:
Human contact (touching)
Tattooing, piercings, acupuncture scarring
The use of unsterilised or poorly sterilised equipment by the
Dental treatment with equipment which has been reused without
Sharing objects such as razors, toothbrushes, etc.
Sharing equipment when taking drugs
Low < 2%
High > 8%
O No risk
MAP OF THE WORLD SHOWING
THE HEPATITIS C EPIDEMIC
Low < 1,5%
K. Mohd Hanaﬁah et al. Global epidemiology
of hepatitis V virus infection: new estimates of age-speciﬁc
antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology, Month 2012, 1-10.
Mother-to-child transmission at birth
J.J. Ott et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus
infection: New estimates of age-speciﬁc HBsAg seroprevalence
and endemicity. Vaccine 30 (2012) 2212– 2219
Unprotected sexual intercourse
Prevalence of chronic infections
MAP OF THE WORLD SHOWING
THE HEPATITIS B EPIDEMIC
High > à 3,5%
+ Low risk
+++ High risk
There is an effective vaccine against hepatitis B. The best thing
is to be vaccinated from birth. Not only does getting vaccinated
as soon as possible offer lifelong protection for yourself, it also
protects the people you love.
The vaccine will protect you from HBV but not from other STIs1
or from hepatitis C, so make sure that you protect yourself and
your partner and always use a condom whenever you have sex.
1 STI: Sexually transmitted infection
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HEPATITIS B
OR C INFECTION?
In most cases, HBV2 or HCV3 infection goes unnoticed because
it does not produce any symptoms. So be on your guard and
see a doctor if you have been in an at-risk situation or have the
When the infection does produce symptoms, these can include
fatigue, a temperature, a yellowing of the eyes and skin
(jaundice), or itching.
TO FIND OUT: SCREENING
If you have been in at least one of the at-risk situations or have had
any of the symptoms, it is important to undergo screening. In
France there are two ways in which you can get yourself screened:
> By going to a CDAG4 or a CIDDIST5 . There will be a medical
consultation, a blood sample will be taken and you will get the
results of your tests, all in one place. The CDAGs and CIDDISTs are
anonymous and free of charge and they will not ask you for your
identity card or social security card.
> By going to see a doctor who will give you a prescription.
If you are looking for a CDAG or a CIDDIST close to where you live
Call the 0 800 004 372 freephone number (calls are free from a landline telephone)
WHAT SHOULD YOU DO FAIRE AFTER
If the analyses have not picked up any traces of HBV, you
should get yourself vaccinated in order to protect yourself
against any future infection - talk to a doctor who will tell you
how to go about this.
If the analyses have detected a virus, you will need to have a
blood sample taken to ﬁnd out how the infection is developing.
When you have contracted hepatitis B or C, there are two
possible scenarios. After the incubation and acute infection
> You may get well spontaneously. This means that your
immune system has responded to the attack from the hepatitis
B or C virus and beaten it. The fact that you will have an
antibody against HBV will mean you are now protected against
any further infections. This is not the case with hepatitis C, as
the antibodies do not protect you and another infection is
always possible. This is the scenario in most cases among
> Your infection has set in and after six months it has become
chronic. This case of chronic hepatitis B or C means that you
will need to see a hepatologist who will prescribe additional
examinations and treatment, if necessary.
Both hepatitis B and C
are very common
so get yourself screened!
There is a vaccine against
hepatitis B, so get yourself
If you do have chronic hepatitis B or C, remember that there
are effective treatments available!
The hepatitis B and C viruses are both transmitted through
blood. Unlike hepatitis B, hepatitis C is not an STI and cannot
be transmitted by a kiss or unprotected sexual intercourse.
Authors: Patrick Favrel, Michelle Sizorn, Johann Volant
Grphic design : ouf-atelier.com
Printed by: Fargier Fabrication
Print run: 2500 copies
Also available in French, Bulgarian, Russian and Mandarin
Brochure produced with the support of
2 HBV: Hepatitis B virus
3 HCV: Hepatitis C virus
4 CDAG: anonymous, free screening centre
5 CIDDIST: information and screening centre for sexually transmitted infections
With full editorial independence