HIV and AIDS.ppt


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HIV and AIDS.ppt

  1. 1. HIV, AIDS, & Pregnancy
  2. 2. What are HIV and AIDS? <ul><li>Human immunodeficiency virus . </li></ul><ul><li>HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a life-threatening disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks the body's immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys infection-fighting cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When these cells are destroyed, the immune system can no longer defend the body against infections and cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV infection becomes AIDS when patient lose the ability to fight off serious infections or tumors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>These infections, called opportunistic infections, might not normally cause severe or fatal health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>If pregnant woman infected with HIV, baby may be infected by the virus before or during birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby can also get the virus from breast milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies who are infected may become very sick and die. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Without treatment, about one third of babies born to HIV-infected mothers become infected with the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV should be tested at first prenatal visit. </li></ul><ul><li>If infected with HIV, treatment can help prevent spread of the infection to the baby. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How does HIV infection occur? <ul><li>Unprotected sex with an infected partner </li></ul><ul><li>Shared needles </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with infected body fluids (for example, blood, semen, or breast milk) </li></ul><ul><li>Transfusion with infected blood. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV can be passed to an unborn baby through the placenta, by exposure to blood and body fluids during labor and at delivery, or through breast-feeding. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are the symptoms? <ul><li>Fever that lasts from a few days to longer than a month </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged swelling of the lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lasting or multiple viral skin problems, such as herpes sores or plantar warts </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Repeated, severe yeast infections in mouth or vagina despite treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic muscle and joint pain </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, especially if it lasts longer than a month </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged spleen and liver. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How is HIV infection diagnosed? <ul><li>The screening test for HIV is usually a blood test called the ELISA test. </li></ul><ul><li>When this test is positive, another more specific blood test, usually the Western blot test, is done to confirm the diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>If both tests are positive, AIDS is confirmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can usually detect HIV infection within several weeks of exposure to the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV tests are always strictly confidential whether the results are positive or negative </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Tests for other sexually transmitted diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Test for tuberculosis (TB) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound scans to check for normal growth of the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Nonstress tests during the latter part of the pregnancy to check the baby's heartbeat for signs of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Tests for immune system every 2 to 3 months. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How is it treated? <ul><li>If pregnant and have tested positively for HIV, antiviral drug zidovudine (also called ZDV or AZT) is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a cesarean section (C-section) instead of a vaginal delivery also reduces the risk of infecting the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>For opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, TB, yeast infection, or toxoplasmosis medicine is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>During labor and delivery no need to be isolated. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>All hospital personnel use special precautions when they handle blood or other body fluids to prevent the spread of AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby to be treated with ZDV for at least the first 6 weeks of life to help prevent infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Should not breast-feed the baby. Give formula to the baby instead of breast milk to help prevent spread of the virus to the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>If a baby is born infected with HIV infection, the baby will be treated with antiviral drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby will be tested for HIV after birth. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lab tests to see how well the immune system is working, to measure the amount of HIV in the blood, and to screen for infections or other medical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Antiviral medicines, such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI's), nucleoside analogues (NRTI's), and protease inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Regular dental exams because people who are HIV positive often have mouth problems, including gum disease </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Preventive treatment for such diseases as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxoplasmosis (be sure to avoid raw meat and cat litter boxes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza (by getting flu shots) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Treatments for other opportunistic infections and tumors as they develop. </li></ul><ul><li>CD4+ T-cell count is below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, or </li></ul><ul><li>Viral load is over 30,000 copies per milliliter (mL) when using the branched DNA test, or more than 55,000 copies/mL when using the RT-PCR test. </li></ul>
  15. 15. How long do the effects last? <ul><li>The full effects of AIDS may not appear until 5 to 10 years after first infected with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is a fatal disease, life expectancy has increased greatly as new treatments are developed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What can be done to help prevent HIV infection during pregnancy? <ul><li>Intravenous (IV) drug abusers, cocaine addicts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual partners of HIV-infected men or men in high-risk groups (such as drug abusers or bisexual men) if they do not always use a latex or polyurethane condom </li></ul><ul><li>Women who have lived for a long time in an area where a lot of people are infected with HIV or who have given birth in such an area </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitutes </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Women with more than 1 sexual partner or whose sexual partner is sexually active outside the relationship (especially women who live in areas where there is a high occurrence of HIV infection) </li></ul><ul><li>Women given transfusions of blood or blood products in countries where the blood is not rigorously tested </li></ul><ul><li>Women who have cancer of the cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Women from areas with many cases of AIDS (such as Haiti and east central Africa). </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to prevent spreading the HIV virus? <ul><li>Practice safer sex: Do not share sexual secretions and blood in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask sexual partners to be tested for HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Do not share needles for drug use, tattooing, or body piercing. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not donate blood, plasma, semen, or body parts. </li></ul>