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Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research
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Using Directories, Voter Lists, and Tax Records in Genealogy Research

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City directories, voter lists, and tax records are three sources you can use to locate your U.S. ancestor and trace him from place to place. Learn how to locate and use these valuable records for …

City directories, voter lists, and tax records are three sources you can use to locate your U.S. ancestor and trace him from place to place. Learn how to locate and use these valuable records for genealogical research.

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  • 1. U.S. Non-Census Locator Sources Directories, Tax Lists, and Voting Records Copyright 2001-2003 Michael T. Ritchey
  • 2. Who’s the Teacher? <ul><li>U.S. Reference consultant and software specialist at Family History Library </li></ul><ul><li>Webmaster of AncestryLessons.com </li></ul><ul><li>Former LDS family History Center director </li></ul>
  • 3. Class Rules <ul><li>Please turn off cell phones now. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are wonderful! </li></ul><ul><li>Please save questions for end of class. </li></ul><ul><li>No smoking, chewing, spitting, or tomato throwing. </li></ul>
  • 4. What We’ll Cover <ul><li>Three Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories (City and county) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information on Each Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How-to instructions </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Directories (1600s-present)
  • 6. Why Use Directories? <ul><li>Find exact years ancestor inhabited a place. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate ancestor in an unindexed census (esp. state census). </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate year of immigration. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn ancestor’s occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Find other local family members. </li></ul>
  • 7. Directory Content: Abbreviations You’ll need these to decode the name listings.
  • 8. Directory Content: Abbreviations Some abbreviations are very important!
  • 9. Directory Content: Abbreviations Some abbreviations are very important!
  • 10. Directory Content - Names
  • 11. Directory Content - Names This directory mixes business and personal addresses. Indication of widow or widower and the name of deceased spouse!
  • 12. Directory Content: Reverse Listing by Address, then Name
  • 13. Directory Content: Churches
  • 14. Directory Content: Funeral Homes
  • 15. Directory Content: Schools
  • 16. Other Content of Directories <ul><li>Ward maps. </li></ul><ul><li>Street name changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Removals (sometimes destinations!) </li></ul><ul><li>Cemeteries, courts, hospitals, benevolent associations, newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriages &amp; deaths of previous year. </li></ul>
  • 17. Finding Directories <ul><li>Family History Library Catalog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Place Search by city and county. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Finding Directories: FHLC Main
  • 19. Finding Directories: FHLC Place Search Button
  • 20. Finding Directories: FHLC Place Search Fields
  • 21. Finding Directories: Philadelphia Directory Titles
  • 22. Finding Directories: Best Title to Click
  • 23. Finding Directories: Film Notes
  • 24. Finding Directories <ul><li>www.UScityDirectories.com . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies directories by place and gives repository and call number (incl. FHL call numbers). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>City Directories of the United States, (New Haven: Research Publications, Inc., 1971-). </li></ul><ul><li>Family History Library Catalog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Place Search by city and county. </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Directory How-to: Preliminaries <ul><li>Take note of cutoff and abbreviations. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ancestor in all available years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More name handles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More relatives at same address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More occupations. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Directory How-to: Names <ul><li>Listings include occupants, not necessarily owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Check whether minorities listed separately. </li></ul>
  • 27. Directory How-to: Address Listings <ul><li>After finding ancestor in name lists, check address listing for unknown ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, others at same address may be boarders! </li></ul><ul><li>Streets were renumbered! If your ancestor’s address changes, see if neighbors’ addresses change accordingly. </li></ul>
  • 28. Directory How-to: General Tips <ul><li>Occupations: If ancestor is “Asst. to John Doe,” check name and business listings for John Doe’s occupation and business name! </li></ul><ul><li>If your ancestor should be listed but isn’t, check a local history for outlying towns later absorbed by city. </li></ul>
  • 29. Directories: Springboards to Other Records <ul><li>Church: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find addresses of churches near your ancestor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you know minister’s name from marriage record, check his name in name listings to find his church. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If widow listed at an address and then replaced by a man the next year, check marriage records! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names sometimes annotated as owner, renter, boarder. If owner, check land records! </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Tax Records: Colonial Era to Present
  • 31. Why Use Tax Records? <ul><li>Tax records pre-date census records. </li></ul><ul><li>Find exact years ancestor inhabited a place. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax man finds people the census taker misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor may be listed with father. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate birth date (first taxed when 21). </li></ul><ul><li>Identify neighbors and local relatives. </li></ul>
  • 32. Tax Records: Potential Contents <ul><li>Names of taxable individuals in household (head and sons). </li></ul><ul><li>Personal property items (slaves, cattle, horses, mules, carriages, clocks, carriages, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbors (on original record). </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security no. </li></ul>
  • 33. Finding Tax Records <ul><li>Family History Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Place Search for the town, county, AND state. (Federal taxes will be listed under the state.) </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Finding Tax Lists: FHLC Main
  • 35. Finding Tax Lists: Place Search Button
  • 36. Finding Tax Lists: Place Search Button
  • 37. Finding Tax Lists: Place Search Button
  • 38. Finding Tax Lists: Place Search Button
  • 39. Finding Tax Records <ul><li>Family History Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Place Search for the state or county. (Federal taxes will be listed under the state.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ancestry.com’s collection includes set of tax lists that serve as a substitute for 1890 census. </li></ul><ul><li>See syllabus for title of inventory of tax records available only at National Archives. </li></ul>
  • 40. Tax Records How-to: Preliminaries <ul><li>See beginning of record to see who is included/excluded. </li></ul><ul><li>Exemptees may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves and indentured servants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landless men and paupers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministers, justices of the peace, military personnel, tax assessors </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. Tax Records How-to: General Tips <ul><li>Start with well-indexed published sources but be sure to see original. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with alphabetical list but see visitation list. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local list often contains names not on county list. </li></ul><ul><li>See end of county list for names of late, delinquent, or insolvent. </li></ul>
  • 42. Voter Lists: (Colonial – Present)
  • 43. Why Use Voting Records? <ul><li>Find exact years ancestor inhabited a place. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization information. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate year of immigration. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate unindexed ancestor in census by finding address. </li></ul><ul><li>Voting records pre-date census records. </li></ul>
  • 44. Voter Lists: Potential Contents
  • 45. Voter Lists: Potential Contents
  • 46. Voter Lists: Potential Contents
  • 47. Voter Lists: Other Potential Content <ul><li>Years living in city, county, state. </li></ul><ul><li>Address. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying marks. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security no. </li></ul>
  • 48. Finding Voting Records <ul><li>Family History Library Catalog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Place Search for city, county, AND state. </li></ul></ul>
  • 49. Finding Voting Records: FHLC Main
  • 50. Finding Voting Records: Place Search Button
  • 51. Finding Voting Records: Place Search Button
  • 52. Finding Voting Records: Place Search Button
  • 53. Voter List How-to <ul><li>Use published records first, but graduate to originals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May show family members with different surnames registering together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find ancestor in all available voting lists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More name handles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More addresses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More relatives at same address. </li></ul></ul>
  • 54. What We’ve Covered <ul><li>Three Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories (City and county) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information on Each Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How-to instructions </li></ul></ul>
  • 55. There’s Nothing Left! (The End)

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