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Shearing Layers of Change
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This work by Stewart Brand is an essential source for associating buildings and software development. Brand provides strong evidence that buildings are not just static objects but that they are......

This work by Stewart Brand is an essential source for associating buildings and software development. Brand provides strong evidence that buildings are not just static objects but that they are dynamic. There is for instance a model based on Frank Duffy's “Shearing Layers of Change” model of the way a building tears itself overtime.

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  • 1. S tructure S pace Plan S ite S kin S tuff S ervices Shearing Layers of Change The Layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space Plan and Stuff is defined as follows: Site - This is the geographical setting, the urban location and the legally defined lot, whose boundaries and context outlast generations of ephemeral buildings. Structure - The foundation and load-bearing elements are perilous and expensive to change, so people don't. These are the building. Structural life ranges from 30 to 300 years (but few buildings make it past 60, for other reasons). Skin - Exterior surfaces now change every 20 years or so, to keep up with fashion or technology, or for wholesale repair. Recent focus on energy costs has led to re-engineered Skins that they are airtight and better insulated. Services - These are the working guts of a building: communications wiring, electrical wiring, plumbing, sprinkler system, HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning), and moving parts like elevators and escalators. They wear out or obsolesce every 7 to 15 years. Many buildings are demolished early if their outdated systems are too deeply embedded to replace easily. Space Plan - The interior layout - where walls, ceilings, floors and doors go. Turbulent commercial space can change every 3 years or so; exceptionally quiet homes might wait 30 years. Stuff - Chairs, desks, phones, pictures; kitchen appliances, lamps, hairbrushes, all the things that twitch around daily to monthly. Furniture is called mobilia in Italian for good reason.” [Brand, 1994, p.12-13] Roderick Lim Banda , Building Architecture as a Reference for Architecture Intensive Disciplines ,2003, http://www.kase.co.za/paper/baraid/