Juanitas Final April 29 2007


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Juanitas Final April 29 2007

  1. 1. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS REPORT Primary Health Care Inter-professional Collaboration Chronic Disease Management Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Activities, Processes and Tools Submitted To: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care Chair, Family Health Team Quality Management Collaborative Submitted By: Juanita Barrett Submission Date: April 29, 2007 1
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In the fall of 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (OMHLTC) identified the need to provide ongoing leadership and direction to assist with the development and implementation of a quality management strategy that would support Family Health Teams (FHT’s) in delivering effective Primary Health Care (PHC) programs. A small Quality Management Collaborative Steering Committee was initiated, and a Consultant contracted to complete an analysis and synthesis of PHC activities in all jurisdictions of Canada, with the exception of Ontario. The focus of the analysis and synthesis was on activities that supported Interdisciplinary Collaboration (IDC), Chronic Disease Management (CDM) and/or Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CDPM), and Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (HPDP) changes. The approach to the analysis and synthesis included review and analysis of current available reports/ documents regarding processes/ tools from such sources as Health Canada, Canadian College Family Physicians (CFPC)Toolkit, and Enhancing Collaborative Inter-professional Practice (EICP) web-sites. A major part of the approach was a cross country Environmental Scan (with a number of follow ups with the jurisdictional representatives for clarity and/or add information) to identify processes and tools used to facilitate implementation of PHC changes for CDPM, HPDP, and IPC in PHC teams within jurisdictions. Although time did not permit the completion of the scan internationally, some information was obtained from the EICP and CFPC toolkits regarding some of the processes and tools utilized to support changes in England and New Zealand. Key findings, trends, lessons (including facilitators and barriers) of the processes and tools were collated, and recommendations were developed to support the work of the Quality Management Collaborative Steering Committee. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Jurisdictions across Canada have moved PHC changes forward with a focus on Inter- Professional Collaboration, Chronic Disease Management and/ or Health Promotion/ Disease Prevention, or some combination of 2 or 3 of them. Whatever the provincial direction, inter- professional teams (with a minimum of at least 2 different professional groups one of which was a family physician) were utilized and supported to provide services to defined populations, whether it was a geographic population, a specific physician population or a special needs population. Partnerships were developed, and included linkages with provincial Associations (especially Medical Associations), Departments or Ministries of Health, Non-Governmental organizations, and private sectors (e.g. Fee-for-Service physicians, pharmacists). There was leadership for the changes, including frameworks in some jurisdictions, and some form of provincial plans (supported through the Departments/ Ministries of Health with provincial offices to support policy direction and implementation) in place in all jurisdictions. Health Councils or some form of Provincial Advisory Committees, were evident in most jurisdictions. Family Physician leaders were generally seen at the provincial and regional/ PHC team area levels, and both regional and PHC team level administrative leaders (e.g. Directors at the regional level and Coordinators and/or Facilitators at the PHC team level) were evident in a number of jurisdictions. In all jurisdictions there were identified leaders who facilitated the various changes that occurred. Numerous processes and tools were developed and utilized to support changes, with formalized team development a focus for most areas. The Wagner Model was predominately used if there was provincial direction for CDM, with a focus on one disease at least initially, and most of the provinces that did not move in this direction are now looking to that model as the potential way to move forward with their provincial initiatives for CDM. Additional processes and tools utilized in a few jurisdictions to support access and management of chronic diseases were Advanced or Improved Access, and Stanford Self-Management workshops. Most jurisdictions used Train-the- Trainer methods to enhance uptake of changes and to support both implementation and sustainability of their strategies. 2
  3. 3. Other facilitators of change and barriers to change were similar across the country, whether there was a focus on Inter-Professional Collaboration, CDM or HPDP. Some consistent facilitators identified included electronic health records of some sort (or some form of communicating electronically), incentives, physician participation, inter-professional development, voluntary participation, development of trust, and time to actually make the changes. Consistent barriers included lack of electronic health records, lack of alternate payment models for physicians, lack of integration across governmental areas within the Departments/ Ministries of Health, fear of loss of focus on primary prevention, turf protection, silos within health care delivery, the acute care focus of health, and lack of time for changes to occur. There was a variety of methods, processes and tools developed to evaluate the initiatives that have been tested through the period of the PHCTF funds, and they may provide the opportunity for some further PHC evaluation and/ or research in the future. Early results of initiative evaluations, regardless of team size/composition, population served or model utilized, are showing some positive shifts in providers working together, some changes in adherence to appropriate Clinical Practice Guideline’s for certain diseases, and also some enhanced self management by clients. Generally funds for the changes made were supported by the Health Canada PHCTF. However, a number of jurisdictions did provide for changes in funding and payment models for physicians, and incentives to support their participation as team members. As well some jurisdictions have provided funds for ongoing changes into the future, including operational support for community development and CDM. RECOMMENDATIONS The synthesized information about inter-professional collaboration, CDM and HPDP can provide the MOHLTC and the Quality Management Collaborative Steering Committee with the processes and tools, based on the evaluation completed across the country, to provide ongoing leadership and direction to support FHT’s in Ontario. It is therefore recommended that: 1. Inter-professional partnerships, based on the professionals in the FHT’s, and including linkages and partnering with relevant Associations, be identified to develop a provincial plan to support FHT’s in delivering effective programs. 2. A provincial plan, building on the frameworks and/ or plans of other jurisdictions, be developed to support FHT’s in delivering effective programs. 3. This provincial plan should include at a minimum: Specifics of provincial, regional and FHT leadership, and facilitation; Focus of changes (i.e. inter-professional collaboration, CDM, HDPM); Some criteria to identify population served; If there is decision to move to a CDM model, consideration should be given to which model, and if the Wagner model is used, which elements will be implemented and how they will be supported; Consideration should be given to the pursuit of Advanced Access approaches, and incorporating them into the plan; Consideration should be given to the Stanford Self-Management workshops as a stand-alone or incorporated into the CDM model chosen; Identification of the various processes and tools that will be required to support the planned changes (team development, scope of practice shifts, community development, support for any changes in use of electronics); 3
  4. 4. Identification of the various electronic technologies that will be used and supported, with associated change management plans; Clarification and/or confirmation of any physician funding/ payment models and incentives, with associated processes for accessing and monitoring; Development of an associated overall implementation plan, with timelines; Development and implementation of an evaluation process, with baseline data if possible and processes for regular feedback to the FHT teams; and Financial plan and budget for implementation and evaluation of the plan, with identified reporting mechanisms. 4. The time frames associated with the plan should be appropriate and allow time, at a minimum, for such things as: The completion of the plan as outlined; Relationship building with the various partners; Participation of FHT representatives in the specific plans for their FHT; Team development and work on scope of practice at the FHT levels; Adjusting to am electronic environment if that is the route taken; Monitoring of evaluation and client data provided; and Case conferencing and team meetings as required. 4
  5. 5. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.0. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Report Background Information 1.2. Approach to Analysis and Synthesis 2.0. PHC CHANGE: General Information 2.1. Frameworks 2.2. Planning Supports 3.0. PHC CHANGE: Inter-Professional Collaboration 3.1. Nunavut No information was provided or accessible. 3.2. North West Territories 3.2.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.2.2. Teams 3.2.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.2.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.2.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.2.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.2.7. Evaluation 3.2.8. Funding 3.3. Yukon See Chapter 4. 3.4. British Columbia See Chapters 4 and 5. 3.5. Alberta 3.5.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.5.2. Teams 3.5.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.5.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.5.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.5.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.5.7. Evaluation 3.5.8. Funding 3.6. Saskatchewan 3.6.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5
  6. 6. 3.6.2. Teams 3.6.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.6.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.6.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.6.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.6.7. Evaluation 3.6.8. Funding 3.7. Manitoba 3.7.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.7.2. Teams 3.7.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.7.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.7.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.7.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.7.7. Evaluation 3.7.8. Funding 3.8. Quebec 3.8.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.8.2. Teams 3.8.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.8.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.8.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.8.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.8.7. Evaluation 3.8.8. Funding 3.9. New Brunswick 3.9.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.9.2. Teams 3.9.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.9.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.9.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.9.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.9.7. Evaluation 3.9.8. Funding 3.10. Nova Scotia 3.10.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.10.2. Teams 3.10.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.10.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.10.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.10.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.10.7. Evaluation 3.10.8. Funding 6
  7. 7. 3.11. Prince Edward Island 3.11.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.11.2. Teams 3.11.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.11.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.11.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.11.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.11.7. Evaluation 3.11.8. Funding 3.12. Newfoundland and Labrador 3.12.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 3.12.2. Teams 3.12.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 3.12.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 3.12.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 3.12.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 3.12.7. Evaluation 3.12.8. Funding 4.0. PHC CHANGE: Chronic Disease Management/ Chronic Disease Prevention and Management 4.1. Nunavut No information was provided or accessible. 4.2. North West Territories 4.2.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.2.2. Teams 4.2.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.2.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.2.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.2.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.2.7. Evaluation 4.2.8. Funding 4.3. Yukon 4.3.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.3.2. Teams 4.3.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.3.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.3.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.3.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.3.7. Evaluation 4.3.8. Funding 7
  8. 8. 4.4. British Columbia 4.4.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.4.2. Teams 4.4.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.4.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.4.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.4.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.4.7. Evaluation 4.4.8. Funding 4.5. Alberta 4.5.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.5.2. Teams 4.5.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.5.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.5.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.5.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.5.7. Evaluation 4.5.8. Funding 4.6. Saskatchewan 4.6.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.6.2. Teams 4.6.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.6.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.6.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.6.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.6.7. Evaluation 4.6.8. Funding 4.7. Manitoba No information was provided or accessible. 4.8. Quebec See Chapter 3. 4.9. New Brunswick 4.9.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.9.2. Teams 4.9.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.9.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.9.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.9.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.9.7. Evaluation 4.9.8. Funding 8
  9. 9. 4.10. Nova Scotia 4.10.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.10.2. Teams 4.10.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.10.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.10.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.10.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.10.7. Evaluation 4.10.8. Funding 4.11. Prince Edward Island 4.11.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.11.2. Teams 4.11.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.11.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.11.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.11.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.11.7. Evaluation 4.11.8. Funding 4.12. Newfoundland and Labrador 4.12.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 4.12.2. Teams 4.12.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 4.12.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 4.12.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 4.12.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 4.12.7. Evaluation 4.12.8. Funding 5.0. PHC Change: Health Promotion/ Disease Prevention 5.1. Nunavut No information provided. 5.2. North West Territories 5.2.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.2.2. Teams 5.2.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.2.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.2.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.2.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.2.7. Evaluation 5.2.8. Funding 9
  10. 10. 5.3. Yukon See Chapter 4. 5.4. British Columbia 5.4.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.4.2. Teams 5.4.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.4.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.4.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.4.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.4.7. Evaluation 5.4.8. Funding 5.5. Alberta 5.5.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.5.2. Teams 5.5.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.5.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.5.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.5.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.5.7. Evaluation 5.5.8. Funding 5.6. Saskatchewan 5.6.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.6.2. Teams 5.6.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.6.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.6.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.6.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.6.7. Evaluation 5.6.8. Funding 5.7. Manitoba 5.7.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.7.2. Teams 5.7.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.7.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.7.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.7.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.7.7. Evaluation 5.7.8. Funding 5.8. Quebec No information was provided or accessible. 10
  11. 11. 5.9. New Brunswick 5.9.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.9.2. Teams 5.9.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.9.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.9.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.9.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.9.7. Evaluation 5.9.8. Funding 5.10. Nova Scotia 5.10.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.10.2. Teams 5.10.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.10.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.10.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.10.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.10.7. Evaluation 5.10.8. Funding 5.11. Prince Edward Island 5.11.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.11.2. Teams 5.11.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.11.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.11.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.11.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.11.7. Evaluation 5.11.8. Funding 5.12. Newfoundland and Labrador 5.12.1. Service Changes and Partnerships 5.12.2. Teams 5.12.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 5.12.4. Processes and Tools Processes and Tools 5.12.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations 5.12.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 5.12.7. Evaluation 5.12.8. Funding 6.0. DISCUSSION: Activities, Processes and Tools Overview 6.1. General Information 6.2. Inter-professional Collaboration 6.2.1. Service Changes, Models and Partners 6.2.2. Teams 11
  12. 12. 6.2.3. Physicians/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 6.2.4. Processes and Tools for Facilitation/ Implementation 6.2.5. Other Facilitators of Innovation 6.2.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 6.2.7. Evaluation 6.2.8. Funding Sources 6.3. Chronic Disease Prevention and Management 6.3.1. Service Changes, Models and Partners 6.3.2. Teams 6.3.3. Physicians/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 6.3.4. Processes and Tools for Facilitation/ Implementation 6.3.5. Other Facilitators of Innovation 6.3.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 6.3.7. Evaluation 6.3.8. Funding Sources 6.4. Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 6.4.1. Service Changes, Models and Partners 6.4.2. Teams 6.4.3. Physicians/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support 6.4.4. Processes and Tools for Facilitation/ Implementation 6.4.5. Other Facilitators of Innovation 6.4.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations 6.4.7. Evaluation 6.4.8. Funding Sources 7.0 CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS: Application of Activities, Processes and Tools in Ontario Family Health Teams 7.1. Conclusions 7.2. Recommendations REFERENCES APPENDICES: Appendix A Environmental Scan Templates 12
  13. 13. 1.0. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Report Background Information Family Health Teams (FHT’s) in Ontario vary in size from 2 or 3 to about 20 Family Practice Physicians, and are located in urban, rural, remote or northern areas in the province. More than half are led by physicians, some by community boards and some by a mixed governance structure. The population served varies from 2,000 in rural and remote areas to 20,000 to 40,000 or so in large urban areas. All FHT’s are interdisciplinary, with at least one health provider (nurse, nurse practitioner, social worker, dietitian, and/or pharmacist) and a physician. In the fall of 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (OMHLTC) identified the need to provide ongoing leadership and direction to assist with the development and implementation of a quality management strategy that would support FHT’s in delivering effective programs. A small Quality Management Collaborative Steering Committee was initiated, and a Consultant contracted to support some of the initial work to assist with this leadership. The mandate of the consultant, based on direction from OMLTC representatives, was to: Provide a written report with a synthesis and analysis of the information, including key findings, trends and lessons (facilitators and barriers), of processes and tools utilized for implementation of CDPM, HPDP, and Interdisciplinary Collaboration in PHC settings. 1.2. Approach to Analysis and Synthesis The approach to the analysis and synthesis included: Development (and approval by OMHLTC representatives) of a plan and template for data collection to focus on Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CDPM), Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (HPDP), & Interdisciplinary Collaboration processes and tools; Review and analysis of current available reports/ documents re processes/ tools across Canada (except Ontario) regarding CDPM, HPDP, & IDC approaches from such sources as Health Canada, Canadian College Family Physicians (CFPC)Toolkit, and Enhancing Collaborative Inter-professional Practice (EICP) web-site was completed; Using the developed templates and jurisdictional linkages, an Environmental Scan (with a number of follow ups with the jurisdictional representatives for clarity and/or added information) was done to identify processes and tools used to facilitate implementation of Primary Heath Care (PHC) changes for CDPM, HPDP, and Interdisciplinary Collaboration in PHC teams across the country (except for Ontario); Time did not permit the completion of the scan internationally; however efforts were made to obtain information from England without success, and some information was obtained from the EICP and CFPC toolkits regarding some of the processes and tools in England; The key findings, trends, lessons (including facilitators and barriers) of processes and tools used to facilitate implementation CDPM, HPDP, Interdisciplinary Collaboration in PHC settings were drafted; Various drafts of parts of the report was shared with the OMHLTC representatives to ensure that the information being collected, analyzed and synthesized was meeting the needs; and A final draft of the report was submitted prior to final report submission. 13
  14. 14. 2.0. PHC CHANGE: General Information This chapter provides information regarding identified frameworks and/or models that promoted and/or supported PHC changes and the various planning supports for changes including: Health Councils, scope of practice joint statements, job descriptions, various associations roles/ descriptions for disciplines, performance management, policies and procedures, population health approach, information and communication, regulations, and inter-professional education. It also integrates any information gathered regarding national and international initiatives. 2.1. Frameworks Some of the jurisdictions developed frameworks or models to provide direction for PHC changes. Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit North West Territories Primary Community Care Framework: This policy document is guiding the transition to interdisciplinary team approach through an Integrated Service Delivery Model for the NWT health and Social Services System. Both a plain language and detailed versions of this model are accessible on the public website. http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/Features/Programs_and_Services/isdm/pcc/primary_community_care .asp. North West Territories Integrated Service Delivery Model for the North West Territories Health and Social Services System: This report provides information on the Integrated Services Delivery Model, which fulfills Action Item 5.2.1 of the HSS System Action Plan. It describes the vision and philosophy of the Integrated Services Delivery Model and the three elements of integrated service: primary community care, agency integration and core services. http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/content/Publications/Reports/ISDM/isdmdetailedmarch2004.pdf. Also a plain language summary at: http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/content/Publications/Reports/ISDM/isdmsummarymarch2004.pdf Nova Scotia The Advisory Committee on PHC Renewal, with broad stakeholder consultation across the jurisdiction, created a vision for primary health care in Nova Scotia that set the stage for future renewal of Nova Scotia’s primary health care system. Reaching the preferred future conveyed by Nova Scotia’s Vision for Primary Health Care required a strategic approach. Consequently, the Advisory Committee on PHC Renewal proposed the following four strategic approaches for use of Nova Scotia’s funding allocation from the Primary Health Care Transition Fund: • Shifting the focus of primary health care from family physicians in solo or group practice to collaborative primary health care teams that involve many different primary health care providers offering a defined range of comprehensive services to a defined population; • Developing a cultural shift among primary health care providers that supports a population health approach, collaboration and an enhanced role for health promotion; • Changing the primary health care funding system so that primary health care professionals are remunerated by means that are not volume-driven; • Preparing the primary health care system for the future implementation of an electronic patient record that easily facilitates sharing of information among primary care providers and between the primary, secondary and tertiary health care systems. For more information, contact: Nova Scotia Department of Health or see framework on www.gov.ns.ca. 14
  15. 15. Newfoundland and Labrador Moving Forward Together: Mobilizing Primary Health Care: A Framework for Primary Health Care Renewal in Newfoundland and Labrador This is a framework document that was developed in 2003 for the province to support implementation of primary health care renewal. It discusses PHC renewal though a number of measures including an interdisciplinary PHC model and promotes the following features to support PHC change: inter-professional teams, enhanced scope of practice, wellness and health promotion, chronic disease prevention and management, enhanced access to services, enhanced communication and information management, and funding and payment models for family physicians and other providers. For more information, see http://www.health.gov.nl.ca/health/publications/pdfiles/Moving%20Forward%20Together%20appl e.p. Source: EICP and CFPC Barriers and Facilitators to Enhancing Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Primary Healthcare: The Enhancing Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Primary Healthcare (EICP) Initiatives. This document provides information regarding barriers and challenges to be addressed when enhancing interdisciplinary collaboration in PHC. It is good for validation of some of processes and use of tools to ensure success and manage challenges. For more information, see http://www.eicp-cis.ca/en/resources/pdfs/Barriers-and-Facilitators-to- Enhancing-Interdisciplinary-Collaboration-in-Primary-Health-Care.pdf. Implementing Family Medicine Groups: The Challenge in the Reorganization of Practice and Interprofessional Collaboration: M-D Beaulieu et al, Physician Sadok Besrour Chair in Family Medicine, Montreal, April 2006. 5 case studies provided examples of challenges in enhancing collaboration, advise to administrators, and ethical dimensions. For more information, see www.medfam.umontreal.ca/chaire_sadok_besrour/chaire/chaire.htm. Joint Statement on Resolving Ethical Conflicts Between Providers of Healthcare and Persons Receiving Care: This joint statement was developed by the Alberta Provincial Health Ethics Network, with statements from the CHA, CMA, CAN and CHAC, and was approved on June 8, 1998. 2.2. Planning Supports Throughout the review of information collected, there were a number of planning supports identified, including general ones (programs or guidelines for change), Health Councils, job descriptions, performance management tools, and policies and procedures. This section also includes initiatives from various national and/ or international groups. General Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit British Columbia The College of Health Disciplines, University of British Columbia The college is currently being restructured. Various inter-professional courses are available including a population health approach, health care team development, health care ethics, etc. For more information see http://www.health-disciplines.ubc.ca/index.php Alberta Alberta Medical Association Practice Management Program This program provides business related advice to family physicians as they develop Primary Care Networks (PCN’s). It specifically provides information for developing physician leaders, 15
  16. 16. governance structures, mitigating risk (legal, business, financial, tax), managing change and letters of intent/business plans. For more information, see www.albertadoctors.org. Source: CFPC Toolkit Primary Health Care in Alberta This planning document overviews Alberta's approach to PHC through local primary care initiatives and includes indicators for measuring PHC. For more information see http://www.health.gov.ab.ca/public/in_primary.pdf Saskatchewan Guidelines for the Development of a Regional Health Authority Plan for PHC Services: The purpose of the guidelines is to help with the implementation of a regional primary health care (PHC) plan. These guidelines discuss what PHC is, the planning steps required, action plan including team formation, and implementation. For more information see http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/ph_phs_publications/phs_pub_guidelines_%20for_dev.pdf. Saskatchewan's Action Plan for Primary Health Care Service This document contains definitional information, roles and responsibilities for various stakeholders, and approach and strategies for implementation. For more information see http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/ph_phs_publications/phs_action_plan_for_primary_health_care.pdf Manitoba Nor'West Co-op Community Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba: It is a non-profit accredited health agency located in north Winnipeg established in 1972 by community members as part of a co-operative community health centre. This community health centre has developed several working plans, including an environmental, information management, and human resources plans. Environmental Plan Final Copy IM PLAN04-07 Overview - IM Plan and Priorities 05-06 HRPlan2006-2009 Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit CAPC/CPNP People and Planning: A Human Resources Toolkit for CAPC/CPNP Projects: Although this is not a primary health care specific, it provides a very good overview of management and human resources functions, including strategic planning, evaluation, hiring, orientation, training, supervision, etc. For more information see http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dca- dea/programs-mes/capc-cpnp_pphr_e.html. United States John Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) Case-Mix System This is a population based risk adjustment tool developed in the U.S. The ACG System creates a common language for healthcare analysis and can be used to: predict high-risk users for inclusion in care management; determine government- or employer-budgeted payment to health plans; fairly allocate resources within programs; set capitation payments for provider groups; evaluate access to care; assess the efficiency of provider practices; and improve quality and monitor outcomes. It is used by the British Columbia government. For more information see http://www.acg.jhsph.edu/ United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) This is an independent organization responsible for providing national guidance on the promotion of good health and the prevention and treatment of ill health. Many tools available on the site from clinical practice guidelines to cost impact tools. For more information see http://www.nice.org.uk/ 16
  17. 17. New Zealand Resources for Primary Health Care Organizations This New Zealand Web page contains information on funding guidelines, service specifications, performance indicators, data elements, audit protocols, enrolment rules and guidelines, PHO projects, etc. For more information see http://www.moh.govt.nz/pho Health Councils Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit Alberta Health Sciences Council The mission of the Health Sciences Council (HSC) is to champion interdisciplinary health sciences research, education and community service at the University of Alberta. All Health Science students at the University of Alberta are required to take a core interdisciplinary course. This intensive course provides health science students with an overview of the theory and application of working in teams. There is also clinical placements of teams. For more information see http://www.healthscience.ualberta.ca/ Source: Facilitation Guide Saskatchewan Health Quality Council Collaborative (HQCC) (SK) Borrowing from the British Columbia model, the HQCC in Saskatchewan has played a lead role in implementing a collaborative focus on chronic heart disease, diabetes and access. The HQCC takes a learn-by- doing approach, supports the use of best evidence and brings a range of practitioners together to share knowledge and test improvement of ideas. For more information see www.hcq.sk.ca Scope of Practice/ Collaborative Practice Source: EICP and CFPC Toolkit CMA/CAN/CPA Joint Position Statement on Scopes of Practice This statement overviews the principles and criteria for the determination of scopes of practices. For more information see http://www.cna- nurses.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/PS66_Scopes_of_practice_June_2003_e.pdf CMPA/CBPA The Canadian Medical Protective Agency (CMPA) and the Canadian Nurses Protective Society (CNPS) have developed a joint statement on liability protection for nurse practitioners and physicians in collaborative practice. It discusses liability risks, liability protection and risk management. For more information see com_joint_statement-e.pdf Job Descriptions Source: Facilitation Guide British Columbia Expanded Medical Office Assistant Role: As part of the diabetes collaborative, the role of medical office assistants was enhanced to include data recording, planning of office visits and related details of the visit (blood pressures, height and weight, foot exams and self management). For more information see contact Debbie.lewis@northernhealth.ca, Northern Health. 17
  18. 18. Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit British Columbia Mid-Main Community Health Centre, Vancouver, BC A job description for primary care nurse clinicians has been developed. For more information see MMjob description NP Mid-Main Community Health Centre, Vancouver, BC Several documents are highlighted: a form that clarifies the job descriptions and relationships within the community, the transferring of function from one discipline to another; the pharmacist's prescriptive authority, and Warfarin monitoring physician authorization form that allows the pharmacists to manage a patient's therapy. For more information see Clarifying Job Descriptions and Related Tasks Transfer of Function Pharmacist Prescriptive Authority Warfarin Authorization Form Alberta Calgary Health Region, Home Care Program This home care program offers a range of services from nursing, therapy, rehabilitation to personal care. The program uses behavioral descriptive interview techniques to recruit new members to its team. Highlighted is the applicant screening and behavior descriptive interview package for community care coordinator positions. For more information see 1_BDI-CCC RN Manitoba Nor'West Co-op Community Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba Job descriptions for the community development coordinator, family violence counselor, aboriginal health outreach worker and the primary care registered nurse are highlighted. For more information see CDCoordinator Position Family Violence Counselor Position Aboriginal Health Outreach Primary Care Registered Nurse. Newfoundland and Labrador Dr. Charles L. LeGrow Health Care Centre, Port aux Basques; A job description has been developed for the PHC Coordinator. For more information see PHC Coordinator. Association Role Descriptions Most professional associations have developed role descriptions for the disciplines of that asscocation which can be accessed at the below web-sites. Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists http://www.otworks.ca/otworks_page.asp?pageid=824 Canadian Association of Social Workers http://www.casw-acts.ca/ Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists http://www.caslpa.ca/english/careers/careers.asp Canadian Nurses Association: http://www.cnaaiic.ca/CNA/nursing/becoming/default_e.aspx Nurse Practitioner at http://www.cnpi.ca/faq.asp Advanced Nursing Practice at http://www.cnaaiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/PS60_Advanced_Nursing_Practice_June _2002_e.pdf Clinical Nurse Specialist at http://www.cnaaiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/PS65_Clinical_Nurse_Specialist_March_2 003_e.pdf 18
  19. 19. Canadian Pharmacists Association http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/about_cpha/about_pharmacy_in_can/how_to_become/index.c fm Canadian Physiotherapy Association http://www.physiotherapy.ca/whatis.htm Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca/cpasite/showPage.asp?id=1023&fr=##1 Psychologists and PHC College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca/local/files/Communications/Health%20Policy/FAMILY_MEDICINE_IN_CANAD A_English.pdf Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca/news/downloads/role_of_RD_french.pdf http://www.dietitians.ca/news/downloads/role_of_RD_in_PHC.pdf Performance Management Manitoba Klinic Community Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba Performance appraisals are completes every two years at the Centre. It developed its own tool that addresses soft skills such as teamwork, interpersonal conflict, etc. The performance appraisal process involves team members listing their roles/responsibilities with the six top tasks that want to be evaluated on. The process also includes peer review, self evaluation and includes salaried physicians. For more information see Performance Appraisal Process Policies and Procedures Alberta Chinook Education Menu Booklet: This booklet includes resources to guide orientation and training as well as to assist clinics in accessing available educational resources and supports. These resources are available to family practice team members, as well as physicians and existing office staff. For more information see Education-Menu-Booklet-II Manitoba Nor'West Co-op Community Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba This Centre has a policy that overviews the functioning of the integrated goal sheets that are developed for each client. For more information see P&P Integrated Goal Sheet I.pdf. Population Health Approach Public Health Agency of Canada Population Health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health disparities among population groups. The Public Health Agency of Canada has identified population health as a key concept and approach for policy and program development aimed at improving the health of Canadians. In order to reach these objectives, the Agency is looking at and acting upon the broad range of factors and conditions (determinants of health) that have a strong influence on our health. This website provides a good overview of the key elements and concepts that define a population health approach. For more information see http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/phdd/. 19
  20. 20. Information and Communication Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkit Health Canada eHealth Toolkit eHealth is the use of information and communication technologies to support, educate, inform and connect health care professionals and the people they serve. Health Canada's eHealth Solutions Unit works to develop eHealth tools to support the use of health technology in Canada's First Nations and Inuit communities to be connected, informed, and ultimately healthier. Their overall aim is to enable front line health care providers working in First Nations and Inuit communities to improve people's health through innovative eHealth partnerships, technologies, tools and services. Tools are available in areas such as connectivity, telehealth, health information systems, information for health providers, privacy protection and standards. For more information see http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/services/ehealth-esante/index_e.html CPA E-Therapeutics, The Canadian Pharmacists Association This will be a resource for Canadian physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners and other primary health care professionals to help make the right therapeutic decision. ETherapeutics+ provides a tool set based on CPhA's Therapeutic Choices and e- CPS plus references to create a centralized drug resource for drug therapy information. For more information see http://etherapeutics.pharmacists.ca/forms/index.asp? dsp=template&act=view3&template_id=39&lang=e REGULATION (Professional Organizations) Source: EICP/ CFPC Toolkits Access to information regarding regulations for some professional organizations are cited below. Social Work National Scopes of Practice Statement www.caswacts.ca Canadian Pharmacy Association Pharmacists http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/about_cpha/about_pharmacy_in_can/ how_to _become/index.cfm Physiotherapy Competency Profile: Essential Competencies of Physiotherapy Support Workers http://www.physiotherapy.ca/compprofile.htm 20
  21. 21. Occupational Therapy Essential Competencies of Practice for Occupational Therapists in Canada http://www.cotm.ca/publications.html. http://www.otworks.ca/otworks_page.asp?pageid=824 Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Occupational Therapists: Consulting to Third Parties: Assist occupational therapists in recognizing and managing issues which arise when the occupational therapist agrees to provide an assessment of a client to a third party. http://www.cotm.ca/publications.html. Occupational Therapy AAROT Guidelines for the Assignment/Delegation of Occupational Therapy Services to Support Personnel http://www.acot.ca/files/Support_Personnel_Guideline_ June_22.05_ACOT_VERSION_Final_Document.pdf. Psychology Integration of Psychologists in Family Health Teams IPEM - FHT tool kit-NOV24th2005.pdf. Canadian Nurses Association Standards and Best Practices for Nurses http://www.cna-nurses.ca/CNA/practice/standards/default_e.aspx. Other useful links include: • a description of Nurse practitioner see http://www.cnpi.ca/faq.asp • a description of advanced nursing practice see http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/ PS60_Advanced_Nursing_Practice_June_2002_e.pdf • a position description of Clinical Nurse Specialist http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/ PS65_Clinical_Nurse_Specialist_March_2003_e.pdf • a statement about Registered Nurses and where they work at http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/nursing/becoming/default_e.aspx. Interprofessional Education McMaster University The Nursing and Health Care leadership courses/Management Distance Education Program provides courses for nurses that include: Leadership/Management; Conflict Management; Leading Effective Teams in Health Organizations; Decentralized Budgeting and Total Quality Management. For more information see www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/nursing/distance/distance.htm Centre for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education (USA) The Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education is dedicated to creating an atmosphere of openness and commitment to interprofessional practice for the next century. It offers courses on interprofessional competencies, issues in interdisciplinary health care, interprofessional collaborative teams, etc. For more information see http://interprofessional.washington.edu/about.asp Centre for Interprofessional Practice (UK) The centre is part of the Institute of Health at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, which is a joint initiative across the Schools of Health to deliver teaching and research on interprofessional learning. The Centre has team-based education packages that have been developed to support active health/social care teams in enhancing their team working skills and improving their understanding of the different professional roles involved in patient/client care. For more information see http://www.uea.ac.uk/cipp/. 21
  22. 22. Interdisciplinary Health Care Team Practice This is a learning module for students (and others) from the District of Columbia AHEC (Area Health Education Centre). It is a resource linked to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services site. The module contains learning on: – Interdisciplinary Team Case – Historical Background – Models Of Team Practice – The Interdisciplinary Teamwork System Model – Interdisciplinary Team Building – Members of the Health Care Team For more information see http://dcahec.gwumc.edu/education/session3/. The United Kingdom Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) CAIPE's focus is on ways of enabling professions, in the university and the workplace, to learn from and about each other, foster mutual respect, overcome barriers to collaboration and engender action. It promotes interprofessional learning which actively involves service users and local communities as essential partners. For more information see http://www.caipe.org.uk. 22
  23. 23. 3.0. PHC CHANGE: Inter-Professional Collaboration This chapter provides an overview of PHC inter-professional collaboration processes and tools in most jurisdictions, with some exceptions and limitations: • Nunavut was unable to provide any information at this time nor could information regarding their activities be identified on any of the websites or documents reviewed; • Information for Manitoba is restricted to information gathered from the EICP/ CFPC toolkits or Facilitation Guide as the environmental scan was not completed; • Information regarding British Columbia regarding inter-professional collaboration is included in the chapter on CDPM; • There is some information areas missing for the Saskatchewan and Quebec sections; and • Ontario information is being completed by that jurisdiction. 3.1. Nunavut No information was provided. 3.2. North West Territories 3.2.1. Service Changes and Partnerships Services in the North West Territories are provided around six core service areas: diagnostic and curative; rehabilitation services; mental health and addictions services; promotion and prevention services; protection services and continuing care services. Services provided reflect the needs of the client or family living within the team area. The Department and Authorities work with other government departments such as: RCMP, Justice, Education Culture and Employment, Housing and Municipal and Community Affairs to address issues of common concern. Interagency Committees meet regularly in communities to provide a forum to address intersectoral issues and concerns. The eight health and social services authorities (HSSA or Authorities) and the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS or the Department) were involved in the development of the Integrated Service Delivery Model (ISDM) for the Northwest Territories health and social services system, which is based upon a Primary Community Care (PCC) approach. This model is one of horizontal and vertical integration around the six core service areas as identified earlier. PCC providers deliver core services to clients at the primary level. The ISDM includes PCC teams at the primary level, regional support teams at the regional level, and territorial health and social services caregivers with a mandate to serve the whole NWT. A client's first point of contact is usually a member of the PCC team. Within the primary community care team, care givers work in many different disciplines: physicians, nurse practitioners, community health nurses, licensed practical nurses, midwives, social workers, mental health and addictions counselors, community wellness workers, community health workers, and community health representatives. They are supported by regional support teams (radiology, fluoroscopy, rehabilitation, health promotion specialists, etc.), and territorial support teams that provide specialized procedures and services (surgery, intensive care, psychiatric care; CT scan, chemotherapy, etc.) and coordinate out of territory transfers. Regional teams either travel to communities to provide service, or PCC providers arrange client referrals to regional centres. PCC providers also coordinate referrals to Territorial services for secondary or tertiary care services. More complex services not available in the NWT are provided through Out of Territory referrals. 23
  24. 24. To work effectively on behalf of their clients, PCC providers collaborate with providers across the horizontal levels, or up to the vertical levels of the HSSA system. They work with other health and social services providers, and agencies and other sectors (Justice; Municipal and Community Affairs; and Education Culture and Employment, etc.). The make up of the team is reflective of the needs of the client. Progress toward implementation of the ISDM varies from region to region. Primary Health Care Transition Fund (PHCTF) projects have helped to create some momentum, and the lessons learned will benefit others as the NWT’s move toward full implementation of ISDM. The following is a summary of Primary Health Care and PCC Teams within the PHCTF funded projects: YHSSA, Great Slave Community Health Clinic (GSLHC): The PCC team includes physicians, nurse practitioner, public health nurse, licensed practical nurse, client advocate, mental health worker, and support staff. The Authority will soon add a midwife. The GSCHC partners with the Tree of Peace (a non-governmental organization) for addiction counseling and support services. The YHSSA GSCHC, TCSA, Integrated Wellness Centre, and FSHSSA, Introducing Midwifery Services project, and BDHSSA Beaufort Delta Wellness Teams are all co-located. TCSA, Integrated Wellness Centre: The PCC team includes mental health counsellors, addictions counsellors, social workers, and a public health nurse. They work closely with the teachers in the two local schools, and the nurse practitioner and community health nurses in the Marie Adele Bishop Health Centre in Behchoko (formerly Fort Rae). FSHSSA, Introducing Midwifery Services project: The midwives work with the nurse practitioner, physicians, general duty nurses, and public health nurses to provide prenatal and postnatal care for women in the community. They also are linked to the Obstetricians and the Coordinator of the STHA Northern Women’s Health Program. STHA, Northern Women’s Health Program: The team includes the nurse coordinator, physicians, an Obstetrician and a midwife who provide prenatal services for women, and support PCC providers throughout the NWT involved in the provisions of prenatal care services for women. Stanton Territorial Health Authority (STHA) Northern Women’s Health Program provides coordination and support to PCC providers through a 1-800 call line and bi-monthly tele-health sessions. 3.2.2. Teams and Services All community care providers are part of the quot;teamquot;, with the client and family as part of the team and the central focus. Primary Community Care (PCC) teams work with other agencies and groups to address problems and create healthy communities. The number of clients served is unknown. Populations served are those within the mandate of the regional health and social services authority boundaries. Authorities use information from a variety of sources to identify the health and social services needs of residents (health assessments, health status reports, etc). Within the NWT, inter-professional teams are located in 29 of 33 communities, consisting of 2 to 3 disciplines working together. The teams also include paraprofessionals such as community health representatives, community health workers and community wellness workers. In the NWT, PCC providers are deployed in teams located in the 31 communities across the Territory. The teams range in size and number according to the size of the community. The following teams have emerged through the NWT PHCTF initiative: 24
  25. 25. • BDHSSA, Beafort Delta Wellness Teams includes three teams working with clients around 3 specific issues (rural); • YHSSA, Yellowknife Community Health Clinic have assembled one interdisciplinary team of providers; however, at times, smaller teams within the larger team work together to case manage for complex clients (urban); • TCSA, Integrated Wellness Centre project has one team; however, at times, smaller teams within the larger team work together to case manage for complex clients (rural); • FSHSSA, Introducing Midwifery Services project: the midwives work with other members of the PCC team and STHA Northern Women’s Health Program to provide reproductive health services for women (rural). 3.2.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support The NWT is early into the implementation of the ISDM, which is led by the Joint Senior Management Committee (Authority Chief Executive Officers, DHSS Directors, Assistant Deputy Ministers (2), and Deputy Minister). The Department was able to make some progress through the PHCTF initiative to develop a plan to support PCC providers with the transition toward ISDM. It has been unsuccessful in efforts to find specific funding for “facilitation”. The authorities continue in their efforts to move forward with leadership and support to staff. Some authorities are establishing positions to lead implementation of ISDM and/or ISDM Implementation Committees to sort out the issues related to roles and responsibilities and scopes of practice. Of the eight authorities, there are four that have identified staff to lead implementation of ISDM. 3.2.4. Processes and Tools for Facilitation/ Implementation Multidisciplinary, inter-professional conferences (4 territorial and 1 regional) were held, with change management workshops at the regional level, and teams of professionals have been used to design and implement the new service delivery model. Resources and research has been shared with authorities that have ISDM leads. Project communications involved both formal and informal sharing networks to provide information and get feedback. Project coordinators recognized that change takes time, and that staff are more likely to support and maintain a change if they have input into the decision making and feel their opinions are listened to, valued, and respected. Some specific examples include: • YHSSA had facilitated team building sessions for all staff, and a separate session for the transition team tasked with establishing the Great Slave Community Health Clinic. They also held a symposium for staff and stakeholders to get input. They will continue to orient new staff to the NWT ISDM, emphasizing the PCC approach, and provide ongoing training at the clinic. • BDHSSA held team building ISDM workshops in all communities in the region; and provided managers with training on ISDM and interdisciplinary practice. • In the FSHSSA, the midwives gave presentations to staff on their roles and responsibilities and scope of practice; and provided second attendant training to prepare nurses to participate in deliveries. The Authority established an interdisciplinary maternity care working group which has transitioned to a Maternity Care Committee. They have recently established an ISDM Committee to clarify the roles, responsibilities, and relationships of PCC Team Members in the provision of integrated services. • The TCSA, Integrated Wellness Project identified their biggest challenges as lack of trust. Clients needed reassurance that the personal issues they discussed during counseling sessions at the Integrated Wellness Centre would not be disclosed in the community. 25
  26. 26. Significant strides have been made in building trust with clients, as evidenced by the increasing number of clients accessing the services. Likewise, the staff at the Integrated Wellness Centre needed to build trusting relationships with other service providers. A strength of this project was the ongoing and frequent communication between service providers, with communication working together with persistence and commitment to build interdisciplinary teamwork. Challenges stemmed from staff and service providers’ difficulties with adjusting to change, limitations on human resources, the need for clear and effective communication, and finally, shifting paradigms from an illness-centered approach to a wellness-centered one. Some authorities have provided training for employees on change management, conflict resolution, and verbal judo. Committees have been tasked with addressing scope of practice issues (e.g. Nurse Practitioner Implementation Committee, Midwifery Implementation Committee). Information has been shared regarding the web-based learning provided through the Atlantic team training modules (Building a Better Tomorrow modules). A workshop on the Facilitation Guide was facilitated in Yellowknife, with a few of the authorities sending participants. The Guide will be distributed to HSSA authorities when the DHSS receives copies. STHA’s project coordinator encountered resistance from physicians who felt they were the only providers that can look after prenatal patients. This was overcome by working closely with the physicians and allowing them to observe the care that women were receiving. Processes and Tools The characteristics, philosophy, principles, and approach are described in the NWT's Integrated Service Delivery Model (ISPM). Tools used to ID population served include: Authority designed Client Needs Surveys NWT Client Satisfaction Survey DHSS The NWT Health Status Report 2005 Epi North Newsletters DHSS special reports on Cancer, Injuries, Addictions Strategic Directions reports addressing specific issues such as Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Respite Care. NWT Bureau of Statistics demographic reports. For more information see http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/Features/Programs_and_Services/isdm/default.asp See the Nova Scotia section regarding BBTI modules. See the NL section re Facilitation Guide. 3.2.5. Other Facilitators To further support changes, the strategic plan and action plan are based on ISDM (key components are collaboration and integration), and physician contracts reflect expectations for collaboration. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) pilots are interdisciplinary (for Family Physicians and Nurse Practitioners). In addition, internet services are available in all communities. YHSSA reported that with co-location, providers are able to access each other and consult on client cases in a more personal and often more timely basis. Co-location has also resulted in an 26
  27. 27. increased understanding, appreciation, and respect for professional scopes of practice which promotes collaborative practice and has given occasion to discuss common concerns with respect to shared care, e.g. confidentiality and liability issues. 3.2.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations Recruitment and retention of professionals are outstanding barriers. Job ads, information regarding bursaries, orientation materials and support programs for competency development are on the website to help manage this challenge. 3.2.7. Evaluation Information regarding evaluation is not available at this time. 3.2.8. Funding Sources HSSA has used internal operational funding (present staff within the Authority). Most physicians are remunerated by salary (not fee for service) through a negotiated contract. All other providers are Government of NWT employees. 3.3. Yukon See Chapter 4. 3.4. British Columbia See Chapters 4 and 5. 3.5. Alberta 3.5.1. Service Changes and Partnerships By dispersing money to third party organizations to develop and implement innovative primary health care initiatives, projects funded through the PHCTF were diverse in scope. Most initiatives were involved to some extent in the development of teams of health care providers working collaboratively. There were 9 Capacity Building Fund initiatives funded that encompassed either regional service changes or changes within individual clinics. The key vehicle driving primary health care renewal in Alberta is the Primary Care Initiative (PCI), which was negotiated as part of the Tri-lateral Master Agreement between the Alberta Medical Association, the Regional Health Authorities (RHA’s) and Alberta Health and Wellness as equal partners in the agreement. The primary mechanism for implementing the PCI is the Primary Care Network (PCN). PCN's are formal (contractual) arrangements between physicians and RHA’s, and are created for the purpose of providing comprehensive primary care services to a defined population of patients. PCN’s serve the general population, but implement other programs and services that are needed by their patient populations. Agencies involved in inter-professional collaboration (IPC) for change were Capital Health, Calgary Health Region, Chinook Regional Health Authority, Palliser Health Authority, David Thompson Regional Health Authority, East Central Health, Aspen Regional Health Authority, Peace County Health, Northern Lights Health Region, the Associate Clinic of Pincher Creek, and various Primary Care Networks. 27
  28. 28. Projects funded through the PHCTF were diverse in scope. Some projects (e.g. Health First Strathcona, an after-hours primary care clinic) were based on needs assessments for the general population in a specific geographical area. 3.5.2. Teams One of the goals that Alberta’s Primary Care Networks work to achieve is to foster a team approach to providing primary health care. Teams include participants from many different health disciplines. Roles and functions are divided according to the skills and scope of practice associated with each discipline or profession. PCN’s serve diverse population groups in rural and urban areas across the province. The team comprises of between 80 and 90 staff members, including physicians, registered nurses, occupation therapists, public health nurses, lab technicians and mental health workers. The size and scope of teams in PCN’s vary depending on patient needs and programs currently being implemented. Individual initiatives identified team numbers and composition. Some specific initiatives include: Interdisciplinary Primary Health Care Team Initiative: The team serves the general population. An average of 858 patients visits the Centre each month. Health First Strathcona: The Centre is staffed by rotating physicians who work 1 or 2 shifts per month, a registered nurse, a licensed practical nurse, a respiratory therapist and an orthopaedic technician. Pincher Creek Rural Primary Care Initiative: The team is comprised of a registered nurse, registered dietician, clinical pharmacist, registered social worker and the patient’s physician. The extended surgical team is comprised of two visiting surgeons from Calgary, one local surgeon, three local physicians providing anesthesiology services, family physicians and operating room staff. Taber: There is a regional population of 160,000. Examples of client groups served include: 4% of population are participating in the Diabetes program, referrals are accepted from the Home Care program and physician offices, and 350 clients per year are supported by the Palliative Care program. Family Practice Teams (FPT’s) focus around the patient roster of each physician. Program service teams (Geriatrics and Palliative Care) teams focus on assisting Family Practices and Home Care nursing with complex cases. FPT’s in the clinic revolve around pods of 4 Family Physicians each. They include 4 medical office assistants (for rooming pts, ordering labs, etc), 2 Licensed Practical Nurses (managing disease prevention screening and chronic disease surveillance), 1 Registered Nurse (managing complex disease surveillance), and 1 Nurse Practitioner (managing Family Physician patients when each physician is on holidays). 3.5.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support Primary Care Interdisciplinary Initiative: The initiative is governed by a Steering Committee that comprises of all organizations and agencies involved in the project. An Interdisciplinary Working Group, including representation from the different professionals that are part of the interdisciplinary team, is involved in the planning process and provides leadership for the development of interdisciplinary teams. Health First Strathcona: A Strategic Steering Committee comprised of Capital Health staff meet to discuss new practices, protocols and roles. Participating physicians and other clinical staff often meet with the Committee for these discussions. 28
  29. 29. Pincher Creek Rural Primary Care Initiative: This initiative is led by a group of eight physicians at the Associated Medical Clinic in Pincher Creek. One physician is lead liaison with the project staff. Taber: Physician leaders are involved in a Governance Committee, and a Local Improvement Committee (LIC). A Clinical Care Coordinator (Masters of Nursing) was hired for the clinic. 3.5.4. Processes and Tools Different strategies were used in each project to facilitate the implementation of teams. Some projects, such as the Primary Care Interdisciplinary Initiative at Okotoks, developed an orientation manual for staff, held an orientation session and carried out monthly sharing sessions. The Capacity Building Fund has demonstrated that co-location, when possible, is an important strategy to help build effective health care teams. Two general categories of tools were developed for the implementation of health care teams. First, tools were developed for providers, such as orientation manuals and clinical guides. As well, one project developed an interdisciplinary training manual for health care providers involved in Alberta’s Primary Care Networks. Second, tools were developed to assist patients during the implementation and use of health teams, such as personal logbooks for patients to identify which providers are involved in their care and health trackers to manage healthy living. The Interdisciplinary Training program developed a training manual for the development of teams in PCN’s. As well, the Office Improvement Project is assisting PCN’s to establish teams to implement a more integrated approach to the delivery of primary care services in physicians’ offices and to determine what team members are appropriate for physicians’ patient populations. A Practice Needs Assessment is available for clinics who are interested in projects for Advanced Access. Processes and Tools Taber: A community needs assessment was completed to identify the population needs. The Local Improvement Committee includes participation from clinic and reception staff, as well as physicians. Championship Teams, a process presented by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement, were formed. Championship Teams modules were completed, and provided support for the Advanced Access initiatives in the area. The Family Practice teams have been developed using Work Flow Mapping process, facilitated by a department at the Alberta Medical Association called Toward Optimized Practice (TOP). A Program Budget and Marginal Analysis (PBMA), which is a priority setting framework developed by economists at the University of Calgary (Cam Donaldson and Craig Mitton), was used to prioritize needs and programs. For more information regarding any of the above see http://www.health.gov.ab.ca/key/phc.html. Source: Facilitation Manual Engaging PCN Teams in Change: A workshop, held in June 2006, supported by Alberta Health and Wellness, for leaders from health regions and Primary Care Networks, with significant participation from primary care physicians, gave a boost to team development. On-going support to PCN teams is offered through the Alberta Medical Association program Towards Optimized 29
  30. 30. Practice. For further information, contact: doug.stich@topalbertadoctors.org Toward Optimized Practice. Team Development in Primary Care Networks: Supported by Alberta Health and Wellness, Capital Health and Calgary Health Regions hosted a project to develop a manual which supports interdisciplinary teamwork in Primary Care Networks across Alberta. It includes learning activities and resources on system context, using evidence, building teams, collaboration and scope of practice and sustaining team facilitators. For further information contact: Kelly.Holmes@gov.ab.ca, Alberta Health and Wellness. Source: EICP A Joint Statement on Resolving Ethical Conflicts Between Providers of Healthcare and Persons Receiving Care, was developed by the Alberta Provincial Health Ethics Network, statement from the CHA, CMA, CAN and CHAC, June 8, 1998. For further information see http://www.phen.ab.ca/pcons/jsrc.html. Chinook Primary Care Network Communications Plan: The Chinook Health Region in southwestern Alberta has prepared a comprehensive communications plan to get its messages about primary health care out to multiple stakeholder groups. For further information see CPCN comm plan 2006. Chinook Primary Care Network Evaluation Workplan: The Chinook Health Region in southwestern Alberta has prepared a service evaluation plan to assess effectiveness in five key PHC areas. For further information see CPCN Evaluation Workplan. 3.5.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations Health First Strathcona has implemented e-triage that is used by all Emergency Departments in the region to ensure more accurate reporting. Pincher Creek Rural Health Care Initiative has integrated the clinic’s electronic medical record. The medical record includes electronic access to radiology reports and electronic lab results. Also, the initiative has created a registry to track chronic disease patients and electronic reminders for physicians about patients in the medical record. Taber: Data support for decision making was obtained from the local clinic Electronic Medical Record, regional Medi-Tech, and provincial AHW data. 3.5.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations Learnings from Capacity Building Fund (CBF) projects show that developing a multidisciplinary team is a slow process. Furthermore, delays in facility construction and limited office space often provided barriers to co-location. In developing multi-disciplinary teams, it is important that all team members have a common understanding of who the members of “their” team are, particularly for those who are members of more than one team. Learnings from Capacity Building Fund initiatives suggest that the more intense the interaction between team members on a daily basis the quicker they will feel as part of a team. Most importantly, teams take time to develop. Potential strategies to build a team include co-location, unstructured opportunities to relationship build (coffee breaks, etc), mutual dependency in providing effective patient care, and a stable team membership. Taber: Regional programs sometimes feel their turf is infringed upon, and their professional roles are being usurped, leading to suspicion and obstruction at management levels. The silos and acute care focus remains a major issue to manage. 30
  31. 31. 3.5.7. Evaluation A ‘Team Functioning’ survey was developed by external evaluators to assess team processes in Capacity Building Fund initiatives, including communication, orientation, leadership, feedback and coordination. The evaluation determined that facilitators to team satisfaction are good communication, co-location, knowledge and respect for others’ abilities, shared vision and values, strong leadership and mutual trust. On the other hand, barriers to team satisfaction included lack of structured and unstructured opportunities to work together, lack of role clarity, forced team participation, and lack of stability in team membership. 3.5.8. Funding sources The Capacity Building Fund provided support for the development of multidisciplinary teams in the various initiatives. Regional Health Authorities fund the operation of teams and most often pay providers’ salaries. As well, other sources of funding have been used, such as the Medical Services Delivery Fund that provides funding for alternate payment plans for physicians. Physicians involved in these teams are largely paid by fee for service billing for the health services they provide. In Health First Strathcona, the physicians are on an alternate payment plan rather than fee for service. In other projects, including the Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Network, PHC Chronic Disease Management, the Shared Mental Health Care Network, physicians receive payment through an alternate payment plan in addition to fee for service to cover other services for the initiative, such as planning or tool development. Other team members, such as nurses, are paid a salary by the initiatives. Health Link Alberta, Capacity Building Fund initiatives and other provincial coordination activities were funded through the PHCTF, Health Canada. PCN’s are funded through the Primary Care Initiative Agreement. The Physician Office Support Program (POSP) was part of the last negotiation between government and the Alberta Medical Association, providing funding for hardware and software in physician offices. It was responsible for the 65%+ computerization of physician offices in the province. 3.6. Saskatchewan 3.6.1. Service Changes and Partnerships Saskatchewan’s Action Plan for Primary Health Care (PHC) is an integrated system of health services available on a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week basis through Regional Health Authority (RHA) managed networks and teams of health care providers. The goal of the plan is to have networks and teams established in all regions with accessibility to 100% of the population by the end of 10 years. It is based on a collaborative, interdisciplinary team approach to service planning and delivery. Each Regional Health Authority (RHA) is mandated to develop a network of care provider teams to deliver primary health care services, and to provide case management to coordinate services. Primary health care networks throughout the province will offer a full range of core primary health care services. A network within a Health Region consists of all the teams that interact with each other. This may include program teams, central teams, satellite and visiting teams. RHAs will generally be a network as specialized program teams may service the whole region. 31
  32. 32. The team extends to include representatives from the community and other human service sectors such as Education, Social Services, Justice and Municipal Government, as well as the public. 3.6.2. Teams Clients who live within the PHC team area, or within a physician practice, are provided service by the team. Primary health care networks and team structures vary depending on the geographic or social needs of the population. Teams vary in size and complement depending upon the assessed needs of the community and availability of resources. Program Teams Program teams form part of the network. There may be one or several of each program team in a Health Region depending on the population served. Some examples of these teams may be mental health, specialized programs, public health (population based i.e. Medical Health Officer, nutritionist, etc.), emergency response teams, and chronic disease management teams (e.g. diabetic management team). These teams would link to all teams in the network. Teams would exist in institutions as well. Much of what happens in a hospital or Emergency Room is considered primary health care. The management of many medical conditions involves some time in hospital. The hospital and emergency room teams must be linked to the community teams. Further, most of the health care needs that are being met in special care homes are primary health care services. Teams that provide service in special care homes should function on primary health care principles. Central Team A central team is envisioned to have at a minimum a group of 3 - 4 physicians and a primary care nurse practitioner serving a population of approximately 5,000 including satellite and visiting locations. In urban areas physician groups may be larger, with 5 - 10 physicians and with 1 or 2 primary care nurse practitioners, and therefore serve a larger population. Although co-location may be desirable for all team members in most cases, this may not be immediately attainable. At a minimum, the nurse practitioner should be co-located with the physician group. An urban centre may have many central teams serving different communities within the urban boundaries. A central team may provide visiting services to satellite and visiting locations and provide needed support to smaller teams. An urban centre may have several central locations and team members may be by way of a virtual team. The key idea is the core team members know each other well and can share the responsibilities of clinical management, proactive care, or health promotion and injury prevention. Satellite Teams The satellite team will be connected to a central team and receive visiting services from the central team. A satellite location is envisioned as a community where resident staff or visiting staff offers health promotion and prevention services, clinical services and access to emergency services. A range of basic services is delivered to meet the health needs of the individual, family 32
  33. 33. and community closer to home. A satellite location will at a minimum have the following services on site: a primary care nurse practitioner; and a primary care physician (visiting). The following services would be offered by visiting staff: laboratory (specimen collection abilities) visiting or part time services; public health; home care; therapies; and/ or emergency services based on geographic needs. The client/ patient would generally need to travel for other services. 3.6.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support There are Directors of PHC in all of the regions, and Facilitators in place to support changes in the PHC team areas. 3.6.4. Processes and Tools There were formalized processes and tools developed to support PHC changes in the team areas including: • Focus groups were held to determine potential facilitators and barriers to team development; • Train the trainer sessions for formal Facilitators were held in the team areas; • Team workshops were delivered by the Facilitators to team members in their areas; • Guidelines were provided for the development of RHA plans; and • Provincial PHC Services Branch was established with the following objectives: o to support and facilitate the process of implementing Saskatchewan’s Action Plan for Primary Health Care; o to develop the policy framework for Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) to plan and organize their primary health care service delivery within regions; and o to develop a strategy to control diabetes across the province. In 2005 the University of Saskatchewan was successful in a submission to Health Canada for a 3-year $1.196 M project entitled, quot;Patient-Centred Inter-professional Team Experiencesquot;. For more information see (P-CITE). http://www.pcite.ca/ The overall goal of the P-CITE Program is to improve the health of communities, families and individuals across the province through engagement of communities and academic institutions in implementing and evaluating inter-professional teams for patient-centred health care. The objectives are to: develop innovative inter-professional patient-centred education programs and settings and evaluate their benefits; • stimulate spread of best approaches to inter-professional patient-centred education; and • increase health professionals exposure to inter-professional patient-centred education. 33
  34. 34. Processes and Tools Source: Facilitation Guide Team Facilitator Training: This training has been developed to support the development of team facilitators in Saskatchewan. For more information see www.health.gov.sk.ca/ph_br_phs.html. Facilitator Network: This provincial forum supports the work of provincial team facilitators through quarterly meetings guided by a systems-thinking approach. It offers support with orientation of new facilitators, continuing education, information and resource sharing, regional and provincial updates, and updates on facilitation work/initiatives in other areas of the country. For more information, contact Primary Health Services Branch, Saskatchewan Health or gary.n@pnrh.ca, Saskatchewan Health. Comprehensive Community Information System (CCIS): CCIS is an innovative vehicle for sharing resources, information, tools and knowledge, for sparking curiosity, identifying key wellness issues and determining priorities. It also promotes evidence-based research, programming, policy development and evaluation. CCIS is also a community-based tool that fosters empowerment through the sharing of information and through a collaborative, holistic and humanistic approach to the ongoing process of community wellness. For more information, visit http://ccis.cronustech.com. Source: EICP/ CFPC Tool-kits Pilot Project in PHC Team Development: Saskatchewan Health, through a partnership with Med-Emerg International and the Centre for Strategic Management (CSM), developed a pilot project on interdisciplinary primary health care teams. It contains team effectiveness tools, team charter templates, and team facilitator workshops. As a result of team development project there were also funded team facilitators in each of RHAs. The team focus developed in Saskatchewan was based on systems thinking. CSM uses a five step approach quot;ABCDEquot; model to lead organizations through change and team development. For more information see http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/ps_phs_teamdev.pdf. Team Charters: A team charter (team mandate or terms of reference) is a working document that defines the team and its scope of work. The charter is a useful foundation document that supports a team discussion on purpose, roles and elements of team functioning. For more information contact the Saskatoon Health Region. Facilitationforum: To support the sharing of information between colleagues, an internet-based group page has been established where facilitators can dialogue about their work. Facilitationforum has been set up through Yahoo! Groups, a free service that offers a convenient way to connect with others who share the same interests and ideas. For more information contact: saskatoonhealthregion.ca, Saskatoon Health Region. Team Facilitator Training: This training has been developed to support the development of team facilitators in Saskatchewan. For more information see www.health.gov.sk.ca/ph_br_phs.html 3.6.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations No information is available at this time. 3.6.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations No information is available at this time. 34
  35. 35. 3.6.7. Evaluation There was a formal evaluation completed for the team development process. 3.6.8. Funding The PHCTF provided funds for some of the change activities, and team development. 3.7. Manitoba 3.7.1. Service Changes and Partnerships No information is available at this time. 3.7.2. Teams No information is available at this time. 3.7.3. Physician/ Other Leadership/ Facilitation Support No information is available at this time. 3.7.4. Processes and Tools The processes and tolls included were identified through the Facilitation Guide. Processes and Tools Primary Health Care Lens: This easy-to-use tool encourages reflection on the degree to which PHC is integrated into provider’s work. It has been used with communities and staff as a means to evaluate existing programs and design new ones so that they are aligned with the principles of PHC. For more information, contact: bkozak@arha.ca, Assiniboine Regional Health Authority. Move to PHC: The NOR-MAN RHA has facilitated a PHC change process focused on building capacity, encouraging collaboration, working within a common vision and using communication processes to validate change. By providing a clear, collective and individual understanding of PHC concepts imperative to success, this process changed the way NOR-MAN RHA operates. For more information, contact: mgray@normanrha.mb.ca, NOR-MAN Regional Health Authority. Change Management Workshop: It is crucial to recognize that staff members are at different points in the change cycle. As part of their move-to-PHC plan, NOR/MAN RHA, staff collaborated to offer a session to assist staff with the change process. For more information, contact: mgray@normanrha.mb.ca, NOR-MAN Regional Health Authority. One Window Approach: This tool was developed to provide a continuum of service among service providers (within the health care system and with community partners). It is both a tool and a process to assess current programs and create a plan for action to make necessary improvements in: collaborative work, information sharing and referrals, aligning resources, capacity building, assessment, tracking, monitoring and evaluation and communication and connections. For more information, contact: bkozak@arha.ca, Assiniboine Regional Health Authority. 3.7.5. Other Facilitators of Innovations No information is available at this time. 35
  36. 36. 3.7.6. Outstanding Barriers to Innovations No information is available at this time. 3.7.7. Evaluation No information is available at this time. 3.7.8. Funding No information is available at this time. 3.8. Quebec 3.8.1. Service Changes and Partnerships One of the models that has been given priority for the integration of health care is the introduction and development of the Family Medicine Groups (FMG’s) over the next few years. Patient management, which involves both continuity and accessibility, requires the creation of medical teams that include nurses. A formal agreement is signed with a local health and social services network development (CSSS’s) agency. The FMG’s offer of services must comply with the regional plan for the organization of general medical services, as assessed by the regional department of general medicine. In exchange, this agreement with the agency calls for technical and financial support to be provided to support the organization of FMS services proportional to the number of individuals who are registered (9 000, 12 000, 15 000, 19 000, 24 000 or 30 000 individuals). Technical support includes the computerization of the FMGs, in particular, access to test results and data on medications. Computerization of the FMGs is done in compliance with the Ministry’s general plan for the computerization of the health care network. The agency is also responsible for supporting the FMGs and the CSSSs in their efforts to establish functional links, thereby promoting access to diagnostic services and specialized services. The FMG is defined as an organization made up of family physicians who work as a group, in close cooperation with nurses and other professionals such as pharmacists and social workers. The FMG offers a range of primary care services with an adapted 24/7 service for patients who voluntarily register with a physician who is a member of the FMG. The FMG enters into agreements with other partners (e.g. CSSS’s, pharmacists, etc.) in order to provide a complete range of services. These activities must be a part of the agency’s regional plan for the organization of general medical services (RPOS). The FMG primarily provides a structure for the family physician’s primary care activities, in the office on an appointment or drop-in basis, or in the home for individuals whose mobility is severely limited, during business hours on weekdays and on a drop-in basis on weekends. The physicians also work in several other settings (emergency care, long-term hospital care, short- term hospital care, palliative care, etc.) that do not fall within the scope of the FMG but with which integration objectives are being pursued. 3.8.2. Teams In June 2004, 1995 local service networks were created across the province to bring services to the population and to enhance service accessibility, coordination, and continuity. To achieve the objectives of accessibility, continuity, and quality, all of the CSSS’s, with partners in their local 36