Envisioning a Healthy Community
“ We shape our  environments,   thereafter they  shape us.”
What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
What kind of city have we shaped? density diversity design
Data from the USGS and FEMA.
Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
first developed: 1900’s downtown 173 blocks  527 acres 3.0 acre mean 2.0 acre typical platted block  streets 236 acres  18...
Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
cherry street blocks 156 blocks  519 acres 3.3 acre mean streets 115 acres  157 intersections 15 signalized intersections ...
Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
miracle mile blocks 59 blocks  575 acres 9.75 acre mean 66 acre maximum block streets 64 acres  126 intersections 6 signal...
Data from the US Census Bureau.
 
density trends
Data from the US Census Bureau.
golden rectangle population: 97,000 28% of tulsa county Data from the US Census Bureau.
golden rectangle 97,000 people 28% of tulsa county broken arrow 7,800 people Data from the US Census Bureau.
Data from the US Census Bureau.
golden rectangle population: 50,000 9% of tulsa county Data from the US Census Bureau.
golden rectangle population: 50,000 9% of tulsa county broken arrow population: 75,000 Data from the US Census Bureau.
Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county 988 persons/sq.mi. city of tulsa 1,985 persons/sq.mi. urbanized area 2,752 pe...
tulsa county 988 persons/sq.mi. city of tulsa 1,985 persons/sq.mi. urbanized area 2,752 persons/sq.mi.
density comparison persons per square mile of urbanized area Data from the Alain Bertaud,  Order without Design , 2003.
tulsa county 1.96 du/acre city of tulsa 2.31 du/acre urbanized area 2.56 du/acre Data from the US Census Bureau.
Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county 1.96 du/acre city of tulsa 2.31 du/acre urbanized area 2.56 du/acre
What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers…
 
Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
LUIS land use intensification system Data from INCOG.
tulsa county total population: 563,299 minority population: 140,718 25% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 m...
Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county total population: 563,299 minority population: 140,718 25% minority city of t...
tulsa county total population: 563,299 african american population: 61,656 11% minority city of tulsa total population: 39...
tulsa county total population: 563,299 hispanic population: 33,616 6% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 afr...
Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county total population: 563,299 hispanic population: 33,616 6% minority city of tul...
tulsa county median age: 35.1 Data from the US Census Bureau.
tulsa county median age: 35.1 Data from the US Census Bureau. Data from the US Census Bureau.
tulsa county average family size: 3.03 average household size: 2.43 tulsa public schools 1977 enrollment: 61,000 - 20% min...
tulsa county 1980 median income: $17,350 Data from the US Census Bureau.
tulsa county 2000 median income: $41,666 Data from the US Census Bureau.
tulsa county 2000 median income: $41,666 gini coefficient denmark 24.7 eur. union 31.0 canada 32.1 usa 45.0 oklahoma 46.0 ...
What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers, segregated populations,...
commuting mode share transportation average commute time: 19 minutes vehicle miles traveled per day: 29 average vehicle co...
street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
street network downtown cherry street miracle mile Photographs from INCOG and Google Earth.
street design Sheridan Road Utica Avenue
Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
average headways: 46 minutes transit riders per year: 2,661,245 Data from Tulsa Transit.
public transportation peer city comparison Data and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers, segregated populations,...
What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
public health issues: then overcrowding sanitation and hygiene infectious diseases From  How the Other Half Lives  by Jaco...
public health issues: now chronic disease motor vehicle accidents environmental quality obesity
air quality Mobile sources are a major source of air pollution. tulsa air shed annual average ozone alert days: 11 current...
crashes oklahoma fatalities:  765 injuries: 40,960 tulsa county fatalities:  63 pedestrian fatalities: 7 bicycle fatalitie...
fitness In 1969, 90% of children walked or biked to school. In 2000, 50% of children were driven by their parents. oklahom...
social capital Tulsa drivers travel 21,209,000 miles per day. Data from the Tulsa Congestion Management Process, INCOG: 20...
mental health Little is known about the relationship  between urban form and mental health. Estimates show 32.6% of Oklaho...
special populations Approximately 1/3 of the Tulsa population cannot  drive; many live miles from a grocery store.
How is our city shaping us? Low-density, segregated use environments designed around the automobile lower air quality, lea...
What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
Evidence Based Urban Design rooted in the emerging science  of human settlements known as  ekistics : public health sustai...
low density segregated uses automobile dependence compact development mixed uses multi-modal transport
low density segregated uses automobile dependence compact development mixed uses multi-modal transport values and principl...
theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
<ul><li>Resources are rare and difficult to obtain. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature cannot be understood and is feared. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Resources are plentiful and should be exploited. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is separate from a nature that can be manip...
<ul><li>Resources are finite and should be conserved. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are part of a ecosystem subject to natural ...
interconnectivity   diversity   cycles   succession   boundaries   feedback   ecological principles
land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
link externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making feedback
feedback   link   externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making
feedback   link externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making
How do we envision a healthy community? Healthy communities are created using evidence based urban design founded on the v...
theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
before downtown
after downtown
before cherry street
cherry street after
before miracle mile
after miracle mile
more information? University of Oklahoma Urban Design Studio. http://tulsagrad.ou.edu/studio Strategies for Tulsa’s Compre...
fieldwork
 
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Envisioning a Healthy Community

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Anchoring Lecture for the University of Oklahoma School of Commmunity Medicine 2009 Summer Institute

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Transcript of "Envisioning a Healthy Community"

  1. 1. Envisioning a Healthy Community
  2. 2. “ We shape our environments, thereafter they shape us.”
  3. 3. What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
  4. 4. What kind of city have we shaped? density diversity design
  5. 5. Data from the USGS and FEMA.
  6. 6. Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
  7. 7. first developed: 1900’s downtown 173 blocks 527 acres 3.0 acre mean 2.0 acre typical platted block streets 236 acres 186 intersections 98 signalized intersections rotated grid aligned with railroad right of way typical square blocks circumscribing highway loop irregular blocks at edges superblocks at major building complexes characteristics blocks
  8. 8. Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
  9. 9. cherry street blocks 156 blocks 519 acres 3.3 acre mean streets 115 acres 157 intersections 15 signalized intersections cardinal oriented grid inscribed in section roads overlapping sub-grids from subdivision plats rectangular blocks varying orientation collector streets with connections to arterials characteristics first developed: 1920’s
  10. 10. Data from the US Census Bureau. Photographs from the Beryl Ford Collection.
  11. 11. miracle mile blocks 59 blocks 575 acres 9.75 acre mean 66 acre maximum block streets 64 acres 126 intersections 6 signalized intersections dendritic street system inscribed in section roads curved streets and cul-de-sacs irregular blocks few collector streets discourages through traffic characteristics first developed: 1960’s
  12. 12. Data from the US Census Bureau.
  13. 14. density trends
  14. 15. Data from the US Census Bureau.
  15. 16. golden rectangle population: 97,000 28% of tulsa county Data from the US Census Bureau.
  16. 17. golden rectangle 97,000 people 28% of tulsa county broken arrow 7,800 people Data from the US Census Bureau.
  17. 18. Data from the US Census Bureau.
  18. 19. golden rectangle population: 50,000 9% of tulsa county Data from the US Census Bureau.
  19. 20. golden rectangle population: 50,000 9% of tulsa county broken arrow population: 75,000 Data from the US Census Bureau.
  20. 21. Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county 988 persons/sq.mi. city of tulsa 1,985 persons/sq.mi. urbanized area 2,752 persons/sq.mi.
  21. 22. tulsa county 988 persons/sq.mi. city of tulsa 1,985 persons/sq.mi. urbanized area 2,752 persons/sq.mi.
  22. 23. density comparison persons per square mile of urbanized area Data from the Alain Bertaud, Order without Design , 2003.
  23. 24. tulsa county 1.96 du/acre city of tulsa 2.31 du/acre urbanized area 2.56 du/acre Data from the US Census Bureau.
  24. 25. Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county 1.96 du/acre city of tulsa 2.31 du/acre urbanized area 2.56 du/acre
  25. 26. What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers…
  26. 28. Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
  27. 29. Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
  28. 30. Data from the USGS Earth Observation System.
  29. 31. LUIS land use intensification system Data from INCOG.
  30. 32. tulsa county total population: 563,299 minority population: 140,718 25% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 minority population: 117,561 30% minority Data from the US Census Bureau.
  31. 33. Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county total population: 563,299 minority population: 140,718 25% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 minority population: 117,561 30% minority
  32. 34. tulsa county total population: 563,299 african american population: 61,656 11% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 african american population: 60,794 16% minority Data from the US Census Bureau.
  33. 35. tulsa county total population: 563,299 hispanic population: 33,616 6% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 african american population: 28,111 7% minority Data from the US Census Bureau.
  34. 36. Data from the US Census Bureau. tulsa county total population: 563,299 hispanic population: 33,616 6% minority city of tulsa total population: 393,049 african american population: 28,111 7% minority
  35. 37. tulsa county median age: 35.1 Data from the US Census Bureau.
  36. 38. tulsa county median age: 35.1 Data from the US Census Bureau. Data from the US Census Bureau.
  37. 39. tulsa county average family size: 3.03 average household size: 2.43 tulsa public schools 1977 enrollment: 61,000 - 20% minority 2007 enrollment: 42,000 - 65% minority 85% below the poverty line
  38. 40. tulsa county 1980 median income: $17,350 Data from the US Census Bureau.
  39. 41. tulsa county 2000 median income: $41,666 Data from the US Census Bureau.
  40. 42. tulsa county 2000 median income: $41,666 gini coefficient denmark 24.7 eur. union 31.0 canada 32.1 usa 45.0 oklahoma 46.0 mexico 46.1 tulsa county 47.4 swaziland 50.4 city of tulsa 50.4 peru 52.0 namibia 76.0 Data from the US Census Bureau and the CIA Factbook.
  41. 43. What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers, segregated populations, and isolated land uses…
  42. 44. commuting mode share transportation average commute time: 19 minutes vehicle miles traveled per day: 29 average vehicle costs: $8,121 trips per household: 9.1 over 90% of all trips by automobile Data from Destination 2030 Regional Transportation Plan by INCOG.
  43. 45. street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
  44. 46. street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
  45. 47. street network florence park Photograph from Google Earth.
  46. 48. street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
  47. 49. street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
  48. 50. street network south tulsa Photograph from Google Earth.
  49. 51. street network downtown cherry street miracle mile Photographs from INCOG and Google Earth.
  50. 52. street design Sheridan Road Utica Avenue
  51. 53. Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
  52. 54. Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
  53. 55. Map and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
  54. 56. average headways: 46 minutes transit riders per year: 2,661,245 Data from Tulsa Transit.
  55. 57. public transportation peer city comparison Data and analysis by Kimley-Horn and Associates for PlaniTulsa: 2008.
  56. 58. What kind of city have we shaped? A low-density environment with diffuse boundaries, weak centers, segregated populations, and isolated land uses designed for automobiles as the primary means of transport.
  57. 59. What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
  58. 60. public health issues: then overcrowding sanitation and hygiene infectious diseases From How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis. Dr. John Snow and his London cholera epidemic map.
  59. 61. public health issues: now chronic disease motor vehicle accidents environmental quality obesity
  60. 62. air quality Mobile sources are a major source of air pollution. tulsa air shed annual average ozone alert days: 11 current 3-year average ozone level: .075 ppm EPA 3-year standard ozone level: .075 ppm Air quality data from INCOG.
  61. 63. crashes oklahoma fatalities: 765 injuries: 40,960 tulsa county fatalities: 63 pedestrian fatalities: 7 bicycle fatalities: 0 injuries: 8,774 pedestrian injuries: 162 bicycle injuries: 76 Accident data from the Oklahoma Highway Safety Office, 2006 crash data.
  62. 64. fitness In 1969, 90% of children walked or biked to school. In 2000, 50% of children were driven by their parents. oklahoma normal weight (bmi<25): 33.4% overweight (25<bmi<30): 35.3% obese (bmi>30): 30.3% Data from the Centers for Disease Control: 2008.
  63. 65. social capital Tulsa drivers travel 21,209,000 miles per day. Data from the Tulsa Congestion Management Process, INCOG: 2009.
  64. 66. mental health Little is known about the relationship between urban form and mental health. Estimates show 32.6% of Oklahoma adults report poor mental health. Data from the Centers for Disease Control: 2007.
  65. 67. special populations Approximately 1/3 of the Tulsa population cannot drive; many live miles from a grocery store.
  66. 68. How is our city shaping us? Low-density, segregated use environments designed around the automobile lower air quality, lead to more car crashes, reduce social capital and may contribute to decreased physical activity, chronic health risks and poor mental health.
  67. 69. What kind of city have we shaped? How is our city shaping us? How do we envision a healthy community?
  68. 70. Evidence Based Urban Design rooted in the emerging science of human settlements known as ekistics : public health sustainability climatology social justice transportation engineering urban economics
  69. 71. low density segregated uses automobile dependence compact development mixed uses multi-modal transport
  70. 72. low density segregated uses automobile dependence compact development mixed uses multi-modal transport values and principles at the root of the civilization
  71. 73. theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
  72. 74. <ul><li>Resources are rare and difficult to obtain. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature cannot be understood and is feared. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans live in a world dominated by outside forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is gained through divine contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Educated classes: priests and rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary energy source: photosynthesis from live plants. </li></ul>theistic civilization
  73. 75. <ul><li>Resources are plentiful and should be exploited. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is separate from a nature that can be manipulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and consumption are the normal condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is gained by breaking things into smaller parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Educated classes: scholars and professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary energy source: photosynthesis from dead plants. </li></ul>anthropomorphic civilization
  74. 76. <ul><li>Resources are finite and should be conserved. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are part of a ecosystem subject to natural laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic equilibrium is the norm. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is gained by perceiving wholes and cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Educated classes: everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary energy source: technical photosynthesis. </li></ul>ecological civilization
  75. 77. interconnectivity diversity cycles succession boundaries feedback ecological principles
  76. 78. land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
  77. 79. land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
  78. 80. land use and transportation local food and resources complete streets interconnectivity
  79. 81. eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
  80. 82. eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
  81. 83. eliminate monocultures mixed uses social and biodiversity diversity
  82. 84. waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
  83. 85. waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
  84. 86. waste = food reuse, recycle, reduce renewable energy cycles
  85. 87. conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
  86. 88. conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
  87. 89. conserve undeveloped areas refill abandoned areas retrofit the suburbs succession
  88. 90. human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
  89. 91. human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
  90. 92. human scale active transportation limits on development boundaries
  91. 93. link externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making feedback
  92. 94. feedback link externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making
  93. 95. feedback link externalities smaller organizations distributed decision making
  94. 96. How do we envision a healthy community? Healthy communities are created using evidence based urban design founded on the values and principles of an ecological civilization and the rigorous study of human settlement.
  95. 97. theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
  96. 98. theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
  97. 99. theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
  98. 100. theistic model anthropomorphic model ecological model paradigm shift
  99. 101. before downtown
  100. 102. after downtown
  101. 103. before cherry street
  102. 104. cherry street after
  103. 105. before miracle mile
  104. 106. after miracle mile
  105. 107. more information? University of Oklahoma Urban Design Studio. http://tulsagrad.ou.edu/studio Strategies for Tulsa’s Comprehensive Plan. http://placesllc.wordpress.com Understanding the Relationship Between Public Health and the Built Environment . Reid Ewing and Richard Kruetzer. United States Green Building Council: 2006. http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=3901 Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning and Building for Healthy Communities. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank and Richard Jackson. Island Press: 2004.
  106. 108. fieldwork

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