NatCen Briefing:  Reconciling Parenthood and Work Mari Toomse, Research Director, Mari.Toomse@natcen.ac.uk Eloise Poole, S...
Briefing overview Background I ntroduction to the study <ul><li>Fathers’ results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking time off bef...
Recent policy context Work and Families Act 2006 Extension of Paternity Leave April 2011 Modern Workplaces Consultation 20...
Aims of research Examine the effect of legislative changes on take up of maternity pay and leave and return to work Identi...
Study overview Maternity and Paternity Rights and Women Returners Survey Funded by DWP and BIS Face-to-face survey of moth...
Publication of findings DWP Research Report 777: Maternity and Paternity Rights and Women Returners http://research.dwp.go...
Fathers Fathers
Taking time off before birth <ul><li>Women usually require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 antenatal scans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Taking time off after birth <ul><li>Until April 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 weeks off Paternity Leave during the first tw...
Taking time off before birth
Did fathers take time off before birth? Base: All fathers
How much time did fathers take off? Base: All fathers who took time off
How did they take time off? Base: All fathers who took time off before birth
Taking time off after birth
Did fathers take time off after birth? Base: All fathers
How much time did fathers take off? Base: All fathers who took some time off
How did fathers take time off? Base: All fathers who took some time off after birth
Who took paternity leave? Base: All employed fathers who took time off after baby’s birth
Who took paternity leave? Base: All employed fathers who took time off after baby’s birth
Number of weeks of Paternity Leave at full pay Base: All fathers who took paternity leave
Who did not receive full pay? Fathers were less likely to receive full pay if: <ul><ul><li>Worked for a small or medium si...
Reasons for not taking paternity leave Base: Fathers who did not take paternity leave
Summary <ul><li>Two-thirds of fathers took time off before birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than half took more than 2 day...
Mothers – Maternity Leave
Maternity leave – current legislation <ul><li>Employed mothers are entitled to 52 weeks of statutory maternity leave </li>...
Maternity leave – 2007 changes <ul><li>Work and Families Act 2006: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory Maternity Leave extende...
Maternity Leave and Maternity Pay
Mothers taking longer maternity leave:  key characteristics
Mothers taking longer maternity leave: key characteristics
Mothers – Maternity Pay
Maternity Pay
Mothers – Return to work
Return to work <ul><li>Share of mothers returning to work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 – 77% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200...
Return to work – key characteristics
Return to work – key characteristics
Return to work – key characteristics
Working hours before and after birth
Mothers – Summary <ul><li>Following the 2007 policy changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More mothers taking longer periods of l...
Conclusion Work and Families Act 2006 has enabled mothers to take longer leave Evidence on impact on return to work is not...
Conclusion Fathers are taking time off before birth After birth many fathers are taking more than their statutory entitlem...
Conclusion Majority of time fathers take off before birth is paid Majority of fathers receive some paternity leave at full...
For discussion How can this evidence help in developing the system of shared parental leave?
Questions & Answers
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Reconciling parenthood and work - NatCen briefing

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  • Paternity Rights have so far been limited compared to Maternity Rights.
  • Looking at mothers taking longer periods of leave (that is periods of leave 40 weeks or more) we can also see a large increase between 2006 and 2008. The take-up of longer leave amongst mothers did vary by various characteristics, though many of the observed differences of mothers taking longer leave are less in 2008 than in 2006.
  • Reconciling parenthood and work - NatCen briefing

    1. 1. NatCen Briefing: Reconciling Parenthood and Work Mari Toomse, Research Director, Mari.Toomse@natcen.ac.uk Eloise Poole, Senior Researcher, Eloise.Poole@natcen.ac.uk
    2. 2. Briefing overview Background I ntroduction to the study <ul><li>Fathers’ results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking time off before birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking time off after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mothers’ results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternity leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returning to work </li></ul></ul>Question and answer session
    3. 3. Recent policy context Work and Families Act 2006 Extension of Paternity Leave April 2011 Modern Workplaces Consultation 2011 Focus is shifting towards shared parenting
    4. 4. Aims of research Examine the effect of legislative changes on take up of maternity pay and leave and return to work Identify differences between groups of mothers Identify choices and constraints for not returning Examine take up of paternity leave and pay
    5. 5. Study overview Maternity and Paternity Rights and Women Returners Survey Funded by DWP and BIS Face-to-face survey of mothers Telephone survey of fathers Fieldwork conducted in 2009/10 Babies born May to September 2008 Sample from Child Benefit records
    6. 6. Publication of findings DWP Research Report 777: Maternity and Paternity Rights and Women Returners http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2011-2012/rrep777.pdf Research Summary Data in the UK Data Archive
    7. 7. Fathers Fathers
    8. 8. Taking time off before birth <ul><li>Women usually require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 antenatal scans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7-10 antenatal appointments </li></ul></ul>Mothers can invite fathers along <ul><li>Attending antenatal appointments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes father more committed to pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages active involvement in child’s upbringing </li></ul></ul>No entitlements at the moment Fathers encouraged to take time off
    9. 9. Taking time off after birth <ul><li>Until April 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 weeks off Paternity Leave during the first two months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid at a flat rate (£117 p/w in 2008/09) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From April 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If mother goes back to work father can take remaining entitlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 20 weeks </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Taking time off before birth
    11. 11. Did fathers take time off before birth? Base: All fathers
    12. 12. How much time did fathers take off? Base: All fathers who took time off
    13. 13. How did they take time off? Base: All fathers who took time off before birth
    14. 14. Taking time off after birth
    15. 15. Did fathers take time off after birth? Base: All fathers
    16. 16. How much time did fathers take off? Base: All fathers who took some time off
    17. 17. How did fathers take time off? Base: All fathers who took some time off after birth
    18. 18. Who took paternity leave? Base: All employed fathers who took time off after baby’s birth
    19. 19. Who took paternity leave? Base: All employed fathers who took time off after baby’s birth
    20. 20. Number of weeks of Paternity Leave at full pay Base: All fathers who took paternity leave
    21. 21. Who did not receive full pay? Fathers were less likely to receive full pay if: <ul><ul><li>Worked for a small or medium sized private employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had lower pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had access to fewer family friendly arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked as a process, plant or machine operatives or in elementary occupations </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Reasons for not taking paternity leave Base: Fathers who did not take paternity leave
    23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Two-thirds of fathers took time off before birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than half took more than 2 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast majority took paid leave </li></ul></ul>9 out of 10 fathers took time off after birth Three quarters did it by taking paternity leave Three quarters took two weeks or more 4 out of 5 received full pay for at least some time Affordability of paternity leave was an issue for some fathers
    24. 24. Mothers – Maternity Leave
    25. 25. Maternity leave – current legislation <ul><li>Employed mothers are entitled to 52 weeks of statutory maternity leave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39 weeks may be paid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 weeks are unpaid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employed mothers who qualify for statutory maternity pay (SMP) receive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 weeks of paid leave at 90% of average earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33 weeks of leave at a ‘flat rate’ </li></ul></ul>Self employed mothers and non-qualifying mothers rec ei ve all paid leave at ‘flat rate’ <ul><li>If after 20 weeks of leave a mother returns to work, her partner can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T ake up to 26 weeks of leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take any remaining pay </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Maternity leave – 2007 changes <ul><li>Work and Families Act 2006: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory Maternity Leave extended to 52 weeks for all mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory Maternity Pay and Maternity Allowance from 26 to 39 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of Keeping in Touch Days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give mothers a chance to spend more time with the baby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate return to work </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Maternity Leave and Maternity Pay
    28. 28. Mothers taking longer maternity leave: key characteristics
    29. 29. Mothers taking longer maternity leave: key characteristics
    30. 30. Mothers – Maternity Pay
    31. 31. Maternity Pay
    32. 32. Mothers – Return to work
    33. 33. Return to work <ul><li>Share of mothers returning to work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 – 77% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 – 76% </li></ul></ul>No significant difference in return to work rate between 2006 and 2008
    34. 34. Return to work – key characteristics
    35. 35. Return to work – key characteristics
    36. 36. Return to work – key characteristics
    37. 37. Working hours before and after birth
    38. 38. Mothers – Summary <ul><li>Following the 2007 policy changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More mothers taking longer periods of leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors which influenced the amount of leave taken are reducing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, there has been no change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the rate of mothers returning to work post-birth, but lone parents and mothers without qualifications are less likely to return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The propensity of mothers to engage in part-time working following birth </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Conclusion Work and Families Act 2006 has enabled mothers to take longer leave Evidence on impact on return to work is not clear Differences between mothers in length of leave taken have decreased However, differences in return to work have increased
    40. 40. Conclusion Fathers are taking time off before birth After birth many fathers are taking more than their statutory entitlement after birth Indicates appetite among fathers to be more involved
    41. 41. Conclusion Majority of time fathers take off before birth is paid Majority of fathers receive some paternity leave at full pay Affordability main reason for non take-up Most mothers have returned to work by the time their SMP/MA entitlement has ended Financial considerations are important for many parents
    42. 42. For discussion How can this evidence help in developing the system of shared parental leave?
    43. 43. Questions & Answers

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