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Navigating Research with the Genealogical Proof Standard
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(Beginner-Experienced) Do you want to learn to successfully do genealogy research like the professionals? It is easier than you might think. Whether or not you have heard about the Genealogical Proof ...

(Beginner-Experienced) Do you want to learn to successfully do genealogy research like the professionals? It is easier than you might think. Whether or not you have heard about the Genealogical Proof Standard, this class will help you through the research process by way of a visualization called the Genealogy Research Process map. Each step is explored through case study and uses traditional and online resources.

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Navigating Research with the Genealogical Proof Standard Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Navigating Research with the GPS
    • Mark Tucker
    • www.ThinkGenealogy.com
  • 2. Agenda
    • 5 Steps of the Genealogical Proof Standard
    • Worth Tucker Case Study
    • Genealogy Research Process Map
    Content in Syllabus
  • 3. Brief History
    • Before 1997 – legal term “Preponderance of the Evidence” (POE)
    • 1980 – Cite Your Sources , Richard S. Lackey
    • 1997 – Genealogical Proof Standard (GPS)
    • 1997 – Evidence! , Elizabeth Shown Mills
    • 2000 – The BCG Genealogical Standards Manual, BCG
    • 2001 – Professional Genealogy, ed. Mills
    • 2007 – Evidence Explained, Mills
  • 4. Where do I start?
  • 5. What should I research? Birth? Marriage? Death? Military Service? Land Ownership? Parents? North Carolina? Ashe County? Yadkin County? 1869? 1870?
  • 6. Lost?
  • 7. 1
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Create before research begins
    • Identify:
      • Principal Person
      • Objective
      • Known information
      • Research Strategy
    • “ Game plan”
  • 10.
    • Keeps us focused on our goal
    • Tracks the sources searched
    • Records information found & not found
    • Our long-term “memory”
  • 11. Research Plan Research Log
  • 12.  
  • 13. Known Information
  • 14. Source Information Informant / Relationship Pedigree Chart AND Family Group Sheet – Worth Tucker & Florence Abby Pulsipher Worth - son of Moses Tucker and Mary Jane Dollar. Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. N. Carolina Married: Florence Abby Pulsipher on 22 May 1895 Died: 5 Nov 1927 at Livingston, Montana Kirtley E. Tucker – son of Worth Tucker & Florence Abby Pulsipher
  • 15. Source Information Informant / Relationship Family Group Sheet – Moses Tucker & Mary Jane Dollar Worth - son of Moses Tucker and Mary Jane Dollar Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. N. C. Married: Florence Abby Pulsipher on 22 May 1894 Died: 5 Nov 1927 Andrew Mason Tucker – son of Moses Tucker and Emeline Dollar. Half brother of Worth (20 years younger)
  • 16. Research Strategy Help
    • FamilySearch.org
      • Research Guidance by location
      • Research Outlines
    • Genealogy Software
    • Personal Experience
    • Visit a Family History Center
    • Join a Genealogy Society
    • Hire a Professional
  • 17. Research Guidance: www.FamilySearch.org
  • 18. Family History Library Catalog: Place Search
  • 19. …
    • Previous Research : Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File
    • Census Population Schedules : North Carolina - 1870, 1880; Utah - 1900, 1910, 1920
    • Tombstone and Sexton Records : Grave Marker
    • Death Record : Death certificate
    • Birth Record : Birth certificate
  • 20. Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Pedigree Chart Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. N. Carolina 1 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Family Group Sheet – Moses Tucker & Mary Jane Dollar Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. N. C. 2 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Family Group Sheet – Worth Tucker & Florence Abby Pulsipher Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. North Carolina 3
  • 21. 1 2
  • 22. 3 Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Ancestral File v4.19 Worth Tucker Individual Record Born: 30 Nov 1870 Yadkin Co., Nc 4
  • 23. 1 2
  • 24. 3 Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 No source information Born: 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 5 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 Film Number: 457622 Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 6 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 Source Call No.: 035126 Record of members … Born: 30 Nov 1870, Creston, Ashe, North Carolina 7 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 Film Number: 1239624 Born: 30 Nov 1870, Of, , Ashe, North Carolina 8 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 Film Number: 170485 Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 9 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org IGI v5.0 Film Number: 170490 Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 10
  • 25. 1 2
  • 26. 3 Date Location Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #89… Born: 1870, North Carolina 11 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #129… Born: 30 Nov 1870, Yadkin, North Carolina 12 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #117… Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 13 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #13… Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, NC 14 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #130… Born: 1870, NC 15 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #101… Born: 1870, NC 16 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #127… Born: 1870, NC 17 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #134… Born: 30 Nov 1870, North Fork, Ashe, North Carolina 18 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Disc #135… 30 Nov 1870, Yadkin Co ., NC 19
  • 27. …
  • 28. I’m exhausted. Do I really need to search any more?
  • 29. 2
  • 30. “ We conduct a reasonably exhaustive search in reliable sources for all information that is or may be pertinent to the identity, relationship, event, or situation in question.”
  • 31. First oral or written form From that already written or spoken
    • Test:
    • Created at or near time of event
    • Informants have firsthand knowledge
  • 32. Tracking of each representation of a source back to the original. Original ← D1 ← D2 ← D3 D? -> … -> Original
  • 33. Census Microfilm Copy Digital Copy Printout Source Provenance & Original vs. Derivative Original D1 D2 D3 Genealogist Enumerator
  • 34. Research Analysis Research Plan Research Log
  • 35. Identify: Original vs. Derivative Source Analysis: Source Type Doc Pedigree Chart Derivative 1 Family Group Sheet Derivative 2,3 Ancestral File Derivative 4 IGI Derivative 5-10 Pedigree Resource File Derivative 11-19
  • 36. Do I need to keep track of more than the information that I find?
  • 37. 3
  • 38. “ We collect and include in our compilation a complete, accurate citation to the source or sources of each item of information we use.”
  • 39.
    • Gives credibility to our research
    • Helps us have confidence in the research of others
    • Aids during analysis
  • 40. Source Citation Guides:
    • Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian (1997)
    • Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace (2007)
    By Elizabeth Shown Mills, CG, CGL, FASG Published by Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc.
  • 41. Why special citation guidelines?
  • 42. Citation Model Source: Evidence Explained, pg 320 (also 346-350) Derivatives: Church Records Database, Online
  • 43. Source Doc Kirtley E. Tucker, Kirtley Elwood Tucker Pedigree Chart, Some Tucker History; supplied by Kirtley E. Tucker, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Kaysville, Utah, abt. 1977. 1 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "International Genealogical Index," database, FamilySearch (http://www.familysearch.org : accessed 5 Jul 2008), Worth Tucker Individual Record. 7 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Pedigree Resource File," database, FamilySearch (http://www.familysearch.org : accessed 5 Jul 2008), Worth Tucker Individual Record. 11
  • 44. Should there be one standard set of citation guidelines?
  • 45. Online Source Citation Confusion FamilySearch Ancestry Evidence Explained
  • 46. How do I analyze all this information?
  • 47. 4
  • 48. “ We analyze and correlate the collected information to assess its quality as evidence.”
  • 49. Duplicate Original (Counterparts) Record Copy (Clerk’s copy) Image Copy Transcript Extract Abstract
  • 50. Firsthand (participant, eyewitness) Secondhand (non-participant)
  • 51. Answers the research goal by itself Relevant, but can’t stand alone Absence of information that should exist
  • 52. Always Derivatives 1 2 3 Transcript Extract Abstract
  • 53. Source Image Copy Original or Derivative
  • 54. Original Record Copy (Clerk’s copy) Register Legal copy made by an official Informant Clerk
  • 55. Duplicate Originals Fed Copy Local Copy Grantor Grantee Deed Census 3 1 2 Enumerator Counterpart
  • 56. Census Original Enumerator Microfilm Copy Digital Copy Printout Derivatives used as Originals Image Copy Census Fed Copy Duplicate Original Extract Search Index Image Copy Image Copy Similar to an Abstract Original or treat as original Derivative
  • 57. Who can provide primary information of Worth’s birth?
  • 58. Information & Evidence Analysis Information & Evidence Analysis: … Doc Information Informant 1 Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe Co. N. Carolina Kirtley E. Tucker – son of Worth Tucker & Florence Abby Pulsipher
  • 59. Information & Evidence Analysis: … Information (Primary, Secondary) Evidence (Direct, Indirect, Negative) Secondary Direct
  • 60. From Research Plan
    • International Genealogical Index (IGI)
    • US Federal Census: Population Schedules
      • North Carolina: 1870, 1880
      • Utah: 1900, 1910, 1920
    • Grave Marker
    • Death Certificate
    • Marriage License
    • Birth Certificate
  • 61. IGI Sources
    • Sealings of children to parents, 1893-1942; heir indexes, 1893-1942. Salt Lake Temple. 30 Nov 1870, of Ashe, North Carolina
    • Sealings for the dead: couples and children, 1943-1970; heir indexes 1943-1965. Salt Lake Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina
  • 62. IGI Sources… cont.
    • Record of members, 1886-1912. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Díaz Ward (Chihuahua, Mexico) 30 Nov 1870, Creston, Ashe, North Carolina
    • Endowments of the living, 1888-1956. Manti Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina
    • Sealings of living couples, 1888-1956. Manti Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina
  • 63. US Federal Census: FHL microfilm 1900 Census: Nov 1869, age 30, North Carolina 1910 Census: calc. 1870, age 39, North Carolina
  • 64. Grave Marker: www.findagrave.com Photo Courtesy of Find A Grave Nov 30, 1870
  • 65. Death Certificate November 12th. 1872 North Carolina Primary vs. Secondary Information
  • 66. Marriage License Age 24 on 15 May 1895 Born: calc. 1870
  • 67. Birth Certificate County Date Formed Birth Parent Marriage County/ies Death Ashe 1799 1913 Wilkes 1828 1913
  • 68. Research Completed
    • 15 Sources
      • 8 Originals (image copies), 6 Derivatives, 1 not found
      • 3 databases, 16 records
    • Information
      • 0 Primary, 27 Secondary
    • Evidence
      • 15 Direct, 11 Indirect, 1 Negative
    • 4 Conflicts
  • 69. What do I do about conflicts?
  • 70. 5
  • 71. “ We resolve any conflicts caused by items of evidence that contradict each other or are contrary to a proposed (hypothetical) solution to the question.”
  • 72.
    • Compare weights
    • Usually:
    • Sources : Original > Derivatives
    • Information : Primary > Secondary
    • Evidence : Indirect >= Direct
  • 73. All conflicts must be resolved. Even primary information from an original source can be wrong.
  • 74. Resolve Conflicts Conflicting Evidence: Conflict Resolution 12 Nov 1872 Grieving son was informant. 1869 or 1870 Calculated dates either 1869 or 1870. Worth not in June 1870 Census. Unknown informant for 1900 Census which stated 1869. Ashe or Yadkin Family in Ashe Co. in 1870 & 1880. IGI lists Ashe. Yadkin 50 miles away. Creston, North Fork, or Laurel Family in Laurel in 1870 & 1880. Each place within 5 miles of each other.
  • 75. Am I done yet?
  • 76. 6
  • 77. “ We arrive at a soundly reasoned, coherently written conclusion.”
  • 78.
    • Includes:
    • Problem/Goal
    • Known sources with citations
    • Evidence and analysis
    • Conflicting evidence
    • Main points
    • Conclusion
  • 79. There is no such thing as a final conclusion. New information can support, question, or disprove your current conclusion.
  • 80. Written Conclusion (Proof Argument) Conclusion: Worth Tucker was born Nov 1870 (possibly on the 30 th ) in Ashe County, North Carolina. The exact location is likely Laurel Township where his parents (Moses Tucker and Mary Jane Dollar) were living in 1870 & 1880. Other locations within a 5 mile area that are also mentioned are Creston and North Fork.
  • 81. Next Steps
    • Search church records in NC
    • Search local newspapers in NC
    • Review microfilm for IGI records
    • Read Worth’s journal (1903-1907)
    • Why?
    • Conclusions are never final.
  • 82. SOURCES provide INFORMATION from which we select EVIDENCE for ANALYSIS . A sound CONCLUSION may then be considered “ PROOF .” - Elizabeth Shown Mills
  • 83. Desktop References
  • 84. Genealogy Research Process Map www.thinkgenealogy.com/grpm/