Global Warming of the 21st Century<br />By<br />Michelle Lenci<br />
Global Warming<br />Global Warming is the most controversial and important science issue of the 21st century!<br />The mai...
Causes of Global Warming<br />Humans burning fossil fuels and releasing Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere<br />The Sun   ...
IPCC blames humans for Global Warming<br />(IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change <br />Carbon Dioxide emissions...
IPCC’s Uncontrolled Experiment<br />Only way to absolutely prove climate changes caused by humans is by a controlled exper...
Results for Uncontrolled Experiment<br />IPCC testing models used indicate that the ones without human inputs were lower t...
Humans and Carbon Dioxide<br />Most of the Earth’s warming occurred before the world built factories or autos.<br />If hum...
Fossil Fuels<br />
Positive Effects of Global Warming<br />In recent decades higher amounts of Carbon Dioxide helped plants and crops to be g...
Greenhouse Gases <br />Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Chloro-fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride  are green ho...
The Sun<br /><ul><li>Temperature could be    rising from energy of the sun
Earth’s temp rises when the magnetism increases at the center of the solar system
The sun’s energy output powers the ocean and atmosphere currents
Evaporation cycle
Condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow</li></ul>Hurricanes and tornadoes that destroy manmade l...
The Sun, The Earth, The moon<br />
Electrically charged particles form from cosmic rays <br />Water molecules are attracted to these charged particles and th...
The sun and clouds <br />          Solar activity<br />      Solar inactivity<br />Less cloudiness raises  temperature thu...
Extraterrestrial Dust <br />
Dust Can Cause Global Cooling<br />
Outer Space has a huge influence on Earth<br />Material from space constantly accumulates on Earth<br />40,000  tons of ex...
Earth’s Mass Increased<br />Increased mass on Earth has resulted from years of dust, meteors, and comets<br />Asteroids, m...
Extraterrestrial Dust in the Atmosphere Will Continue to COOL the Earth<br />Over the last 420,000 years there has been a ...
Global Cooling/Desertification<br />
IPCC Sea Level Rise Report Lowers<br />The estimates for sea-level rise in the next 100 years IPCC 2007 has been lowered c...
Antarctic<br />
Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting<br />Thousands of years ago the great American ice caps melted and the water raised global...
Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting<br />Greenland’s ice caps contain enough water to raise sea levels globally 20-25 feet<br ...
No Proof Glacier and Polar Caps Melting are due to Humans Emitting Carbon Dioxide<br />Submarine measurements conclude tha...
Antarctica<br />
Greenland<br />
Precipitation Increases at the Poles<br />More snow will compensate for any ice melting at the caps from precipitation inc...
Periods of Global Warming and Ice Ages<br />Roman Warming 1250 BC to 450 AD<br />Dark Ice Ages 450 AD to 900 AD<br />Medie...
Roman Warming <br />Temperature in this time was at least 2 degrees warmer than today<br />Population increased<br />Exces...
Dark Ice Ages<br />Followed the Roman Warming <br />Crop Failure<br />Disease<br />War<br />Decreased Population<br />Fami...
Medieval Warming<br />Medieval Warming followed the Dark Ice Ages <br />Ice sheets from the Dark Ice Ages melted<br />Glac...
Little Ice Age<br />This ice age followed the Medieval Warming and was caused by a decrease in solar activity<br />Solar i...
A Warming Trend<br /> After the ice age in 1850 a warming trend occurred with cooler periods and still exists to this pres...
Conclusion<br />Many scientists are still uncertain if Global warming is caused by humans<br />If Global Warming is not re...
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  • Global Warming Of The 21st Century Slide Show

    1. 1. Global Warming of the 21st Century<br />By<br />Michelle Lenci<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. Global Warming<br />Global Warming is the most controversial and important science issue of the 21st century!<br />The main cause of Global Warming is still uncertain but scientists have revealed evidence pertaining to the causes.<br />Media warned us of a Global Warming in the 1920’s until the late 1960’s. <br /> From the 1950’s to the 1970’s we were warned of a coming ice age.<br />
    4. 4. Causes of Global Warming<br />Humans burning fossil fuels and releasing Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere<br />The Sun <br />Extraterrestrial Dust<br />Shape of the continents<br />Changes in Earth’s orbit<br />Ocean currents<br />The shape of the seafloor<br />
    5. 5. IPCC blames humans for Global Warming<br />(IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change <br />Carbon Dioxide emissions contribute to ¾ of climate change…The burning of fossil fuels is the main cause<br />Deforestation is the second biggest factor<br />Annual emissions of Carbon Dioxide grew 80%from 1970-2004<br />Other scientists say most of the Earth’s warming occurred before 1940…preindustrial times<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7. IPCC’s Uncontrolled Experiment<br />Only way to absolutely prove climate changes caused by humans is by a controlled experiment<br />All factors remain unchanged except the tested one<br />Control group = group of individuals compared to the manipulated group<br />Since there is only one Earth there are no controls and other factors cannot remain unchanged<br />IPCC can only do a uncontrolled experiment<br />IPCC injects Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and observes the results<br />
    8. 8. Results for Uncontrolled Experiment<br />IPCC testing models used indicate that the ones without human inputs were lower than the observed climate records<br />The models with human caused changes are the only way to explain recent increases in air temperatures, ocean temperatures, declining snow, etc…according to the IPCC<br />Different models varied in the severity of changes and disagreed on the speed of change but the direction of change is agreeable<br />The scientists observing the results feel certain climate change is due to humans but it’s not absolute<br />
    9. 9. Humans and Carbon Dioxide<br />Most of the Earth’s warming occurred before the world built factories or autos.<br />If humanity stopped burning fossil fuels tomorrow it would not stop the climate cycle that has warmed the Earth slowly and continuously for the last 150 years<br />Millions of years ago the Earth’s atmospheric carbon Dioxide level was much higher than it is today<br />Ecosystems are suffering and plant lifer is declining due to low levels of Carbon Dioxide<br />The release of Carbon Dioxides into the atmosphere by humans or from natural causes could have a positive effect by reducing hunger and starvation globally <br />
    10. 10. Fossil Fuels<br />
    11. 11.
    12. 12. Positive Effects of Global Warming<br />In recent decades higher amounts of Carbon Dioxide helped plants and crops to be greener and grow faster <br />Carbon Dioxide provides life on Earth<br />It is a plant food and is a nonpoisonous gas<br />Bacteria, algae, and plants remove Carbon Dioxide from the air and water <br />The air and water work together with water vapor to keep the Earth warm instead of causing an ice age <br />Over time Carbon Dioxide has been stored as Carbon Compounds in rocks, oil , gas and coal<br />This will emit more Carbon Dioxide and rainfall and sunshine will occur providing agricultural benefits. <br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
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    17. 17.
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Greenhouse Gases <br />Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Chloro-fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are green house gases emitted into the Earth’s atmosphere<br />The only factor the IPCC focuses on is Carbon Dioxide emissions by humans and they do not put any other factors into consideration such as Extraterrestrial Dust or the Sun. <br />IPCC models do not detect the effects of the sun and clouds on Earth<br />Carbon Dioxide is derived from natural causes<br />The Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere is only 0.001% of the total Carbon Dioxide held in the oceans Surface, rocks, air, soils, and life<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. The Sun<br /><ul><li>Temperature could be rising from energy of the sun
    22. 22. Earth’s temp rises when the magnetism increases at the center of the solar system
    23. 23. The sun’s energy output powers the ocean and atmosphere currents
    24. 24. Evaporation cycle
    25. 25. Condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow</li></ul>Hurricanes and tornadoes that destroy manmade landscape as well as natural landscape are also controlled by the Sun’s energy<br />Photosynthesis <br />Brings life to Earth<br />The amount of energy the sun brings to Earth in an hour is the same amount of energy humans use annually<br />
    26. 26. The Sun, The Earth, The moon<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28.
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Electrically charged particles form from cosmic rays <br />Water molecules are attracted to these charged particles and this effect is how clouds are formed<br />Clouds take decadal to millenial time scales to form from cosmic rays <br />The long durations of time strongly affects the climate <br />Climate is changed by the changing of the galactic environment of the solar system<br />Clouds reflect 60% of the sun’s radiation and a 1% change in cloudiness on Earth could be responsible for all of the twentieth century warming<br />
    31. 31. The sun and clouds <br /> Solar activity<br /> Solar inactivity<br />Less cloudiness raises temperature thus causes, Global Warming<br />More cloudiness causes Global Cooling and possibly an Ice Age<br />
    32. 32. Extraterrestrial Dust <br />
    33. 33. Dust Can Cause Global Cooling<br />
    34. 34. Outer Space has a huge influence on Earth<br />Material from space constantly accumulates on Earth<br />40,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust drops to earth each year from high-flying aircraft measurements<br />Minerals, amino acids, and chemicals that form from cosmic rays are in this dust<br />Comets also bring an unknown amount of water as well as Carbon Dioxide to Earth<br />Extraterrestrial dust gather into masses on ice sheets, lake sediments, and deep sea sediments<br />Scientists observe the measurements of dust in those places<br />
    35. 35. Earth’s Mass Increased<br />Increased mass on Earth has resulted from years of dust, meteors, and comets<br />Asteroids, meteors and comets collide with high speed dust particles and this creates more dust particles<br />More than 2.5 million comets in the solar system are major sources of dust<br />Extraterrestrial dust will continue to fall on Earth and it depends on the position of the solar system, strength, of solar wind, and cometary fragmentation<br />
    36. 36. Extraterrestrial Dust in the Atmosphere Will Continue to COOL the Earth<br />Over the last 420,000 years there has been a correlation between atmospheric dust in Greenlandic Ice and Antarctic Ice with cyclical changes every 100,000 years<br />During glaciations periods less water vapor is in the air and less rainfall causes less vegetation<br />This causes more desertification and more dust<br />Global Warming does not cause desertification but Global Cooling does…<br />Antarctic Ice has more dust now than it did in the 19th century<br />Dust is more than 30 times now than in glacial times<br />
    37. 37. Global Cooling/Desertification<br />
    38. 38. IPCC Sea Level Rise Report Lowers<br />The estimates for sea-level rise in the next 100 years IPCC 2007 has been lowered compared to their 2001 estimate report<br />The estimation of possible contribution of ice flow was taken out due to their lack of education about ice flow<br />The rates of ice flow increased between 1992-2003 in Greenland and Antarctica but it is unknown if the possible contribution of ice flow will continue<br />
    39. 39. Antarctic<br />
    40. 40. Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting<br />Thousands of years ago the great American ice caps melted and the water raised global sea levels by 243 feet..<br />Water continued to rise and has remained at the same sea level globally now for 8 thousand years<br />Northern hemisphere ice caps today consist of the Greenland ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean<br />There are signs that glaciers are melting away<br />The Columbia Glacier in Alaska has been contracting for the last 20 years<br />America’s Glacier National Park will not have any glaciers in a few decades<br />
    41. 41. Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting<br />Greenland’s ice caps contain enough water to raise sea levels globally 20-25 feet<br />Fortunately, the temperatures in Greenland and Antarctic ice domes remain cold and temperatures continue to drop<br />Greenland and Antarctica are the only 2 places on Earth where freezing temperatures remain and are even decreasing<br />If Greenland ice cap melts it would be impossible to regenerate if Carbon Dioxide stops emitting into the Earth’s Atmosphere<br />
    42. 42. No Proof Glacier and Polar Caps Melting are due to Humans Emitting Carbon Dioxide<br />Submarine measurements conclude that the ice is only 60% as thick as it was four decades ago<br />The melting ice has no direct consequence for rising sea levels<br />Land ice is the only ice that rises sea levels<br />Land Ice melts and runs into the sea thus, raising sea levels<br />In 2001 scientists eliminated the rising seas to be the cause by humanity<br />All the people in the world couldn’t stop the rising of the seas no matter how much effort we put in<br />
    43. 43. Antarctica<br />
    44. 44. Greenland<br />
    45. 45.
    46. 46. Precipitation Increases at the Poles<br />More snow will compensate for any ice melting at the caps from precipitation increase at the poles<br />Scientists are still being educated so they can understand the effects of melting glaciers<br />There is no absolute answer to the exact amount of ice that is melting globally or the effects<br />No proof glacier and polar caps are melting due to Global Warming by human Carbon Dioxide emissions into the Earth’s atmosphere<br />
    47. 47. Periods of Global Warming and Ice Ages<br />Roman Warming 1250 BC to 450 AD<br />Dark Ice Ages 450 AD to 900 AD<br />Medieval Warming 1900 AD to 1300 A<br />Little Ice Age – Thirteenth century 1280-1340, 1450-1540, 1645-1715, and 1795-1825 <br />
    48. 48. Roman Warming <br />Temperature in this time was at least 2 degrees warmer than today<br />Population increased<br />Excess wealth<br />Warm climate agriculture expanded in areas with much higher latitudes and altitudes than now<br />Abundance of Forests derived<br />New species of life developed and evolution took its course<br />No possibility this warming was due to human emissions of Carbon Dioxide<br />
    49. 49. Dark Ice Ages<br />Followed the Roman Warming <br />Crop Failure<br />Disease<br />War<br />Decreased Population<br />Famine<br />Increased ice, strong cold winds, and darkness<br />Social Disruption<br />Refugee gangs wandered Europe searching for food<br />Mayans became destroyed<br />People were hoping for a Global warming<br />
    50. 50.
    51. 51.
    52. 52. Medieval Warming<br />Medieval Warming followed the Dark Ice Ages <br />Ice sheets from the Dark Ice Ages melted<br />Glaciers and Sea Ice depleted<br />Grain crops, cattle, sheep, farms, and villages were established on Greenland which was at lease 6 degrees warmer than it is today<br />During this period there was about forty years that it was cold but crop failures and famine hardly occurred<br />Population increased by tens of millions and the warming created enough food to feed them all<br />Cathedrals, monasteries, and universities were built<br />
    53. 53. Little Ice Age<br />This ice age followed the Medieval Warming and was caused by a decrease in solar activity<br />Solar inactivity caused the climate to fluctuate and created these cold years<br />Similar to the Dark Ice Age <br />Crop failure, Famine, disease, war, decreased population<br />Social disruption and starving refugees roamed the land for food and ended up becoming cannibals<br />Food prices increased because of the shortage of crops<br />Vikings on Greenland became extinct <br />
    54. 54. A Warming Trend<br /> After the ice age in 1850 a warming trend occurred with cooler periods and still exists to this present day<br />WE currently live in the best times the Earth has ever had due to Global Warming<br />Benefits of food are enormous <br />Social stability still occurs in most parts of the world<br />Diverse forms of life exist and are continuously created<br />
    55. 55. Conclusion<br />Many scientists are still uncertain if Global warming is caused by humans<br />If Global Warming is not related to humans then climate change will still continue naturally just like it has been for millions of years<br />It may be solar, it may be related to the oceans, and it may be internal to the Earth’s climate<br />There is a possibility we could have a Global Cooling before a Global Warming<br />Scientists continue to find absolute answers but we will never know what Mother Nature has in store for us<br />
    56. 56.
    57. 57. Be Friends with Earth<br />People globally can work together as a team and become friends with the Earth so our Ecosystem remains suitable for living and working together can make our planet a better place as long as we each do our part in helping to save it.<br />Simple things we can do to help are Recycle, conserve energy, keep waste minimal and just keep being friendly to the Environment<br />
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60. The End <br />
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