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Global Warming Of The 21st Century Slide Show
 

Global Warming Of The 21st Century Slide Show

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  • IPCC

Global Warming Of The 21st Century Slide Show Global Warming Of The 21st Century Slide Show Presentation Transcript

  • Global Warming of the 21st Century
    By
    Michelle Lenci
  • Global Warming
    Global Warming is the most controversial and important science issue of the 21st century!
    The main cause of Global Warming is still uncertain but scientists have revealed evidence pertaining to the causes.
    Media warned us of a Global Warming in the 1920’s until the late 1960’s.
    From the 1950’s to the 1970’s we were warned of a coming ice age.
  • Causes of Global Warming
    Humans burning fossil fuels and releasing Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere
    The Sun
    Extraterrestrial Dust
    Shape of the continents
    Changes in Earth’s orbit
    Ocean currents
    The shape of the seafloor
  • IPCC blames humans for Global Warming
    (IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Carbon Dioxide emissions contribute to ¾ of climate change…The burning of fossil fuels is the main cause
    Deforestation is the second biggest factor
    Annual emissions of Carbon Dioxide grew 80%from 1970-2004
    Other scientists say most of the Earth’s warming occurred before 1940…preindustrial times
  • IPCC’s Uncontrolled Experiment
    Only way to absolutely prove climate changes caused by humans is by a controlled experiment
    All factors remain unchanged except the tested one
    Control group = group of individuals compared to the manipulated group
    Since there is only one Earth there are no controls and other factors cannot remain unchanged
    IPCC can only do a uncontrolled experiment
    IPCC injects Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and observes the results
  • Results for Uncontrolled Experiment
    IPCC testing models used indicate that the ones without human inputs were lower than the observed climate records
    The models with human caused changes are the only way to explain recent increases in air temperatures, ocean temperatures, declining snow, etc…according to the IPCC
    Different models varied in the severity of changes and disagreed on the speed of change but the direction of change is agreeable
    The scientists observing the results feel certain climate change is due to humans but it’s not absolute
  • Humans and Carbon Dioxide
    Most of the Earth’s warming occurred before the world built factories or autos.
    If humanity stopped burning fossil fuels tomorrow it would not stop the climate cycle that has warmed the Earth slowly and continuously for the last 150 years
    Millions of years ago the Earth’s atmospheric carbon Dioxide level was much higher than it is today
    Ecosystems are suffering and plant lifer is declining due to low levels of Carbon Dioxide
    The release of Carbon Dioxides into the atmosphere by humans or from natural causes could have a positive effect by reducing hunger and starvation globally
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Positive Effects of Global Warming
    In recent decades higher amounts of Carbon Dioxide helped plants and crops to be greener and grow faster
    Carbon Dioxide provides life on Earth
    It is a plant food and is a nonpoisonous gas
    Bacteria, algae, and plants remove Carbon Dioxide from the air and water
    The air and water work together with water vapor to keep the Earth warm instead of causing an ice age
    Over time Carbon Dioxide has been stored as Carbon Compounds in rocks, oil , gas and coal
    This will emit more Carbon Dioxide and rainfall and sunshine will occur providing agricultural benefits.
  • Greenhouse Gases
    Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Chloro-fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are green house gases emitted into the Earth’s atmosphere
    The only factor the IPCC focuses on is Carbon Dioxide emissions by humans and they do not put any other factors into consideration such as Extraterrestrial Dust or the Sun.
    IPCC models do not detect the effects of the sun and clouds on Earth
    Carbon Dioxide is derived from natural causes
    The Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere is only 0.001% of the total Carbon Dioxide held in the oceans Surface, rocks, air, soils, and life
  • The Sun
    • Temperature could be rising from energy of the sun
    • Earth’s temp rises when the magnetism increases at the center of the solar system
    • The sun’s energy output powers the ocean and atmosphere currents
    • Evaporation cycle
    • Condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow
    Hurricanes and tornadoes that destroy manmade landscape as well as natural landscape are also controlled by the Sun’s energy
    Photosynthesis
    Brings life to Earth
    The amount of energy the sun brings to Earth in an hour is the same amount of energy humans use annually
  • The Sun, The Earth, The moon
  • Electrically charged particles form from cosmic rays
    Water molecules are attracted to these charged particles and this effect is how clouds are formed
    Clouds take decadal to millenial time scales to form from cosmic rays
    The long durations of time strongly affects the climate
    Climate is changed by the changing of the galactic environment of the solar system
    Clouds reflect 60% of the sun’s radiation and a 1% change in cloudiness on Earth could be responsible for all of the twentieth century warming
  • The sun and clouds
    Solar activity
    Solar inactivity
    Less cloudiness raises temperature thus causes, Global Warming
    More cloudiness causes Global Cooling and possibly an Ice Age
  • Extraterrestrial Dust
  • Dust Can Cause Global Cooling
  • Outer Space has a huge influence on Earth
    Material from space constantly accumulates on Earth
    40,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust drops to earth each year from high-flying aircraft measurements
    Minerals, amino acids, and chemicals that form from cosmic rays are in this dust
    Comets also bring an unknown amount of water as well as Carbon Dioxide to Earth
    Extraterrestrial dust gather into masses on ice sheets, lake sediments, and deep sea sediments
    Scientists observe the measurements of dust in those places
  • Earth’s Mass Increased
    Increased mass on Earth has resulted from years of dust, meteors, and comets
    Asteroids, meteors and comets collide with high speed dust particles and this creates more dust particles
    More than 2.5 million comets in the solar system are major sources of dust
    Extraterrestrial dust will continue to fall on Earth and it depends on the position of the solar system, strength, of solar wind, and cometary fragmentation
  • Extraterrestrial Dust in the Atmosphere Will Continue to COOL the Earth
    Over the last 420,000 years there has been a correlation between atmospheric dust in Greenlandic Ice and Antarctic Ice with cyclical changes every 100,000 years
    During glaciations periods less water vapor is in the air and less rainfall causes less vegetation
    This causes more desertification and more dust
    Global Warming does not cause desertification but Global Cooling does…
    Antarctic Ice has more dust now than it did in the 19th century
    Dust is more than 30 times now than in glacial times
  • Global Cooling/Desertification
  • IPCC Sea Level Rise Report Lowers
    The estimates for sea-level rise in the next 100 years IPCC 2007 has been lowered compared to their 2001 estimate report
    The estimation of possible contribution of ice flow was taken out due to their lack of education about ice flow
    The rates of ice flow increased between 1992-2003 in Greenland and Antarctica but it is unknown if the possible contribution of ice flow will continue
  • Antarctic
  • Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting
    Thousands of years ago the great American ice caps melted and the water raised global sea levels by 243 feet..
    Water continued to rise and has remained at the same sea level globally now for 8 thousand years
    Northern hemisphere ice caps today consist of the Greenland ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean
    There are signs that glaciers are melting away
    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska has been contracting for the last 20 years
    America’s Glacier National Park will not have any glaciers in a few decades
  • Polar Caps and Glaciers Melting
    Greenland’s ice caps contain enough water to raise sea levels globally 20-25 feet
    Fortunately, the temperatures in Greenland and Antarctic ice domes remain cold and temperatures continue to drop
    Greenland and Antarctica are the only 2 places on Earth where freezing temperatures remain and are even decreasing
    If Greenland ice cap melts it would be impossible to regenerate if Carbon Dioxide stops emitting into the Earth’s Atmosphere
  • No Proof Glacier and Polar Caps Melting are due to Humans Emitting Carbon Dioxide
    Submarine measurements conclude that the ice is only 60% as thick as it was four decades ago
    The melting ice has no direct consequence for rising sea levels
    Land ice is the only ice that rises sea levels
    Land Ice melts and runs into the sea thus, raising sea levels
    In 2001 scientists eliminated the rising seas to be the cause by humanity
    All the people in the world couldn’t stop the rising of the seas no matter how much effort we put in
  • Antarctica
  • Greenland
  • Precipitation Increases at the Poles
    More snow will compensate for any ice melting at the caps from precipitation increase at the poles
    Scientists are still being educated so they can understand the effects of melting glaciers
    There is no absolute answer to the exact amount of ice that is melting globally or the effects
    No proof glacier and polar caps are melting due to Global Warming by human Carbon Dioxide emissions into the Earth’s atmosphere
  • Periods of Global Warming and Ice Ages
    Roman Warming 1250 BC to 450 AD
    Dark Ice Ages 450 AD to 900 AD
    Medieval Warming 1900 AD to 1300 A
    Little Ice Age – Thirteenth century 1280-1340, 1450-1540, 1645-1715, and 1795-1825
  • Roman Warming
    Temperature in this time was at least 2 degrees warmer than today
    Population increased
    Excess wealth
    Warm climate agriculture expanded in areas with much higher latitudes and altitudes than now
    Abundance of Forests derived
    New species of life developed and evolution took its course
    No possibility this warming was due to human emissions of Carbon Dioxide
  • Dark Ice Ages
    Followed the Roman Warming
    Crop Failure
    Disease
    War
    Decreased Population
    Famine
    Increased ice, strong cold winds, and darkness
    Social Disruption
    Refugee gangs wandered Europe searching for food
    Mayans became destroyed
    People were hoping for a Global warming
  • Medieval Warming
    Medieval Warming followed the Dark Ice Ages
    Ice sheets from the Dark Ice Ages melted
    Glaciers and Sea Ice depleted
    Grain crops, cattle, sheep, farms, and villages were established on Greenland which was at lease 6 degrees warmer than it is today
    During this period there was about forty years that it was cold but crop failures and famine hardly occurred
    Population increased by tens of millions and the warming created enough food to feed them all
    Cathedrals, monasteries, and universities were built
  • Little Ice Age
    This ice age followed the Medieval Warming and was caused by a decrease in solar activity
    Solar inactivity caused the climate to fluctuate and created these cold years
    Similar to the Dark Ice Age
    Crop failure, Famine, disease, war, decreased population
    Social disruption and starving refugees roamed the land for food and ended up becoming cannibals
    Food prices increased because of the shortage of crops
    Vikings on Greenland became extinct
  • A Warming Trend
    After the ice age in 1850 a warming trend occurred with cooler periods and still exists to this present day
    WE currently live in the best times the Earth has ever had due to Global Warming
    Benefits of food are enormous
    Social stability still occurs in most parts of the world
    Diverse forms of life exist and are continuously created
  • Conclusion
    Many scientists are still uncertain if Global warming is caused by humans
    If Global Warming is not related to humans then climate change will still continue naturally just like it has been for millions of years
    It may be solar, it may be related to the oceans, and it may be internal to the Earth’s climate
    There is a possibility we could have a Global Cooling before a Global Warming
    Scientists continue to find absolute answers but we will never know what Mother Nature has in store for us
  • Be Friends with Earth
    People globally can work together as a team and become friends with the Earth so our Ecosystem remains suitable for living and working together can make our planet a better place as long as we each do our part in helping to save it.
    Simple things we can do to help are Recycle, conserve energy, keep waste minimal and just keep being friendly to the Environment
  • The End