1
                               Characteristics of Animals
-   evolved from protists
-   eukaryotic
-   lack cell walls
-...
2
                                Early Embryonic Development in Animals
                                          (Cell D...
3
                                                                       Body Plans
Symmetry:

One way in which scientists...
4
Tissues:
Animal plans vary according to the organization of the animal’s tissues layers (germ layers).
   - Sponges lack...
5

1.                                           1.                                                 1.


2.                ...
6




                                                     Spiral cleavage vs. Radial cleavage




Schizocoelous: Endoderm...
7
                            Protostome vs. Deuterostome
           Characteristic             Protostome          Deuter...
8
Sponges
  -   simplest of all animals
  -   lack true tissues and organs (parazoa)
  -   symmetry → asymmetrical
  -   s...
9
Cnidarians
  -   Symmetry → radially symmetrical
  -   Diploblastic - produce only 2 germ layers (endoderm & ectoderm)
 ...
10


Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
  -   acoelomates with thin, solid bodies
  -   2-way digestive tract
  -   Triploblastic...
11




Tapeworms:
  -   parasitic
  -   can grow to 20 ft in length

Obtaining food:
  -   Have no mouth, gastrovascular c...
12




Nematodes (roundworms)
 -   pseudocoelomates
 -   1-way digestive tract (complete)
         o Anterior region of th...
13




Annelids (segmented worms)
  -   symmetry → bilaterally symmetrical
  -   coelomate
  -   hydrostatic skeleton
  - ...
14




Mollusks
  -   symmetry → bilateral symmetry
  -   coelomate
  -   complete digestive tract

  -   Mantle - membran...
15




                           Open circulatory system & 2-chambered heart diagram


Respiration:
  -   Gills - consist...
16




                                    Countercurrent exchange diagram
   -    The transfer of a substance from a flui...
17




Arthropods
  -   Symmetry → bilateral
  -   Segmented
          o Head
          o Thorax
          o Abdomen
  -  ...
18
Gas exchange:
   1. Gills - found in aquatic arthropods

   2. Tracheal tubes - found mostly in insects
         a. Bra...
19




Metamorphosis - a series of changes, controlled by chemical substances.

   a. Complete metamorphosis - larval stag...
20




b. Incomplete metamorphosis - juveniles look like miniature adults
                             - juveniles lack wi...
21




Echinoderms
  -   symmetry → radial symmetry
  -   endoskeleton - internal skeleton
  -   Hard, bumpy skeleton made...
22
Body systems:
  -   no circulatory, excretory, or respiratory system
          o Fluid in the coelom bathes the organs ...
23
  2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord (neural tube) - a nerve cord made from ectoderm that rolls into a hollow
     tube
     ...
24




Pharyngeal pouches:
   -   Paired openings located in the pharynx, behind the mouth.
   -   In aquatic chordates, p...
25

Chordate Body Plan
26
Organogenesis
27
Chordate evolution




              A phylogenetic tree of chordates showing key derived traits
28
Fishes
   -   Symmetry → bilateral symmetry
   -   Ectothermic (cold blooded) – cannot regulate their body temperature;...
29
             Single circulation diagram
  Cartilaginous fish                      Bony fish

moveable jaws             ...
30
                                                  Buoyancy diagram
Amphibians
(having 2 natures)

   -     Symmetry → b...
31

Heart & circulation:

3-chambered heart
   - Rt &Lt atria
   - ventricle




Double circulation - provides faster bloo...
32

3 – Chambered Heart




 3-chmbered heart diagram
33
Reptiles
  -   symmetry → bilateral symmetry
  -   coelomates
  -   dry, scaly skin, and clawed toes.
  -   All reptile...
34
         o Encases the embryo in a secure, self-contained aquatic environment. Contains 4 membranes.

                 ...
35
Aves (birds)
  -   symmetry → bilateral symmetry
  -   coelomates
  -   endotherms – maintain own body temperature
  - ...
36

Keel-shaped sternum:
  -   needed to support the enormous thrust and power produced by the flight muscles




  Hollow...
37
Beaks:
-   sometimes called bills
-   covered by a protein called keratin
-   do not have teeth

Feathers:
-   A lightw...
38
Mammals
  -     symmetry → bilateral symmetry
  -     coelomates
  -     endotherms
  -     internal fertilization
  - ...
39
Specialized teeth:
  -   Have different kinds of teeth that are adapted to the type of food the animal eats.


Highly d...
40
              Metabolic Wastes, Thermoregulation, Reproduction
Metabolic wastes:
Aquatic animals                       ...
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Animals

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Animals

  1. 1. 1 Characteristics of Animals - evolved from protists - eukaryotic - lack cell walls - multicellular - heterotrophic - ingest food most - digestive cavity Animal Flow Chart Animal
  2. 2. 2 Early Embryonic Development in Animals (Cell Differentiation) _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 1. 1. 1. Germ layers: a. _____________________ - - b. _____________________ - - - c. _____________________ -
  3. 3. 3 Body Plans Symmetry: One way in which scientists categorize the diversity of animals is according to the symmetry of their bodies (or its absence). 1. ________________________ 2. ________________________ 3. ________________________ No body symmetry Any number of lines can be drawn One line can be drawn that divides through the center, each dividing the body into equal halves the body into equal halves. (have a left & right half) Ex. Ex. Ex. Lifestyle: Lifestyle: Lifestyle: Sessile –don’t move Sessile Move actively from place to place Planktonic – drift or weakly swimming
  4. 4. 4 Tissues: Animal plans vary according to the organization of the animal’s tissues layers (germ layers). - Sponges lack true tissues. In all other animals, the embryo becomes layered through the process of gastrulation. As development progresses, these germ layers form more specialized tissues and organs that make up the body. o Diploblastic - animals that have only 2 germ layers (Endoderm, ectoderm).  Ex. Cnidarians o Triploblastic - animals that have only 3 germ layers (Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm)  Ex. All bilaterally symmetrical animals & Echinoderms Body Plans of Triploblastic Animals 1. ________________________ 2. ________________________ 3. ________________________ Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate
  5. 5. 5 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. Ex. Ex. Ex. Protostome & Deuterostome Development: Based on certain features of early development, many animals can be categorized as having one of two developmental modes: - Coelomates can be divided into 2 evolutionary groups based on several fundamental differences in their development. - Protostomes include: Segmented worms, mollusks, arthropods - Deuterostomes include: Echinoderms, chordates Comparison of Protostome & Deuterostome Development
  6. 6. 6 Spiral cleavage vs. Radial cleavage Schizocoelous: Endoderm cells form solid masses of Enterocoelous: Certain cells of the endoderm differentiate Mesoderm which then split to form coelom into mesoderm and form outpockets of the archenteron. Coelom Formation
  7. 7. 7 Protostome vs. Deuterostome Characteristic Protostome Deuterostome Cleavage Developmental fate Blastopore fate Coelom formation Developmental fate
  8. 8. 8 Sponges - simplest of all animals - lack true tissues and organs (parazoa) - symmetry → asymmetrical - sessile - most are hermaphroditic - no gastrula stage Obtaining food: - Filter feeding - filters small particles (bacteria) of food from the water. Reproduction: Asexual: - Budding - forms a growth or bud that eventually falls off - Fragmentation - a piece breaks off - Gemmules - seed-like particles that fall from the sponge & grow into a new sponge Sexual: - Internal fertilization - Amoebocytes produce eggs and sperm. Sperm then swim to a different sponge and fertilize eggs. o Hermaphrodites Structure:
  9. 9. 9 Cnidarians - Symmetry → radially symmetrical - Diploblastic - produce only 2 germ layers (endoderm & ectoderm) - 2-way digestive tract (incomplete) - Hydrostatic skeleton – a skeletal system composed of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment. - Cnidocytes – stinging cells that contain nematocysts – stinging capsule - 2 basic forms: most undergo a change in body form during their life cycle o Medusa - the free swimming form o Polyp- the sessile form Obtaining food: Tentacles & cnidocytes are used to capture food. Food is then put into a gastrovascular cavity where it is digested. Undigested materials are ejected back out through the mouth. Nervous system: Nerve net - a loose association of nerves with no control center. Reproduction: Asexual a. Budding - an outgrowth that eventually falls off and develops into an adult Sexual a. External fertilization - sperm and egg form a zygote in water. - Structure:
  10. 10. 10 Platyhelminthes (flatworms) - acoelomates with thin, solid bodies - 2-way digestive tract - Triploblastic - produce 3 germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) - hydrostatic skeleton (all bilaterally symmetrical animals are triploblastic) - Cephalization – has a head or control center - symmetry → bilaterally symmetrical - grouped into 3 classes: o free-living planarians o parasitic flukes o parasitic tapeworms Planarians: Obtaining food: - Extends pharynx - Releases digestive enzymes - Food particle s are sucked in through pharynx - Food is endocytosed and digested by individual cells - Wastes are eliminated through pharynx Reproduction: Asexual Fission (regeneration) - worm splits in 2 and then regenerates its missing halves. Sexual reproduction Structure:
  11. 11. 11 Tapeworms: - parasitic - can grow to 20 ft in length Obtaining food: - Have no mouth, gastrovascular cavity, or digestive organs. - Absorb nutrients through their Reproduction: - Have a complex reproductive life cycle
  12. 12. 12 Nematodes (roundworms) - pseudocoelomates - 1-way digestive tract (complete) o Anterior region of the tract churns and mixes food with enzymes for digestion. The posterior region absorbs nutrients and disposes of wastes. This step-by-step processing of food allows each part of the digestive tube to be highly specialized for its particular function. - No circulatory system (simple diffusion) - hydrostatic skeleton - cylindrical worms with lengthwise muscles o moves by a thrashing motion - cuticle covers the body; as the worm grows, it periodically sheds its old cuticle (molting). - most numerous of all animals on Earth - many roundworms are parasitic.
  13. 13. 13 Annelids (segmented worms) - symmetry → bilaterally symmetrical - coelomate - hydrostatic skeleton - tube within a tube body plan - bodies are cylindrical and segmented o allows shortening & lengthening of body o segmentation allows for specialization of a particular function - have setae (tiny bristles) on each segment Circulation: - closed circulatory system - blood remains within vessels - 5 aortic arches (hearts) - to pump blood Respiration: - Cutaneous respiration - exchange of gases directly through moist skin Sexual reproduction: Excretory system: - Nephridia - Primitive kidney; structures that eliminate metabolic wastes Structure:
  14. 14. 14 Mollusks - symmetry → bilateral symmetry - coelomate - complete digestive tract - Mantle - membrane that surrounds the internal organs; secretes shell - Muscular foot - used for locomotion - Radula - a tongue-like organ with rows of teeth; used to drill, scrape, and cut food Obtaining food: - most use a radula to cut food into small pieces - Bivalves are filter feeders Sexual reproduction: Circulation: - have a 2-3 chambered heart - most have an open circulatory system in which blood moves though vessels and into open spaces around the body organs (cephalopods have a closed circulatory system).
  15. 15. 15 Open circulatory system & 2-chambered heart diagram Respiration: - Gills - consist of a system of projections that contain blood vessels through which gases are exchanged. Diagram: Gill Gill filament
  16. 16. 16 Countercurrent exchange diagram - The transfer of a substance from a fluid moving in one direction to another fluid moving in the opposite direction. Excretion: - Nephridia - specialized organs for removing metabolic wastes. Diversity: Characteristic Gastropoda Bivalvia Cephalopoda External shell Head Radula Locomotion Circulation Examples
  17. 17. 17 Arthropods - Symmetry → bilateral - Segmented o Head o Thorax o Abdomen - coelomate - exoskeleton - molting - jointed appendages Exoskeleton: - hard, thick, outer covering made of chitin o protection o Muscle attachment o Prevent dehydration (waxy layer) Molting: - the shedding of the exoskeleton o animal secretes a new soft exoskeleton o animal sucks in air or water and splits open old exoskeleton o old exoskeleton is discarded o animal swells up body with increased circulation until new exoskeleton hardens * most animals molt 4-7 times
  18. 18. 18 Gas exchange: 1. Gills - found in aquatic arthropods 2. Tracheal tubes - found mostly in insects a. Branching hollow pipes that carry air throughout the body b. Muscle activity helps move air through tubes 3. Book lungs - found mostly in arachnids a. Air filled chambers that contain many folds b. Folds are stacked and arranged like pages in a book Sexual reproduction: Some species exhibit _______________________________ - offspring develop from unfertilized eggs (asexual reproduction) - ex. Wasp, aphid, bee, ant Diversity: 1. ____________________ - 2 body regions Ex. 2. ____________________ - 2-3 body regions Ex. 3. ____________________ - 3 body regions Ex.
  19. 19. 19 Metamorphosis - a series of changes, controlled by chemical substances. a. Complete metamorphosis - larval stage is specialized for eating & growing; adult is specialized for moving and reproducing. - allows the insect to take advantage of more than one habitat & food source at different life stages. 1) Egg – hatches into a larva 2) Larva – wormlike stage of an insect (caterpillar). As the larva eats and grows, it molts several times. 3) Pupa – period of reorganization in which the tissues and organs of the larva are broken down and replaced by adult tissues. * Note: insect does not move or feed. 4) Adult Ex. Beetles, flies, moths, wasps
  20. 20. 20 b. Incomplete metamorphosis - juveniles look like miniature adults - juveniles lack wings & sexual organs 1) Egg 2) Nymph – when the insect hatches from an egg, it has the same general appearance as the adult but is smaller. • Note: cannot reproduce 3) Adult Ex. Grasshoppers, cockroach
  21. 21. 21 Echinoderms - symmetry → radial symmetry - endoskeleton - internal skeleton - Hard, bumpy skeleton made of calcium carbonate. Water vascular system: - Water vascular system - a network of water-filled canals that are connected to tube feet. The hundreds of tube feet act like tiny suction cups. - allows animal to climb slippery rocks and capture prey.
  22. 22. 22 Body systems: - no circulatory, excretory, or respiratory system o Fluid in the coelom bathes the organs and distributes nutrients and O2. Sexual reproduction: Structure: Chordates - can be classified into 3 subphyla: o Urochordates (tunicates) Invertebrates o Cephalochordates (lancelets) o Vertebrates – animals with a backbone - all chordates have 4 characteristics during some point in their life 1. Notochord - a flexible rod that gives animals support. a. In vertebrates its remains only as part of the disks. b. Chordates are named for this structure.
  23. 23. 23 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord (neural tube) - a nerve cord made from ectoderm that rolls into a hollow tube a. Located dorsal to the notochord b. Ant. Becomes brain Vertebrates c. Post. Becomes spinal cord 3. Pharyngeal pouches - develops into gill slits 4. Postanal tail - contains muscles and helps propel aquatic organisms. Lancelet Notochord: - Semi rigid rod-like structure. - Anchors internal muscles and enables invertebrate’s chordates to make rapid movements of the body and move through water quickly. - In invertebrate chordates, the notochord may be retained into adulthood. - In vertebrate chordates, the notochord is replaced by a backbone. Dorsal hollow nerve cord: - Develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a hollow tube. Dorsal hollow nerve cord (neural tube)
  24. 24. 24 Pharyngeal pouches: - Paired openings located in the pharynx, behind the mouth. - In aquatic chordates, pharyngeal pouches develop openings called gill slits and gills. - In terrestrial chordates, pharyngeal pouches develop into jaws, inner ear, and tonsils. Postanal tail: - In some, the postanal tail disappears during development. - In others, the postanal tail develops into a tail fin.
  25. 25. 25 Chordate Body Plan
  26. 26. 26 Organogenesis
  27. 27. 27 Chordate evolution A phylogenetic tree of chordates showing key derived traits
  28. 28. 28 Fishes - Symmetry → bilateral symmetry - Ectothermic (cold blooded) – cannot regulate their body temperature; same temp as environment. - Coelomates - Breathe using gills - 2 chambered heart - Most have paired fins - Highly developed sensory system 3 classes of fishes: 1. Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish) Ex. Sharks, rays 2. Ray-finned – have thin, skeletal rays (bones) in fins Ex. Tuna, trout, goldfish 3. Lobe-finned – fins have heavy bones and are muscular - have 3 lineages a. Coelacanth – a deep sea fish b. Lungfishes – live in stagnant waters in southern hemisphere; use primitive lung to gulp air c. Tetrapods – adapted to life on land and gave rise to terrestrial vertebrates Highly developed sensory system: - Lateral line system o Fluid-filled canals running along the sides of fish o Allows fish to detect movement in the water. Paired fins: - used for balance, swimming, and steering Heart & circulation: - 2-chambered heart o 1 atrium o 1 ventricle - Single circulation
  29. 29. 29 Single circulation diagram Cartilaginous fish Bony fish moveable jaws moveable jaws scales scales cartilage skeleton bony skeleton paired fins paired fins Buoyancy due to: Buoyancy due to: 1. __________________ 1. __________________ 2. __________________
  30. 30. 30 Buoyancy diagram Amphibians (having 2 natures) - Symmetry → bilateral symmetry - Coelomates - Scaleless skin through which gasses and H2O are exchanged. - Lay eggs in water or moist places Sensory organs: Larva: lateral line system Adult: smell, sight, hearing, touch Excretion: - use kidneys to get rid of metabolic wastes o Larva: excrete ammonia o Adult: excrete urea  Convert ammonia → urea (very toxic) (less toxic) needs to be diluted requires less water. with large amounts Good strategy for of water. land animals. Respiration: Larva: 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ Adult: 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________
  31. 31. 31 Heart & circulation: 3-chambered heart - Rt &Lt atria - ventricle Double circulation - provides faster blood flow through the body. 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________
  32. 32. 32 3 – Chambered Heart 3-chmbered heart diagram
  33. 33. 33 Reptiles - symmetry → bilateral symmetry - coelomates - dry, scaly skin, and clawed toes. - All reptiles have 4 legs with the exception of snakes. - Most reptiles have a 3 chambered heart, but crocodiles have a 4 chambered heart. Scaly skin: - Scaly skin prevents the loss of water and provides additional protection from rugged terrestrial environment. Reproduction: - Reproduce by laying soft shelled eggs on land - Most reptiles provide no care for hatchlings. - Amniotic egg o Provides nourishment to the embryo and contains membranes that protect it while it develops on land. Amniotic egg diagram
  34. 34. 34 o Encases the embryo in a secure, self-contained aquatic environment. Contains 4 membranes.  Amnion -thin membrane enclosing the fluid in which the embryo floats.  Yolk sac - thin membrane that encloses the yolk, a fat-rich food supply for the embryo.  Allantois - stores wastes; also serves as the embryo’s “lung,” exchanging CO2 and O2.  Chorion - Surrounds all the membranes and helps protect the developing embryo. Respiration: - Lungs - contain alveoli, small sacs that increase the surface area inside lungs. Excretion: - Uric acid is much less toxic than ammonia or urea. Thus, it requires little water for dilution. Heart & circulation: - Double circulation - 3 chambered heart
  35. 35. 35 Aves (birds) - symmetry → bilateral symmetry - coelomates - endotherms – maintain own body temperature - 4 chambered heart - Keeled sternum - hollow bones - air sacs - beak - feathers (unique to birds) Heart & circulation: - more efficient than a 3-chambered heart, because it prevents mixing of blood from the 2 circulation loops.
  36. 36. 36 Keel-shaped sternum: - needed to support the enormous thrust and power produced by the flight muscles Hollow bones: - Hollow bones, strengthen by bony crosspieces, allow for both strength and lightweight. Air sacs: - The high metabolic rate of birds requires large amounts of oxygen. - Have anterior sacs, posterior sacs, and lungs. Sacs are not used for gas exchange. - Breathing mechanism allows bird to have oxygenated air in its lungs during both inhalation and exhalation. Breathing mechanism diagram
  37. 37. 37 Beaks: - sometimes called bills - covered by a protein called keratin - do not have teeth Feathers: - A lightweight, modified protein scale that provides insulation and enables flight. Reproduction: - internal fertilization - amniotic egg - Eggs are encased in a hard shell. Digestion: - Have no teeth, so food is swallowed whole. Excretory system: - Need to maintain a lightweight, so no liquid waste is stored. (no bladder) - Uric acid is filtered from the blood by kidneys, then travels to the cloaca, where it is mixed with undigested feces. - Bird droppings are a mixture of feces and uric acid. Origin of birds: - Fossil finds in China support the idea that birds evolved from a dinosaur.
  38. 38. 38 Mammals - symmetry → bilateral symmetry - coelomates - endotherms - internal fertilization - 4-chambered heart - Diaphragms – thin sheet of muscle that separates chest from abdomen - hair - produce milk to nurse their young. - specialized teeth - highly developed brains. Diaphragm: - helps expand the chest cavity to aid the flow of air into the lungs Hair: - Hair is present on all mammals at some point in their lives. - Made out of the protein keratin - Provides insulation and waterproofing and thereby conserves body heat. - Mammals cool off by panting and sweating. Produce milk: - Feed their young from mammary glands which produce and secrete milk, a liquid that is rich in fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Mammals nurse until the young are able to digest and absorb nutrients from solid foods.
  39. 39. 39 Specialized teeth: - Have different kinds of teeth that are adapted to the type of food the animal eats. Highly developed brains: - One major reason mammals are successful is that they guard their young and teach them survival skills. Mammals can accomplish complex behaviors, such as learning and remembering what they have learned. Mammal classification: - Mammals are classified into subclasses based on how they reproduce: o Placentals  Give birth to young that have developed inside the mother’s uterus until their body systems are fully functional.  90% of all mammals are placentals o Marsupials  A marsupial is a mammal in which the young have a short period of development within the mother’s body, followed by a period of development inside a pouch made of skin and hair on the outside of the mother’s body.  Ex. Kangaroo, possum o Monotremes  Reproduce by laying eggs  Ex. Platypus
  40. 40. 40 Metabolic Wastes, Thermoregulation, Reproduction Metabolic wastes: Aquatic animals Terrestrial animals ammonia urea / uric acid lots of water some water little water liquid liquid paste high toxicity medium toxicity low toxicity lots of space some space little space * animals that do not * animals that do produce produce shelled eggs shelled eggs Thermoregulation: Ectothermy vs. Endothermy Characteristic Ectothermy (cold blooded) Endothermy (warm blooded) Heat source Metabolism Sweat Energy Exertion Food consumption Climate Examples

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