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  • 1. Although it may be hard for you to believe, all of us adults used to bestudents just like you are now. This includes me! I know when I was astudent in your shoes math didn’t always come easy to everyone, againincluding me! While some students just “get it” others may need a littlebit more time to understand the basics. And as much as you might wantit to, math won’t just go away as your get older! It will always bearound building and building upon what you have already learned. This iswhy I know it is so important for you to learn multiplication and startto see and understand some of its applications or uses. If you do this,when you are done with 4th grade and move on to 5th, you will have yourtimes tables memorized and will feel confident that you are ready tobuild upon your math skills.A lot of students don’t like math because they often approach it fromthe same way, usually with a worksheet. So if you are having a hardtime understanding the concept from one angle, no matter how manyworksheets you do, you will probably still have difficulty with it. Inthis text set I have provided you with literature as an alternative wayfor you to visually see and work with multiplication and apply it tosituations where it will be useful. I hope you enjoy all these texts inthis set and more importantly I hope you give yourself the opportunityto learn multiplication and gain the confidence you need to tackle allthe math the future holds! Good luck! You can do it!Kristin RodriguezSomeone who’s been there too!
  • 2. Math Science English, Language Arts, and writing2.4 B represent multiplication and 3.2 B collect and record data 3.1 Reading/Fluency. Studentsdivision situations in picture, by observing and measuring, read grade-level text withword, and number form using the metric system, and fluency and comprehension. using descriptive words and Students are expected to read numerals such as labeled aloud grade-level stories with drawings, writing, and fluency (rate, accuracy, concept maps; expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension2.4 C recall and apply 3.2 C construct simple 3.3A summarize and explainmultiplication facts through 12 x tables, charts, bar graphs, the lesson or message of a work12; and maps using tools and of fiction as its theme; and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data;2.4 D use multiplication to solve 3.2 D analyze and interpret 3.4 Reading/Comprehension ofproblems (no more than two digits patterns in data to construct Literary Text/Poetry. Studentstimes two digits without reasonable explanations understand, make inferencestechnology); based on evidence from and draw conclusions about the investigations structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).2.6 A use patterns and 3.2 F communicate valid 3.11 A summarize the main idearelationships to develop conclusions supported by and supporting details in text instrategies to remember basic data in writing, by drawing ways that maintain meaning;multiplication and division facts pictures, and through verbal(such as the patterns in related discussion.multiplication and division numbersentences (fact families) such as9 x 9 = 81 and 81 ÷ 9 = 9)2.6 B use patterns to multiply by 3.13 A determine the sequence10 and 100 of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe);2.11 A estimate and use 3.16 A write imaginative storiesmeasurement tools to determine that build the plot to a climaxlength (including perimeter), area, and contain details about thecapacity and weight/mass using characters and setting;standard units SI (metric) andcustomary2.11 B perform simple conversions 3.17 Writing. Students writebetween different units of length, about their own experiences.between different units of Students are expected to writecapacity, and between different about important personalunits of weight within the experiences.customary measurement system4.14 A identify the mathematicsin everyday situations
  • 3. Annotated BibliographyAn V. “Get Some Sleep!” TIME FOR KIDS. 8,October, 2010. Vol#16 Issue #5.http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/teachers/ns/article/0,27972,2023284,00.htmlAnno, Ma., & Anno, Mi. (1983). ANNO’S MYSTERIOUS MULTIPLYING JAR. NY. PhilomelBooks.Davidson, L.L. “Biggest Chocolate Bar Ever.” SCHOLASTIC NEWS online. 27, September2010. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3754967&FullBreadCrumbHutchins, P. (1986). The Doorbell Rang. NY: Greenwillow Bookshttp://mathplayground.com/ (2008).Mathews, L. (1990). BUNCHES AND BUNCHES OF BUNNIES. NY. DOD,MEAD &COMPANYMr. R. (2009). My Dog, Multiplication. “Mr. R’s World of Math.” http://mathstory.com/Poems/mydogmul tiplication.aspxMr. R. (2009). Multiplying by Hen. “Mr. R’s World of Math.”http://mathstory.com/Poems/multiplybyhen.aspxPetti, W. Copyright 2000-2010. http://www.mathcats.comSchwartz, D. (1993). How Much is a Million? NY: Lothrop, Lee & Shepherd Books.Schwartz, D. (2003). MILLIONS RO MEASURE. NY. Harper Collins.Tang, G. (2002). The Best of Times. NY. Scholastic Press.
  • 4. Book: Anno, Ma., & Anno, Mi. (1983). ANNO’S MYSTERIOUS MULTIPLYING JAR. NY.Philomel Books.Genre: Juvenile FictionSynopsis: This book is about a jar. This mysterious jar appears to have water inside, butwhen you look closer there is actually a whole sea inside. In that sea there is an island.On that one island there are two countries. On each of those two countries there aretwo mountains. On each of these mountains (six in total) there are four kingdoms. Thispattern continues throughout the story. Once the final item is reached, it is up to readerto find out how many in total of the item are there? The second half of the book goesback to the beginning and walks through the story again, only this time showing themath step by step so you can find the answer.TEK: Math: 2.4 B, 2.4 C, 2.4 D, 4.14 B, 4.14 C, 4.14 D. English, Language Arts, andReading: 3.16 A.Reading Strategy: Interactive read aloud. (Teacher) Read the book aloud to thestudents. Although it may appear simple, the students may need help comprehendinghow the multiplication follows through all the steps of the story. Walk then through andexplain step-by-step after you have read through the book once.Additional Activity: (Student) Create your own “multiplying jar.” Write a story using thesame multiplying principles used in the book. Be creative. Your story can start with anyenclosed object you choose, jar, box, jug, basket, etc. and can end wherever youchoose. Include at least 10 steps in your story and show the math at the bottom of thepage along the way.
  • 5. Teacher Tidbit: You could use the additional activity as a reading/writing lesson andcomplete it together as a class or in groups. Each group could create their own bookwith drawings on large paper and everyone could present it to the class uponcompletion.
  • 6. Book: Hutchins, P. (1986). The Doorbell Rang. NY: Greenwillow Books.Genre: Juvenile fiction.Synopsis: Ma has just given Victoria and Sam a yummy plate of cookies she has madefor tea when the doorbell rings. Some friends have stopped by just in time for cookies!Everyone is admiring how delicious the cookies look and smell when the doorbell ringsagain and again. With each ring of the doorbell each child will get less cookies thanbefore. Soon there looks like there are more friends than cookies and the doorbell ringsagain! What will the children do? Hide their cookies? Leave the door unopened?TEKS: Math TEKS: 2.4 C, 2.4 D, 4.14 A, 4.14 B, 4.14 C, 4.14D. Language Arts, andReading TEKS: 3. 3 A, 3.17. Science: 3.2 B.Reading Strategy: Quick write. (Student) After reading this story, write a paragraphabout when you had to share something with a sibling or a friend. Did you want toshare? How did it make you feel? How do you think it made your sibling/friend feel?Additional Activity: (Student) Find your favorite cookie recipe, either from a cookbook orask a family member. Count how many kids you have in your class and decide howmany cookies each student will have. Then double or even triple the recipe if needed.Show all the math work to how you reached the new recipe that would feed your class.Teacher Tidbit: This would be a good book to use to help introduce measurements. Youcould bring in flour or sugar and have the students practice measuring in cups andtablespoons and teaspoons. The students could also measure liquids (water or oil) inliters or cups. If allowed by the school, cookies would be a fun follow-up treat!
  • 7. Book: Schwartz, D. (2003). MILLIONS TO MEASURE. NY. Harper Collins.Genre: Juvenile nonfiction.Synopsis: This is another book with Marvelosissimo the Mathematical Magician. Somechildren want to have a race but don’t know how to decide where to race to, so they askMarvelosissimo. The math magician takes them on a fun journey back through time tosee how people long ago decided how to measure things. They learn about what peoplefirst used to measure distance, height, weight, volume, etc. The children learn aboutdepending on the item they are measuring they may use different units. They also learnhow these units relate to each other, such as kilo and kilogram. If you want to seewhere all the measurements that you’ve heard about came and how to use them, this isthe book for you!TEKS: Math: 2.11 A, 2.11 B, 4.14 A. English, Language Arts, and Reading: 3.1., 3.11A., 3.13 A. Science: 3.2 B, 3.2C.Reading Strategy: KWL. (Teacher) This strategy could be done as a class orindividually. Create a three-column chart. The first column should be labeled with a “K”for “Know” the second with a “W” for “Want to know” and the last with “L” for “Learned.”So first write down everything you know about measurement. List all the types ofmeasurements that you can think of. Describe when those measurements are used.Then come up with at least three questions that you would like to know aboutmeasurements. Then once the book is read, see if any of your questions wereanswered. Then make a new list under the learned column of five new things aboutmeasurement that were learned.Additional Activity: (Student) Go around the room and estimate to the nearest inch howtall you think any ten items are. Then check your estimations with a ruler. Then convertyour measurement to centimeters. Create an organized chart to store all your data.Teacher Tidbit: Breaking this book up into sections could also be beneficial to go morein depth in each of the units of measurement.
  • 8. Book: Tang, G. (2002). The Best of Times. NY. Scholastic Press.Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction.Synopsis: If you need help learning your multiplication tables, this is the book for you.This book has a fun and easy rhyme to help you remember the rules of multiplicationstarting from zero all the way up to the number ten. This book is bright and colorful withgreat illustrations. The pictures are of silly animals to make things even more excitingand memorable. This is a great alternative to the monotonous memorization. If you areonly in need of a review this book can help you too. The last couple of pages breaksdown each number and shows you how the riddle works mathematically. With this bookanyone can learn their “times tables.”TEKS: Math: 2.4 B, 2.4 C, 2.4 D, 2.6 A, 2.6 B. English, Language Arts, and Reading:3.13Reading Strategy: Tea party. (Teacher) Make one copy each for each set ofmultiplication clues and create stations with one number at each station. Have studentsgo around to each station in small groups or pairs. Have then reread that particularpage and study how to multiply by that station’s number. Then have the students taketurns asking each other multiplication questions of that number. Rotate around the roomuntil every student goes to every station and has a chance to practice their multiplicationtables from zero to ten.Additional Activity: Choose one of the multiplication riddles and create your owndrawing.Teacher Tidbit: As with most things some students may struggle with this more thanothers. For those struggling students, allow more practice time. They may need to writeout the math from each riddle to get to the final answer or may require extra practice.
  • 9. Book: Schwartz, D. (1993). How Much is a Million? NY: Lothrop, Lee & ShepherdBooks.Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction.Synopsis: A group of children are traveling around in a hot air balloon withMarvelosissimo the Mathematical Magician as he tries puts into proportion the quantityof a million. Marvelosissimo takes everyday things like children, goldfish, and stars andtalks about what it would be like to have a million of them. If you ever wondered what amillion goldfish would look like, this book is for you! Marvelosissimo not only shows whatit would look like to have a million of these objects but he puts a picture of a child next toit, to help keep it proportionate. Just to keep things interesting, at the end some of theitems are discussed in billions, and even trillions! Do you know how long it would takeyou to count from one to one trillion? Read this book and you will learn!TEK: Math: 2.6 B, 4.14. A. English, Language Arts, and Reading. 3.11 A.Reading Strategy: Anticipation Guide. (Student) In your notebook, you will write downhow much YOU think a million is. Use common things to make your comparisons to. If amillion children climbed up on top of each other, how tall do you think they would be? Ifyou had a billion goldfish how big would your tank need to be to hold them? How longwould it take you to count from one to one million? To one billion? To one trillion? Afterreading the text, go back and compare your answers to what was learned in the book.Write down the correct answers from the book. Were you close?Additional Activity: (Student) The teacher has a guessing jar. Before reading this book,guess how many items you think are in each jar. After reading you can change yourguess or keep it the same. Then ask the teacher for the answer and see how close youwere.Teacher Tidbit: You will need to prepare a guessing jar. You will need a rather large jarthat you can fill with small candies or another small object. You should fill it to capacityand try to get approximately 10,000. The students can then guess how many candiesare in the jar. Once the answer is revealed you can then help them understand that itwould take 100 of these jars to make one million.
  • 10. Book: Mathews, L. (1990). BUNCHES AND BUNCHES OF BUNNIES. NY. DOD,MEAD& COMPANY.Genre: Juvenile nonfiction.Synopsis: Counting bunnies has never been so fun! These silly bunnies are doingeverything from magic tricks, going to the beach, and even misbehaving at school.While reading it will become apparent that these bunnies are in bunches and bunches.Each bunch represents the number that is to be squared (multiplied by itself). This bookgives yet another fun way to review a different type of multiplication.TEK: Math: 2.4 C. 2.6 A. 414. B.Reading Strategy: All-About Books. This would be a great strategy to use if you havedone a unit on rabbits/bunnies. Have the children write an all-about book using theirprior knowledge of everything they know about bunnies.Additional Activity: Create your own math problems about a real rabbit using yourknowledge about rabbit’s behavior. (ex: One pound of pellets feeds approximately threebunnies in one day. How many pounds would be needed to feed 244 bunnies for oneday? For one week?Teacher Tidbit: As you can see from the reading strategy and the additional activity, thestudent would already need to have a good knowledge base on bunnies to completethese activities.
  • 11. Math1. Math Cats.Petti, W. Copyright 2000-2010. http://www.mathcats.com CatsThis is such a fantastic website! There is something here discoverfor students of all ages and ability levels. Students canchoose a category such as, “Math Cats discover the theworld!” Once inside they can then choose from differentmath games and activities. This is a fun way for kids to World!play around with all kinds of math including multiplication, aside from the usualworksheet.What I really love about this website is that there is a place for “older cats.” This is forparents and teachers. The website is broken down by mathematical category so theteacher or parents can see where there child needs to go for practice on a particularmath skill. This is also a place when questions can be asked and advice can be given.This is a wonderful website for both parents and students.This is also a great website that helps students integrate writing with math. There areregular math writing contests held on this site. The students are to write math storieson given topics. Students can really get creative when given the chance and thiswebsite does just that!2. The Math playground.http://mathplayground.com/ (2008).This website is called the math playground and it is exactly that. The students can go tothis website and feel like they are playing instead of learning and reinforcing their mathskills. This website offers games, puzzles, word problems and even math videos. Thereis something for every student. To the right of the site there is a list of grade levels toaccommodate students of all levels. Struggling as well as advanced students can playaround on this website and reinforce the skills they are learning in class, likemultiplication. There is even a timed “flash card” game, which the students will find morefun than flipping through flashcards at their desk because here they are at the computerand seeing the numbers on the screen. There is truly something for everyone on thiswebsite.
  • 12. An V. “Get Some Sleep!” TIME FOR KIDS. 8,October, 2010. Vol#16 Issue #5.http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/teachers/ns/article/0,27972,2023284,00.htmlSynopsis: This is a great article about how much sleep kids need compared to howmuch they are actually getting. This article talks about two different students, one age 8and the other age 10 who aren’t getting enough sleep. These students are much like theaverage student who is not getting the recommended amount of sleep per night. Thishas an effect on the student’s behavior and outcome in the classroom. Are you gettingenough sleep?TEK: Math: 2.4 D. 4.15 A. Science: 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 F. English, Language Arts, andReading: 3.11 A.Reading Strategy: Quick write. (Student) After reading the article you will do a quickwrite answering the following questions:1. Do you think you get enough sleep?2. How many hours a night do you think you sleep?3. Do you think that sleep can really affect your performance in the classroom? Why orwhy not?Additional Activity: (Student) Lets conduct our own sleep experiment! Without alteringyour sleep patterns, keep a sleep journal for one week. Then the next week, make aconscious effort to get the recommended amount of ten to eleven hours of sleep eachnight. Once completed find the average amount of sleep you received during each weekrounded to the nearest half hour. Then find out how many hours you would sleep eachmonth if you kept the first week’s sleeping pattern, then find the same for the secondweek. The next part of the activity will be to compare your average daily work gradesfrom the first week to the second week. Was there any difference? Write a shortparagraph explaining your results. Be sure to keep all your data organized.Teacher tidbit: The additional activity could be compared as a class once everyone hasdone their sleep journals. You could make a class bar graph showing how many hourseveryone slept.
  • 13. Davidson, L.L. “Biggest Chocolate Bar Ever.” SCHOLASTIC NEWS online. 27,September 2010. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3754967&FullBreadCrumbSynopsis: The biggest chocolate bar ever?! At almost 10,000 pounds, the country ofArmenia set a Guinness World Record for the biggest chocolate bar. This article givesall the delicious details of this gigantic treat.TEKS: Math: 2.4 D, 2.11 A. English, Language Arts, and Reading: 3.11 A.Reading Strategy: Interactive read aloud. (Teacher) This article is very short and“sweet.” This would be a good article to read together as a class and then work somemath together on the board. The class could decide how many people they think shouldshare the chocolate bar and then from there find out how much chocolate each personwould get. If it is too much or too little, they could work the other way and say how mucheach portion should be and then find out how many people would share it. Then theycould find how many more of those same chocolate bars would have to be made tomake 100,000 pounds or 1,000,000 pounds.Additional Activity: (Student) Based on the measurements given in the article fine thearea and the perimeter of the chocolate bar.
  • 14. Poem: Mr. R. (2009). My Dog, Multiplication. “Mr. R’s World of Math.”http://mathstory.com/Poems/mydogmul tiplication.aspxSummary: This is a cute poem about a dog named multiplication. It won’t take you verylong to figure out how he got his name. This is a silly way to think about multiplication,but it’s a good way to practice just the same. You can multiply by how many dogs thereare every day and figure out how many ears, and tails and paws you have with everydog that is multiplied.TEKS: Math: 2.4 B, 2.4 C. 4.14 A, 4.14 B. English, Language Arts, and Reading: 3.4.Reading Strategy: Reciprocal Questioning. (Teacher) Break the poem into paragraphsand read it one paragraph at a time with the class. Then ask the students questionsafter each paragraph to make sure they are comprehending how the math is workingthroughout the poem as well as enjoying the silly story about the dog. After the firstbreak you could have them guess why they think his name is multiplication. After thethird paragraph you could ask them if they knew the multiplication problem that createdfour dogs. Then at the end ask them to write all the multiplication problems for the ears,paws, and legs. Add more questions as you see fit.Additional Activity: (Student) Notice that in this poem the dogs keep increasing by afactor of 2. How many would there be if they increased by a factor of 3? 5? Do the mathand make a chart to keep track. Ex: Factor of 3.On the first day 3 X my dog multiplication:How many dogs? 3 x 1 =3Draw a picture of the dogs:How many ears? 3 x 2 =6How many legs? 3 x 4 =12How many tails? 3x1=3How many toenails 3 x 16 =48Repeat this for the next couple of days as your dog multiplication multiplies by 3! Thendo it again by 5.
  • 15. My Dog Multiplication Late last year, During winter vacation, Dad got us our dog, Multiplication...Multiplications a good dog,But hes not without trouble,Because one day I woke up,And saw that hed doubled... Two dogs were there, They looked like him, 2 X 1, I had a big grin... Two dogs were cool, But what about more? The next day I woke up, And saw there were 4!!!! 4 dogs were a lot, But the fun was still great, Until the next morning, When I saw there were 8!! Eight dogs for walking,
  • 16. Was one of my fears, Thats 32 legs, 16 dog ears!!! But 8 dogs were only, A small complication, Compared to, 16 X,My dog, Multiplication!!! Thats 64 paws, And 16 long tails, 32 eyes, 256 toe nails!!! Having so many dogs, Has been a wild-fun ride,But its time Multiplication, Learns to divide!!!!
  • 17. Poem: Mr. R. (2009). Multiplying by Hen. “Mr. R’s World of Math.”http://mathstory.com/Poems/multiplybyhen.aspxSummary: This is a poem about a man who has a hard time remembering how tomultiply a number by ten. An old man tells him to ask the hen! Ask a hen? The manmay not know how to multiply by ten, but he does know hens, and he knows hens can’tdo multiplication. He was very surprised when he went to see the hen and the hen laidan egg right in the answer. Read the poem to find out if the hen was right.TEKS: Math: 2.6 B. English, Language Arts, and Reading: 3.4.Reading strategy: Hot seat. (Teacher) After reviewing the poem and understanding itsmeaning, have one student sit in a chair in the front of the classroom, the hot seat. Theother students then take turns asking multiplications problems involving ten. Take turnsso other students have a turn in the hot seat.Additional Activity: (Student) Choose one number to multiply by ten. Then draw a pictureof how multiplying by Hen will help you solve this problem. (Draw a picture of hen layingthe egg in your answer).
  • 18. Multiplying by Hen Every time, I timesed by ten, Got it wrong, Tried again... Old man said, Hen can fix... I laughed loud, Old man tricks!!! Just go give, Hen a try, Said the man, Winked his eye... Took my math, To hens pen, Looked at her, Laughed again, This was silly, I know hens, Dont know fives, Dont know tens... 10 x 5 Hard for me, Can hen solve it? Wait and see!!! Hen grabbed pen, Hen grabbed pad, Wrote a 5, Looked real glad, Around she turned, Egg she laid, Behind the 5, Im amazed... Read her answer, Right out loud, Old mans hen, Felt real proud... 5
  • 19. I hope this text set has really helped you to feel comfortable withmultiplication. The purpose of this text set was to help you reviewmultiplication in a variety of ways. You should know all your times tablesfrom zero to ten without question. I also hope that you are able to seehow multiplication can be useful in a variety of ways when problemsolving. I hope that each student was able to find at least one piece ofliterature that really helped something about multiplication click forthem that they were previously struggling with.I hope upon completing this text set your math confidence and yourmath ego has been boosted. You should be able to teach others whatyou have learned here. It is now your turn to reach out and try to helpanother struggling math student!To learn even more about tricks to remember/using multiplication,please visit:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPgs9LmV5wc&feature=player_embeddedKristin RodriguezSomeone who no longer struggles with math!