Allergy and epi pen
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Allergy and epi pen

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Allergy and epi pen Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Allergy & Epi-Pen Mandatory Training
  • 2. What is an Allergy?
    Allergies occur when the immune system becomes
    unusually sensitive and overreacts to common
    substances that are normally harmless. Examples are:
    Foods – most common tree nuts, especially peanuts and fish; also, eggs, milk, wheat, soy, sesame and some food additives
    Stings from bees, wasps, hornets and some ants
    Medications – penicillin, sulfa drugs
    Exercise
    Latex (gloves/medical devices)
  • 3. What is Anaphylaxis?
    Occurs when a person is exposed to an allergen causing a severe, life-threatening allergic response
    Reactions can occur within seconds of exposure to an allergen, but can be delayed for 2-3 hours
    Affects various organ systems including the skin, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal
  • 4. Why is this life-threatening?
    Causes airway obstruction/lack of oxygen to the brain
    Increases risk of SHOCK, which leads to widespread tissue damage, organ failure and eventually death
  • 5. Common Symptoms
    Skin – hives , swelling, itching, warmth, redness, rash
    Respiratory (breathing) – wheezing, shortness of breath, throat tightness, cough, hoarse voice, chest pain/tightness, nasal congestion or hay fever-like symptoms (runny itchy nose and watery eyes, sneezing), trouble swallowing
    Gastrointestinal (stomach): nausea, pain/cramps, vomiting, diarrhea
    Cardiovascular (heart): pale/blue colour, weak pulse, passing out, dizzy/lightheaded, shock
    Other: anxiety, feeling of “impending doom” and headache
    If a child is allergic to nuts and he smells them, he may develop symptoms, but not a life-threatening reaction
  • 6. FACTS ABOUT EPINEPHRINE
    Many people who are subject to severe allergic reactions are prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector by their physician to use when such a reaction occurs.
    Some examples of severe allergies:
    bee stings, peanut, nut and food allergies, latex products and shell fish
  • 7. SYMPTOMS OF A SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTION
    Swelling of the face, tongue and/or lips
    Irritability
    Loss of consciousness
    Breathing difficulty, wheezing or both
    Bluish color to the skin (cyanosis)
    Dizziness, faintness
    Flushing of face, chest, etc.
    Tightness of throat and chest
    Hard-to-find or weak pulse (circulatory collapse)
    Seizures
  • 8. Mild to Moderate Allergic Reaction : Hives and Swelling of face
  • 9.
  • 10. Anaphylaxis: What should I do?
    Symptoms of anaphylaxis can be as simple as tingling of the lips or as severe as cardiac arrest. When in doubt, administer epinephrine
    If a person says they are having a reaction it is important to believe them, and immediately administer epinephrine regardless of the symptoms present
    After giving the epinephrine, call the office to get the nurse and have them call 911-do not wait for the nurse
    It is an emergency and the epinephrine
    must be given and 911 must be called
  • 11. What is a Single Dose, Epinephrine Auto-injector?
    A single dose auto-injector is an easy way to give epinephrine/adrenaline to someone having an allergic reaction
    E.g. EpiPen®, Twinject®
    Trainers are available for practice using- please see your school nurse.
  • 12. FACTS ABOUT EPINEPHRINE
    Epinephrine has been prescribed for patients who are susceptible to severe allergic reactions. Epinephrine is a hormone produced by the body.
    When given as a medication, it will help to raise the blood pressure and improve profusion along with helping to open the airway and improve respiration.
  • 13. EPINEPRHINEAUTO-INJECTOR
    Adult/Child Dosage
    Called the Epi-Pen and contains 0.30 mg of epinephrine
    Small Child Dosage:
    Called the Epi-Pen Jr. and contains 0.15 mg of epinephrine.
    The appropriate dosage for the student will be written by his/her doctor or advanced practice nurse.
  • 14. Epi-Pen
    THERE ARE NO CONTRAINDICATIONS WHEN EPINEPHRINE IS USED IN A LIFE THREATENING EMERGENCY
    SIDE EFFECTS:
    Increased heart rate, pallor, dizziness, chest pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, excitability and anxiety
  • 15. IF NOT SURE TO USE EPI-PEN
    If you are not sure, but the individual seems uncomfortable or in distress –
    USE THE EPI-PEN
    It is safer to use the Epi-Pen than to wait
  • 16. EPI-PEN PROCEDURE
    Have someone else call 911 and notify the parents. (In a school setting you should have a student inform the main office to alert school officials)
    Check the Epi-Pen solution color – must be clear to use
    Remove the gray safety cap from the Epi-Pen
  • 17. EPI-PEN PROCEDURE
    Hold the Epi-Pen with the black tip against the outer (lateral) area of the thigh muscle - this is the onlyarea where the Epi-Pen is to be used
    If accidentally injected into your hand or foot – go immediately to the emergency room
  • 18. EPI-PEN PROCEDURE
    Apply moderate pressure to hear the “click” then hold for 10 seconds.
    How the Epi-Pen delivers the medication:
    Pushing the Epi-Pen against the outer (lateral) thigh releases a spring-activated plunger, pushing the concealed needle into the thigh muscle and delivering a dose of epinephrine
  • 19. EPI-PEN PROCEDURE
    Remove the Epi-Pen and massage the site (to prevent tissue damage)
    If necessary, the Epi-Pen can be used directly through clothing
    Be prepared to begin C.P.R.
  • 20. EPI-PEN PROCEDURE
    Stay with the individual, keeping them warm and resting until emergency medical help arrives
    IMPORTANT: send the Epi-Pen along with the E.M.T.’s
    Make sure the parent/guardian has been called
  • 21. EPI-PEN
    The effects of the injection can wear off after 10-20 minutes. Symptoms can recur.
  • 22. What to do after giving a single dose auto-injector?
    Make sure someone stays with the person
    Have person lie still on his back with feet higher than the head
    Loosen tight clothing and cover person with whatever is available-coat/blanket
    If there is vomiting, turn person on side to prevent choking
    Don’t give anything to drink
    Send used auto-injector with student to hospital
    A Twinject has two doses-one on each end-staff may only give one
  • 23. Who Can Give the Epi-Pen?
    All staff are required to be able to give the epi-pen when needed
    Epi-Pen trainers are always available to borrow and practice or get 1:1 training by the nurse-they are easy to use once trained
    Students with anaphylaxis and epi-pens keep their epi-pens with them or in the main office
    Epi-pens must go on all field trips that an anaphylactic student attends
    See the school nurses for a refresher course or to practice using Epi-Pen