Renaissance Travel Guide

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Renaissance Travel Guide

  1. 1. Italy Travel Guide Published 1506 1 by Janey Zhao
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction --------------------------------------1 Map of Italy ---------------------------------------2 Cities to visit: Florence -------------------------------------------3 Venice ---------------------------------------------4 Rome ----------------------------------------------5 How to get around: Water ---------------------------------------------6 Land-----------------------------------------------7 Local customs and manners----------------------8 What to wear: The Peasants--------------------------------------9 The Rich------------------------------------------10 Entertainment: In the streets-------------------------------------11 Festivals & fairs--------------------------------- 12
  3. 3. Table of Contents Where to stay: Local & Inns--------------------------------------13 Merchants----------------------------------------14 aristocrats, monasteries--------------------------15 What to eat--------------------------------------16 How to stay safe and healthy------------------17 Famous people: Leonardo Da Vinci---------------------------------18 Michelangelo Buonarroti--------------------------19 Donatello-----------------------------------------20
  4. 4. Introduction Hello! If you are reading this, you probably are plan- ning to go to the Italy. Right now, Italy and most of Europe is going through a change. There is a rebirth of new ideas and discoveries and different ways of thinking going on throughout Europe starting in Italy. A lot of things were discovered, changed and invented. Before, in around the 14th, 15th century, the Christian Church ruled almost every aspect of life. People needed to follow the Bible for everything. The universities only taught old information that was written in the Bible thousands of years before them, not trying to learn new information or ideas. Therefore, most of the people in university were priests. If someone was sick, they wouldn't treat the person rather, just read the Bible and do what it says on there. If people disagree with this sys- tem, they would be put in jail or death. During the this period, the people realize this is not the proper way of living and got fed up of living by The Bible which in many cases weren’t right. They slowly changed their way of thinking and started to live life more realistic and sensibly. In this guide, you will learn everything you need about the Renaissance. :) 1
  5. 5. Map of Italy 2
  6. 6. Cities to Visit: Florence Florence is where all this movement started from and still is where the move- ment is the strongest. It’s home to many fa- mous writers, artists and philosophers. It is a self-governed, independent city-state. The city has no sea trade since its surround by land but is still a very wealthy and thriving due to the successful guilds and banks. Members of the guilds and founders of the banks also held positions in government and contributed a lot into building new struc- tures and refurbishing old ones around the city. The most powerful guild was the textile workers. Florence was dependant on the manufacture or trade of cloths chiefly wool, which was bought from English, and Iberia untreated then processed into a cloth Painting of Cosimo De Me- of excellent superior quality. The banks in Florence were also very strong and are well known throughout Europe in places like London, Geneva and Bruges. The gold coin of Florence called the florin was so in favor that it became the standard currency in Europe. The most powerful family who lived there was the Medici family which ruled the city since the 1370’s and is the most richest and famous in all of Italy right now. The ruling person right now is Cosimo de Medici which people nickname him “Cosimo the Elder”. He’s very generous in supporting scholars and artists and also working in politics, creating peace in North- ern Italy between cities such as Florence, Naples and Venice during the war of Lombardy. He founded the famous Medici Library and organized the Plato Academy, where scholars would come together to discuss ideas about the Greek classics. He also commissioned artists like Fra Angelico, Fra An- gelico and Donatello to create the famous pieces like David and Judith Slaying Holofernes and the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore by the architect Brunelleschi. 3
  7. 7. Cities to Visit: Venice Venice this beautiful city is the third largest city in the world right now. It is the first Italian city to widely use the moveable type printing press and is be- coming the centre of the European book trade. It is surely about the most beauti- ful city in Italy and the most unique one too. Its streets are filled with water ca- nals and the main transportation is flat-bottomed boats called gondolas. Venice was founded in the sixth cen- tury, when it was just a group of marshy fishing village islands in a shal- low lagoon. It was just a refuge from the invading German tribes until in the Doge Loredano, Cur- eight century the people gathered and rent doge of Venice elected a leader called the Doge. Then from then they started to build a city on top of the little colony of islands. Now the water submerged city is the Europe’s centre of trade and one of the three most powerful city- states in Italy (others are Rome and Florence). Still growing, this elegant city already has rich trades from the Turkish East to the West like silk, grain and spices. Typical day in Venice 4
  8. 8. Cities to Visit: Rome Rome wasn’t the glorious capital we know right now. Around 1350 Rome was abandoned because of the transfer of the papal court to France and the captivity of the Pope. Since the Pope was not in the city it caused a sever economic crisis that forced most of the residents to abandon the city. Rome was reduced to poverty with filthy, crumbling ruined buildings and cattle and farm animals running wildly. Nobody would want to stay there or go there see- ing that beggars and muggers roamed the streets. Things started to brighten up when the Pope in 1377 was re- leased from French captivity. Pope Sixtus IV strived to renovate and rejuvenate life back into Rome again. Since the Pope was and is the most powerful figure and controlled most aspects of life, many rich families try to out do each other in restoring the church in a race to become the next in line. Hiring a lot of famous talented ar- chitects and artists to work on the church and surroundings, Rome was quickly back in power in just around 100 years. Rome before restoration Bridge Ponte Sisto, one of structures built to replace the 5
  9. 9. How to get around: Water Depending on how rich you are and where you live, you can get here in different ways. By Boat/ships/Gondolas Water transportation is a must if you live in other continents or there are large objects in the way (water, mountains, etc.) in- between where you live and Italy. The speed of transportation varies throughout places. The main transportation in Venice is also by gondolas (a type of flat bottom boat). Depending on what quality and type of boat the cost varies depending on the quality of the boat but it is usually cheap since the power of wind is free. For rich people, you can probably afford a private ship and for poor and normal people you can buy tickets to ferries or boat, but they are very crowded and dirty. The risk of using water transportation is high because you might get seasick on the ship or diseases if you travel with a lot of other people. The weather might also be a problem if you are caught in a storm. Ship sailing on the high Gondolas in Venice 5
  10. 10. How to get around: Land By foot Walking is the cheapest way of travelling since it’s free. It’s also very versatile if you’re just going to a nearby city because you can take shortcuts. But if you live a long way from Italy you’re better off using the other transportations. Anyone can walk, though rich people might prefer using a carriage. You should always travel in groups and have some defense on you because on long roads there are high possibilities of thieves and killers just waiting for passersby. You need to plan your journey carefully because there might not be inns, hospital or stores along the way. By animal (Oxen, donkeys, horses, etc) Riding or being pulled by an animal is I think the best way of transportation on land. The price depends on what animal you use. Horses are expensive and mostly for rich people. Oxen and donkeys are cheaper, maybe free if you live on a farm and already own one. They are however, not as fast as horses and more dangerous if they turn on you. But they can pull more things per animal than horses, which mostly used in single short transportations. Like walking, traveling on the road you should be in groups and have good de- fense. By Carriages/ Carried Carriages are very expensive because of the usage of horses and needing a driver so it’s mostly for rich people and royal blood. For the wealthiest, you can be carried in a small cabin by people. There are very comfortable inside but if you’re not use to small places you might get cramps or sick just sitting in one place. If you are really traveling like this, you are likely to afford guards, doctors and food supply to travel with you so you already have a lot of protection. 6
  11. 11. Local Customs/ Manners Greetings in Italy are very unique and quick yet formal. If you do not really know the person a simple handshake and a smile will do. If it was a friend, you can add on air kissing or kissing on both cheeks starting with the left and patting on the back if it is between two men. They first impression is very important so it is important to be respectful and humble. There are some things not to give while giving a gift. Do not give chrysanthemums or wrap gifts in black as they are given at funerals and sym- bolize mourning. Don’t wrap things in purple ei- ther because purple represents bad luck. Don’t give red or yellow flowers because they mean se- crecy and jealousy. Quality, not quantity is im- portant when giving any kind of presents, espe- cially wine. The gifts are usually opened straight away so do not give something private. If you are invited to dinner or a meal, make sure to bring Red wine gifts such as flowers, wine or chocolate. When invited to eat first, remain standing until the host invites you to sit down, maybe to a certain seat. Allow the host to start eat- ing first and then follow. The host may give the first toast and other woman after can offer toasts. While eating, it is important to hold the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right and do not put your elbows on the table since it is considered rude. When taking food, always jus take a small amount because you can get seconds later. Always pick up food with your cutlery except bread. Basket of bread 7
  12. 12. What to wear: Peasants Clothing is very important, as the rich would spend most of their fortune on clothes, literally “wearing their wealth”. You can tell who is poor or rich just by looking at their clothes. It helps establish a reputation and status among the people. Poorer people, peasants wore completely different style of clothing. They were plain, simple and dull looking. They were made out of poor materials like flax and were uncom- fortable but loose and not complicated. The woman wore a chemise with long skirts and a laced bodice in front. Dagger sleeves were invented to keep the sleeves out of the way while working but still can cover the arm Peasant Man Clothing or warmth. The men wore simpler clothes, a long shirt tied with a rope on the stomach if the shirt is too loose and pants. If it was cold or windy they would use a piece of cloth and tie it to their head. The shoes they wore, if they can afford were made out of a wooden sole and cheap bull hide. They were mostly very dull colored like grey, dif- ferent shades of brown and green.. They weren’t al- lowed better cloth even if they have enough money because the upper class banned good quality textiles to peasants and only allowed them to wear one color. The peasants rebelled against this by wearing two or more colors, slashed the outer layer to show Peasant the colour of the inner layer. This techinique called Woman Cloth- “slashing” eventually became a popular trend. 8
  13. 13. What to wear: The rich Rich people wore very fancy embroi- dered clothes made out of expensive fab- rics such as velvet, satin, brocade or cot- ton. Their fashion was very different from the lower classes and was more compli- cated. They were very colorful and deco- rated with laces and jewels with a lot of layers. These layers can be very hot and tight but with choosing the right type of fabric can be more comfortable and prac- tical. If you are a rich woman you’ll have to wear a lot of layers of clothes. Starting Rich Women Clothing from the inside of course you have to wear your undergarments then a tight corset around the waist. Then you have to wear a bodice and with an over and under skirt. This was sometimes also decorated with frills and big laced collars that flare out. Long, braided hair was also considered beauty and they were adorned with dazzling jewels. If you are a rich man you had to wear pants sometimes puffed on the upper leg, tucked inside pointed leatherboots or shoes. For the top you just have to wear an inside shirt and a jacket or vest with padded shoulders. You have to wear a hat, which is sometimes decorated with big feathers that slope to one slide and trimmed with jewels. Rich Man Clothing 9
  14. 14. Entertainment: The streets In order to gain popularity rulers in It- aly provided entertainment for the people. It was similar to the old Roman strategy of “ Games and Grain” giving the people food and amusement so they won’t cause a riot. Lorenzo de’ Medici and other leaders wrote songs to be sung in the street by hired musicians who’s income depends on jobs like these. These songs helped make the work lighter for the sellers on markets and soothed their minds. Dancing were followed Group of musicians by the music like just simple folk dances playing, left to right: and in higher more sophisticated places, the lute, trumpet, harp Volte and Pavanne. Plays and storytelling were also very popular since they are the only things to watch. Travelling storytellers and actors would go from town to town and through their acts, teach the people about past history and lessons about life. Families would sit down to a good play or story as they often get to hear and learn about lands and cultures farther away and makes a stronger bond be- tween them. Table board games were also popular between the upper and lower classes. They played games like backgammon and chess and just recently playing cards were introduced to Europe and are now very trendy to play. Commedia dell’arte, a new form comedy of improvisa- tional theatre 10
  15. 15. Entertainment: Festivals & Fairs Every once in a while, there are festivals and carnivals held for holidays and celebration of high-class people coming to town. These events were expensive but magnificent and lasted for days at a time. The upper and upper middle class gets to enjoy great feasts and games with entertainment while the poor peasants get those days off to rest from working on farms. Famous and professional musicians were hired to entertain the people while they talk and eat. After, they would have unique per- formances like fire-eaters, jesters, acrobats, jugglers, minstrels, and dancers. Jousting were also a favorite to play and watch, also was exclusively for the rich. They first start out as small armies combat then turn into single man-to-man combat. Two knights Juggler and mu- Don’t worry if you don’t have the money or status to join those festivals, there are local fairs every spring and autumn. In these fairs you can get to sell your own products and buy some rare or overseas goods that cannot be grown in your house like exotic spices and decorations. They are also entertainers there but they aren’t as grand as the rich would have. There is fun sport games held such as archery, gameball, horseshoes or shinty. Every year there would also be horse-racing which the whole town gather to see. 11
  16. 16. Where to stay Traveling to cities can take a long time and you most likely have to stay somewhere for a night or two before reaching your destina- tion. LOCALS If there aren’t a lot of inns around so you might have to sleep in a local’s house. These locals will charge little to no money for a stay or maybe just in exchange for a few stories or news from other places. Their houses aren’t clean or tidy, in fact just in front there might be a giant dung heap used to burn for heat and energy. The inside is very big but only because they cram everything in there, a barn, kitchen, storage and bedroom. The earth floor is filled with decom- posing garbage and vomit and the air is damp, smelly and dirty. Pigs, cows, ducks run around everywhere. You probably won’t even get your own bed! At night, everyone, sometimes even the cattle jump in and sleep on one bug-infested straw mattress. That is lucky, if you meet very poor peasants they live in poorly built shacks that have faulty roofs that let in rain and wind and don’t even have anything to sleep on. You’re probably better off sleeping under a tree if you’re in that situation. INNS Unluckily the inns weren’t that much better either. Only few inns are clean and most were very dirty. Coming into the inn during night isn’t a very good idea as mostly bad people roam the night and it makes the innkeepers have a bad impression on you. The risk of robbery and murders is actually the same in the inns as on the road. Some really cruel innkeepers actually set up thieves to steal valuables! Since the chances of good inns are very low, you should just stay in a local’s house if you don’t mind some the dirtiness. 12
  17. 17. Where to stay 2 MERCHANTS If you are lucky enough you can stay at a merchant’s house. They sometimes have two or more floors, the bottom for their shops and second for their kitchen and dining room, which occupy the whole floor. Then the other upstairs are for bedrooms. The house has tiled or carpeted floors decorated with fine vases, jugs, and mirrors that show the family’s wealth. If you find a chest (which is in most rooms) it will be finely adorned with carvings and paintings with even more precious elaborate clothes, dishes and clothes inside. The bedrooms are spacious with four-poster beds that are so big, they have to be built inside because they can’t fit in the doorway. You can sleep in a bed like this! A typical merchant’s house 13
  18. 18. Where to stay 3 MONASTERY In the event that if you have no money or very little you can stay in a monastery for free. They will provide you with free meals and housing and you can even meet other travelers there. At the very least if you have some money you should make a donation as gratitude. ARISTOCRATS You’ll be thrilled to stay at a rich person’s house. They live in big luxurious town-houses called palazzi, with columns and arches and a large courtyard in the middle. They have everything in there, instruments, suit of armor and crossbows and other weapons all for your entertainment and use. The extravagance carpets are weaved with real gold thread and the walls are cov- ered in precious gemstones and spices that give off a divine smell. They of course have many large spacious rooms and you can enjoy a delicious dinner in a fancy comfy chair by the fireplace. Outside of Palazzo Medici Riccardi of the Medici family 14
  19. 19. What to eat The food in the Renaissance feasts is extremely delicious and tasty. They were made to pleasure the taste buds and the eyes. The peasants had a very constant regular diet of food like baked bread, porridges and stews and vegetables. Meat wasn’t a very daily food and only eaten during big feast and they only slaughtered the animals in the fall. If the peasants lived near wa- ter they can catch fish. They grow most of their food crop since most of them are farmers and have vegetable patches and fruit trees in or near their homes. They pick berries and nuts in nearby forest and make their own butter and cheeses from milk. Even though it is very plain and simple life, a normal peasant still had a variety of foods to choose from. The rich in contrast ate a lot of meat like pork, beef, mutton, quail, birds and any fish they could catch. Wild boars were cooked whole and birds would be stuffed with lots of different herbs and spices. They didn’t eat a lot of vegetables, fruit or dairy products because they believed it was considered “poor people’s food”. As for drinks, they had a variety of grape wine, apple cider and beer to their liking. They were very elaborate and topped off occasion- ally with crushed pearls or gold flakes which didn’t really im- prove the taste . - A big Renaissance feast, sure to fill your stomach to the brim 15
  20. 20. How to stay healthy & safe ON THE ROAD When traveling you should always bring some medicine and ban- dages in case you get hurt or sick because it’s sometimes a long way till the next town. At night thieves and murders come out, so if you’re still on the road you should have some protection, some- thing to defend yourself maybe a small knife and always travel in group. The best is to find some shelter, best not in inns. HYGENE Being hygienic and clean will help you stay healthy by bathing regularly, best daily and washing your hands before eating. Stay away from dusty and cold wet places. You should always cough and sneeze away from the face and hands because the bacteria in that sneeze or cough can easily transmitted to other people. DIET Eating a well balanced diet is an essential. If you’re cooking you should always wash the foods under clear water first and fully cook the food. Make sure to eat vegetables, meats, grains and dairy products to maintain a healthy diet which will give you a good immune system. THE PLAGUE The Plague or sometimes called The Black Death was a deadly pandemic that killed 30% to 60% of Europe. It was caused by bacte- ria brought over from Asia by black rats on merchant’s ships. Any- one who catches the disease will almost definitely die within 160 days. It has died down a little since 1350 but is returning in waves with varying infections and mortality and should be watched out for. Following the things above will help you decrease the chance of catching the disease. 16
  21. 21. Famous People: Leonardo DaVinci Leonardo Da Vinci was everything, a polymath, scientist, mathe- matician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, archi- tect, botanist, musician and writer but most widely known for his paintings. He was born the illegitimate son in a place called Vinci, just outside of Florence on April 5th, 1452 to a notary father and a peasant mother. His father treated Leonardo very kindly, giving him the best education he can but still Leonardo was not very outstand- ing as a child. In 1466 when he was fourteen he was apprenticed to the most fa- mous artist of that time, Andrea del Verrocchio. In Verrocchio’s workshop learned artistic skills like drawing, painting, sculpting and also skills like casting, mechanics metal and leather working. He collaborated with Verrocchio a lot like painting the young angel in The Baptism of Chris. He worked his way up and started to get good commissions like the Adoration of the Magi for the monastery of San Donato a Scopeto. But this was interrupted in 1481 when he had been sent by Lorenzo de’ Medici to Milan to give a silver lyre as a gift to the Duke of Milan hoping to secure peace with him. Then from there Leonardo continued to work for him and was commissioned to paint great masterpieces such as Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper. Now he is moving back to his hometown of Florence. The Last Supper (1498) 17
  22. 22. Famous People: Michelangelo Michelangelo was also very tal- ented, being a painter, sculptor, archi- tect, poet and engineer. He was born on March 6, 1475 near Arezzo in the town of Caprese in Tuscany. His family for generations had been small bankers in Florence and they had a comfortable upper middle-class life. His father wanted him to take over the family business but after much dispute agreed to let him study art but if his first three years didn’t work out he would David (1504) have to return to studying. So then he was apprenticed to the painter Domenico Ghirlandio at age 13 and surpassing him in his own art in just six months of study. One year later in 1489, he began working under Lorenzo de’ Medici and studied sculptor from Bertoldo di Giovanni in the Hu- manist academy. When Lorenzo died in 1492 Michelangelo had to search for commissions that would financially support him and his family. Then in 1497 the French ambassador in the Holy See com- missioned Pietà which is one of his most famous works. He re- turned to Florence in 1499 after changes in the republic due to the fall of Girolamo Savonarola. Then he was asked by the Guild of Wool to complete the unfinished sculpture of David by Agostino di Duccio 40 year earlier. Michelangelo, just 26 completed the statue in 1504 with the poor conditions the material was in showed his amazing skills at such a remarkable young age. He was commis- sioned to Rome in 1505 to build the newly elected Pope Julius II’s tomb and is still working on it. 18
  23. 23. Famous People: Donatello Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) was a Florentine famous artist and sculptor. He was one of the first artist to at- tempt to sculpt a shallow relief that has per- spective. He was born in 1386 and was the son of a Florentine Wool Guild member. Not much was known about his childhood but was got train- ing in a goldsmith’s workshop and maybe stone carving from sculptors working in cathedrals. He then was apprenticed to Lorenzo Ghiberti, a famous bronze sculptor which work’s shaped the base foundation of this present Italian style. His first famous work was a marble statue of St. Mark com- pleted on 1413 for the church of Orsanmichele. Then in 1417 he com- pleted the St. George the Evangelist for the Confraternity of the Cuirass-makers. Theses two pieces shows the original style of his works and that it stood out from other sculptures of his time. It was the first signs of central-point perspective shown in a sculpture, which at that time most sculptures were made on a flat back- ground. What was more interesting was the base for it, St. George and the Dragon that was done in schiacciato the technique of bas-relief. His most famous work was the bronze statue of David, the first large-scale freestanding nude statue in Italy. The statue shows the young David smiling with his foot on Goliath’s head just after he killed him. This was very new and unique at that time since all figures in statues were fully dressed. Donatello died in 1466 while working on two bronze David pulpits and was left unfinished. 19
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  26. 26. Beijing BISS International School Italian Renaissance – Travel Guide Grade 9 Assessment Criteria September ‘09 Criterion A: Knowledge Maximum 10 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The use of terminology is inconsistent or incorrect. 1–2 Facts and examples are either absent, or those used are irrelevant or do not show understanding. The use of terminology is mostly accurate and usually appropriate, though some errors remain. 3–4 Facts and examples used are mostly relevant, and usually show understanding. Terminology is used accurately and appropriately. 5–6 Relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. The student provides accurate descriptions; explanations are adequate but not well developed. A range of terminology is used accurately and appropriately. 7–8 A range of relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. The student shows an excellent command of a wide range of terminology, and uses it appropriately. An 9–10 extensive range of relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. Criterion C: Skills Maximum 10 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The student can select and use some relevant information.. 1–2 The student attempts to carry out investigations, demonstrating few skills. The student selects and uses mostly relevant information. 3–4 The student demonstrates basic investigative skills. The student selects and uses relevant information. 5–6 The student demonstrates adequate investigative skills. The student selects and uses a range of relevant information. 7–8 The student demonstrates effective investigative skills. The student selects and uses a wide range of relevant information. 9–10 The student demonstrates sophisticated investigative skills. Criterion D: Organization and presentation Maximum 8 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The student communicates information that may not always be relevant. The student attempts to structure the work, but it may be unclear and/or inappropriate to the format re- 1–2 quired. Presentation is unclear and imprecise. There may be some evidence of documentation. The student communicates information that is mostly relevant. The student attempts to structure and sequence the work but is not always successful. 3–4 Presentation is occasionally unclear. Sources of information are documented, though there may be omissions or consistent errors in adhering to conventions. The student communicates information that is relevant. The student uses a structure appropriate to the task and sequences the content logically. 5–6 Presentation is clear; attention is paid to the audience and purpose in terms of appropriate language, style and visual representation. Sources of information are documented, with occasional errors in adhering to conventions. The student communicates information that is always relevant. The student organizes information into a well-developed and logical sequence, appropriate to the format required. 7–8 Presentation is clear, concise and effective, and the language, style and visual representation used are always appropriate to the audience and purpose. All sources of information are documented according to a recognized convention. Modified from the IBO MYP Humanities guide
  27. 27. My Travel Guide – Final Checklist Name: __________________ Date: __________ Use this checklist before you hand in your travel guide! □ Does your travel guide have a cover page? □ Does your travel have an introduction with basic information about the renaissance (Who? What? Where? When? Why?)? □ Have you included detailed information on a) which cities to visit (Florence, Rome, and Venice) b) how to get around (by land and by water) c) local customs and manners d) what to wear e) what to see and do f) what to eat and drink g) how to stay safe and healthy h) who’s who in the Renaissance (4 PEOPLE) □ Did you write your information in paragraphs? □ Does each paragraph have a topic sentence? □ Does each paragraph have supporting sentences? □ Are all the supporting sentences relevant (important)? □ Did you use connectors to connect your ideas? (e.g., First, in addition, furthermore, etc) □ Did you include a correct bibliography? See homework diary for help. □ Does each section of your travel guide have a heading? □ Does your travel guide have useful pictures or graphics that help us understand the Renaissance period better? □ Did you use the same font for similar points? □ Did you revise and edit your travel guide? □ Will other people be interested in reading your travel guide?

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