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  • 1. Software Testing and Technical FAQs - Ravi S
  • 2. Software QA/Testing Technical FAQsAre you a Software QA engineer or Software tester? Need to update your software QA/testingknowledge or need to prepare for a job interview? Check out this collection of SoftwareQA/Testing Technical FAQs ...Software Quality Assurance(1) A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidencethat an item or product conforms to established technical requirements.(2) A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which products are developed ormanufactured.Whats difference between client/server and Web Application ?Client/server based is any application architecture where one server application and one ormany client applications are involved like your mail server and MS outlook Express, it can be aweb application as well, where the Web Application is a kind of client server application that ishosted on the web server and accessed over the internet or internet. There are lots of thingsthat differs between testing of the two type above and cannt be posted in one post but you canlook into the data flow, communication and server side variable like session and security etcSoftware Quality Assurance Activities  Application of Technical Methods (Employing proper methods and tools for developing software)  Conduct of Formal Technical Review (FTR)  Testing of Software  Enforcement of Standards (Customer imposed standards or management imposed standards)  Control of Change (Assess the need for change, document the change)  Measurement (Software Metrics to measure the quality, quantifiable)  Records Keeping and Recording (Documentation, reviewed, change control etc. i.e. benefits of docs).Whats the difference between STATIC TESTING and DYNAMIC TESTING?
  • 3. Answer1:Dynamic testing: Required program to be executedstatic testing: Does not involve program executionThe program is run on some test cases & results of the program’s performance are examined tocheck whether the program operated as expectedE.g. Compiler task such as Syntax & type checking, symbolic execution, program proving, dataflow analysis, control flow analysisAnswer2:Static Testing: Verification performed with out executing the system codeDynamic Testing: Verification and validation performed by executing the system codeSoftware TestingSoftware testing is a critical component of the software engineering process. It is an element ofsoftware quality assurance and can be described as a process of running a program in such amanner as to uncover any errors. This process, while seen by some as tedious, tiresome andunnecessary, plays a vital role in software development.Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluatingthe results (eg, if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and doesC, then D should happen). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormalconditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if thingshappen when they shouldnt or things dont happen when they should. It is oriented todetection.Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing.Sometimes theyre the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common areproject teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, withoverall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits anorganizations size and business structure.Whats difference between QA/testingThe quality assuranceprocess is a process for providing adequate assurance that the software products andprocesses in the product life cycle conform to their specific requirements and adhere to theirestablished plans."The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibilityinto the process being used by the software project and of the products being built
  • 4. What black box testing types can you tell me about?Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software designor code.Black box testing is based on requirements and functionality. Functional testing is also a black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application.System testing is also a black box type of testing. Acceptance testing is also a black box type oftesting. Functional testing is also a black box type of testing. Closed box testing is also a blackbox type of testing. Integration testing is also a black box type of testing.What is software testing methodology?One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of...1. Creating a test strategy;2. Creating a test plan/design; and3. Executing tests. This methodology can be used and molded to your organizations needs.Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the development and ongoingmaintenance of his clients applications.What’s the difference between QA and testing?TESTING means “Quality Control”; andQUALITY CONTROL measures the quality of a product; whileQUALITY ASSURANCE measures the quality of processes used to create a quality product.Why Testing CANNOT Ensure QualityTesting in itself cannot ensure the quality of software. All testing can do is give you a certainlevel of assurance (confidence) in the software. On its own, the only thing that testing proves isthat under specific controlled conditions, the software functioned as expected by the test casesexecuted.How to find all the Bugs during first round of Testing?Answer1:I understand the problems you are facing. I was involved with a web-based HR system that wasencountering the same problems. What I ended up doing was going back over a few releasecycles and analyzing the types of defects found and when (in the release cycle including thevarious testing cycles) they were found. I started to notice a distinct trend in certain areas.For each defect type, I started looking into the possibility if it could have been caught in the priorphase (lots of things were being found in the Systems test phase that should have been caught
  • 5. earlier). If so, why wasnt it caught? Could it have been caught even earlier (say via a peerreview)? If so, why not? This led me to start examining the various processes and found adefinite problem with peer reviews (not very thorough IF they were even being done) and withthe testing process (not rigorous enough). We worked with the customer and folks doing thetesting to start educating them and improving the processes. The result was the number ofdefects found in the latter test stages (System test for example) were cut by over half! It wasgetting harder to find problems with the product as they were discovering them earlier in theprocess -- saving time & money!Answer2:There could be several reasons for not catching a showstopper in the first or second build/rev. Afound defect could either functionally or physiologically mask a second or third defect.Functionally the thread or path to the second defect could have been boken or rerouted toanother path or physiologically the tester who found the first defect knows the app must go backand be rewritten so he/she procedes halfheartedly on and misses the second one. Ive seenboth cases. It is difficult to keep testing on a known defective app. The testers seem to loseinterest knowing that what effort they put in to test it, will have to be redone on the next iteration.This will test your metal as a lead to get them to follow through and maintain a professionalattitude.Answer3:The best way is to prevent bugs in the first place. Also testing doesnt fix or prevent bugs. It justprovides information. Applying this information to your situation is the important part.The other thing that you may be encountering is that testing tends to be exploratory in nature.You have stated that these are existing bugs, but not stated whether tests already existed forthese bugs.Bugs in early cycles inhibit exploration. Additionally, a testers understanding of the applicationand its relationships and interactions will improve with time and thus more interesting bugs tendto be found in later iterations as testers expand their exploration (ie. think of new tests).No matter how much time you have to read through the documents and inspect artefacts,seeing the actual application is going to trigger new thoughts, and thus introduce previouslyunthought of tests. Exposure to the application will trigger new thoughts as well, thus the longeryour testing goes, the more new tests (and potential bugs) are going to be found. Iterativedevelopment is a good way to counter this, as testers get to see something physical earlier, butthis issue will always exist to some degree as the passing of time, and exploration of theapplication allow new tests to be thought of at inconvenient moments.Is regression testing performed manually?The answer to this question depends on the initial testing approach. If the initial testingapproach was manual testing, then the regression testing is usually performed manually.
  • 6. Conversely, if the initial testing approach was automated testing, then the regression testing isusually performed by automated testing.How to choose which defect to remove in 1000000 defects? (because It will take toomuch resources in order to remove them all.)Answe1:Are you the programmer who has to fix them, the project manager who has to supervise theprogrammers, the change control team that decides which areas are too high risk to impact, thestakeholder-user whose organization pays for the damage caused by the defects or the tester?The tester does not choose which defects to fix.The tester helps ensure that the people who do choose, make a well-informed choice.Testers should provide data to indicate the *severity* of bugs, but the project manager or thedevelopment team do the prioritization.When I say "indicate the severity", I dont just mean writing S3 on a piece of paper. Test groupsoften do follow-up tests to assess how serious a failure is and how broad the range of failure-triggering conditions.Priority depends on a wide range of factors, including code-change risk, difficulty/time tocomplete the change, which stakeholders are affected by the bug, the other commitments beinghandled by the person most knowledgeable about fixing a certain bug, etc. Many of thesefactors are not within the knowledge of most test groups.Answe2:As a tester we dont fix the defects but we surely can prioritize them once detected. In our orgwe assign severity level to the defects depending upon their influence on other parts ofproducts. If a defect doesnt allow you to go ahead and test test the product, it is critical one so ithas to be fixed ASAP. We have 5 levels as1-critical2-High3-Medium4-Low5-CosmeticDev can group all the critical ones and take them to fix before any other defect.Answer3:Priority/Severity P1 P2 P3S1S2S3
  • 7. Generally the defects are classified in aboveshown grid. Every organization / software has sometarget of fixing the bugs.Example -P1S1 -> 90% of the bugs reported should be fixed.P3S3 -> 5% of the bugs reported may be fixed. Rest are taken in letter service packs orversions.Thus the organization should decide its target and act accordingly.Basically bugfree software is not possible.Answer4:Ideally, the customer should assign priorities to their requirements. They tend to resist this. On alarge, multi-year project I just completed, I would often (in the lack of customer guidelines) relyon my knowledge of the application and the potential downstream impacts in the modeledbusiness process to prioritize defects.If the customer doesnt then I fell the test organization should based on risk or other, similarconsiderations.What is Software “Quality”?Quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meetsrequirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable.However, quality is a subjective term. It will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overallinfluence in the scheme of things. A wide-angle view of the ‘customers’ of a softwaredevelopment project might include end-users, customer acceptance testers, customer contractofficers, customer management, the development organisation’smanagement/accountants/testers/salespeople, future software maintenance engineers,stockholders, magazine reviewers, etc. Each type of ‘customer’ will have their own view on‘quality’ - the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-usermight define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.What is retesting?Answer1:Retesting is usually equated with regression testing (see above) but it is different in that isfollows a specific fix--such as a bug fix--and is very narrow in focus (as opposed to testing entireapplication again in a regression test). A product should never be released after any change hasbeen applied to the code, with only retesting of the bug fix, and without a regression test.Answer2:
  • 8. 1. Re-testing is the testing for a specific bug after it has been fixed.(one given by yourdefinition).2. Re-testing can be one which is done for a bug which was raised by QA but could not befound or confirmed by Development and has been rejected. So QA does a re-test to make surethe bug still exists and again assigns it back to them.when entire project is tested & client have some doubts about the quality of testing, Re-Testingcan be called. It can also be testing the same application again for better Quality.Answer3:Regression Testing is, the selective retesting of a system that has been modified to ensure thatany bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a resultof the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previousversions of the software. Also referred to as verification testingIt is important to determine whether in a given set of circumstances a particular series of testshas been failed. The supplier may want to submit the software for re-testing. The contractshould deal with the parameters for retests, including (1) will test program which are doomed tofailure be allowed to finish early, or must they be completed in their entirety? (2) when can, ormust, the supplier submit his software for retesting?, and (3) how many times can the supplierfail tests and submit software for retesting ñ is this based on time spent, or the number ofattempts? A well drawn contract will grant the customer options in the event of failure ofacceptance tests, and these options may vary depending on how many attempts the supplierhas made to achieve acceptance.So the conclusion is retesting is more or less regression testing. More appropriately retesting isa part of regression testing.Answer4:Re-testing is simply executing the test plan another time. The client may request a re-test forany reason - most likely is that the testers did not properly execute the scripts, poordocumentation of test results, or the client may not be comfortable with the results.Ive performed re-tests when the developer inserted unauthorized code changes, or did notdocument changes.Regression testing is the execution of test cases "not impacted" by the specific project. I amcurrently working on testing of a system with poor system documentation (and no userdocumentation) so our regression testing must be extensive.Answer5:* QA gets a bug fix, and has to verify that the bug is fixed. You might want to check a few thingsthat are a “gut feel” if you want to and get away by calling it retesting, but not the entire function/ module / product. * Development Refuses a bug on the basis of it being “Non Reproducible”,then retesting, preferably in the presence of the Developer, is needed.
  • 9. How to establish QA Process in an organization?1.CURRENT SITUATIONThe first thing you should do is to put what you currently do in a piece of paper in some sort of aflowchart diagram. This will allow you to analyze what is being currently done.2.DEVELOPMENT PROCESS STAGEOnce you have the "big picture", you have to be aware of the current status of yourdevelopment project or projects. The processes you select will vary depending if you are in earlystages of developing a new application (i.e.: developing a version 1.0), or maintaining anexisting application (i.e.: working on release 6.7.1).3. PRIORITIESThe next thing you need to do is identify the priorities of your project, for example: - Compliancewith industry standards - Validation of new functionality (new GUIs, etc) - Security - CapacityPlanning ( You should see "Effective Methods for Software Testing" for more info). Make a list ofthe priorities, and then assign them values of (H)igh, (M)edium and (L)ow.4. TESTING TYPESOnce you are aware of the priorities, focus on the High first, then Medium, and finally evaluatewhether the Low ones need immediate attention.Based on this, you need to select those Testing Types that will provide coverage for yourpriorities. Example of testing types:- Functional Testing- Integration Testing- System Testing- System-to-System Testing (for testing interfaces)- Regression Testing- Load Testing- Performance Testing- Stress TestingEtc.5. WRITE A TEST PLANOnce you have determined your needs, the simplest way to document and implement yourprocess is to elaborate a "Test Plan" for every effort that you are engaged into (i.e.: for everyrelease).For this you can use generic Test Plan templates available in the web that will help youbrainstorm and define the scope of your testing:- Scope of Testing (defects, functionality, and what will be and will not be tested).- Testing Types (Functional, Regression, etc).- Responsible people- Requirements traceability matrix (match test cases with requirements to ensure coverage)- Defect tracking
  • 10. - Test CasesDURING AND POST-TESTING ACTIVITIESMake sure you keep track of the completion of your testing activities, the defects found, and thatyou comply with an exit criteria prior to moving to the next stage in testing (i.e. User AcceptanceTesting, then Production Release).Make sure you have a mechanism for:- Reporting- Test trackingWhat is software testing?1) Software testing is a process that identifies the correctness, completenes, and quality ofsoftware. Actually, testing cannot establish the correctness of software. It can find defects, butcannot prove there are no defects.2) It is a systematic analysis of the software to see whether it has performed to specifiedrequirements. What software testing does is to uncover errors however it does not tell us thaterrors are still not present.Any recommendation for estimation how many bugs the customer will find till goldrelease?Answer1:If you take the total number of bugs in the application and subtract the number of bugs youfound, the difference will be the maximum number of bugs the customer can find.Seriously, I doubt you will find any sort of calculations or formula that can answer your questionwith much accuracy. If you could refernce a previous application release, it might give you arough idea. The best thing to do is insure your test coverage is as good as you can make it thenhope youve found the ones the customer might find.Remember Software testing is Risk Management!Answer2:For doing estimation :1.)Find out the Coverage during testing of ur software and then estimate keeping in mind 80-20principle.2.)You can also look at the deepening of your test cases e.g. how much unit level testing andhow much life cycle teting have you performed (Believe that most of the bugs from customercomes due to real use of lifecycle in the software)3.)You can also refer the defect density from earlier releases of the same product doing these evaluation you can find out the probability of bugs at an approximately optimumestimation.
  • 11. Answer3:You can look at the customer issues mapping from previous release (If you have the sameproduct line) to the current release ,This is the best way of finding estimation for gold release ofmigration of any product.Secondly, till gold release most of the issues comes from variouscombination of installation testing like cross-platform,i18 issues,Customization,upgradation andmigration.So ,these can be taken as a parameter and then can estimation be completed.When the build comes to the QA team, what are the parameters to be taken forconsideration to reject the build upfront without committing for testing ?Answer1:Agree with R&D a set of tests that if one fails you can reject the build. I usually have some buildverification tests that just make sure the build is stable and the major functionality is working.Then if one test fails you can reject the build.Answer2:The only way to legitimately reject a build is if the entrance criteria have not been met. Thatmeans that the entrance criteria to the test phase have been defined and agreed upon up front.This should be standard for all builds for all products. Entrance criteria could include:- Turn-over documentation is complete- All unit testing has been successfully completed and U/T cases are documented in turn-over- All expected software components have been turned-over (staged)- All walkthroughs and inspections are complete- Change requests have been updated to correct status- Configuration Management and build information is provided, and correct, in turn-overThe only way we could really reject a build without any testing, would be a failure of the turn-over procedure. There may, but shouldnt be, politics involved. The only way the test phase canproceed is for the test team to have all components required to perform successful testing. Youwill have to define entrance (and exit) criteria for each phase of the SDLC. This is an effort to betaken together by the whole development team. Developments entrance criteria would includesigned requirements, HLD doc, etc. Having this criteria pre-established sets everyone up forsuccessAnswer3:The primary reason to reject a build is that it is untestable, or if the testing would be consideredinvalid.For example, suppose someone gave you a "bad build" in which several of the wrong files hadbeen loaded. Once you know it contains the wrong versions, most groups think there is no point
  • 12. continuing testing of that build.Every reason for rejecting a build beyond this is reached by agreement. For example, if you seta build verification test and the program fails it, the agreement in your company might be toreject the program from testing. Some BVTs are designed to include relatively few tests, andthose of core functionality. Failure of any of these tests might reflect fundamental instability.However, several test groups include a lot of additional tests, and failure of these might not begrounds for rejecting a build.In some companies, there are firm entry criteria to testing. Many companies pay lipservice toentry criteria but start testing the code whether the entry criteria are met or not. Neither of theseis right or wrong--its the culture of the company. Be sure of your corporate culture beforerejecting a build.Answer4:Generally a company would have set some sort of minimum goals/criteria that a build needs tosatisfy - if it satisfies this - it can be accepted else it has to be rejectedFor eg.Nil - high priority bugs2 - Medium Priority bugsSanity test or Minimum acceptance and Basic acceptance should pass The reasons for the newbuild - say a change to a specific case - this should pass Not able to proceed - non - testabilityor even some more which is in relation to the new build or the product If the above criterias dontpass then the build could be rejected.What is software testing?Software testing is more than just error detection;Testing software is operating the software under controlled conditions, to (1) verify that itbehaves “as specified”; (2) to detect errors, and (3) to validate that what has been specified iswhat the user actually wanted.Verification is the checking or testing of items, including software, for conformance andconsistency by evaluating the results against pre-specified requirements. [Verification: Are webuilding the system right?]Error Detection: Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine ifthings happen when they shouldn’t or things don’t happen when they should.Validation looks at the system correctness – i.e. is the process of checking that what has beenspecified is what the user actually wanted. [Validation: Are we building the right system?]In other words, validation checks to see if we are building what the customer wants/needs, andverification checks to see if we are building that system correctly. Both verification and validationare necessary, but different components of any testing activity.The definition of testing according to the ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard is that testing is the process
  • 13. of analysing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions(that is defects/errors/bugs) and to evaluate the features of the software item.What is the testing lifecycle?There is no standard, but it consists of:Test Planning (Test Strategy, Test Plan(s), Test Bed Creation)Test Development (Test Procedures, Test Scenarios, Test Cases)Test ExecutionResult Analysis (compare Expected to Actual results)Defect TrackingReportingHow to validate data?I assume that you are doing ETL (extract, transform, load) and cleaning. If my assumetion iscorrect then1. you are builing data warehouse/ data minning2. you ask right question to wrong placeWhat is quality?Quality software is software that is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget,meets requirements and expectations and is maintainable. However, quality is a subjectiveterm. Quality depends on who the customer is and their overall influence in the scheme ofthings. Customers of a software development project include end-users, customer acceptancetest engineers, testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the developmentorganizations management, test engineers, testers, salespeople, software engineers,stockholders and accountants. Each type of customer will have his or her own slant on quality.The accounting department might define quality in terms of profits, while an end-user mightdefine quality as user friendly and bug free.What is Benchmark?How it is linked with SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?or SDLC and Benchmark are two unrelated things.?What are the compoments of Benchmark?In Software Testing where Benchmark fits in?A Benchmark is a standard to measure against. If you benchmark an application, all futureapplication changes will be tested and compared against the benchmarked application.
  • 14. Which of the following Statements about gernerating test cases is false?Which of the following Statements about gernerating test cases is false?1. Test cases may contain multiple valid conditions2. Test cases may contain multiple invalid conditions3. Test cases may contain both valid and invalid conditions4. Test cases may contain more than 1 step.5. test cases should contain Expected results.Answer1:all the conditions mentioned are valid and not a single condition can be stated as false.Here i think, the condition means the input type or situation (some may call it as valid or invalid,positive or negative)Also a single test case can contain both the input types and then the final result can be verified(it obviously should not bring the required result, as one of the input condition is invalid, whenthe test case would be executed), this usually happens while writing secnario based test cases.For ex. Consider web based registration form, in which input data type for some fields arepositive and for some fields it is negative (in a scenario based test case)Above screen can be tested by generating various scenarios and combinations. The final resultcan be verified against actual result and the registration should not be carried out sucessfully(as one/some input types are invalid), when this test case is executed.The writing of test case also depends upon the no. of descriptive fields the tester has in the testcase template. So more elaborative is the test case template, more is the ease of writing testcases and generating scenarios. So writing of test cases totally depends on the indepth thinkingof the tester and there are no predefined or hard coded norms for writing test case.This is according to my understanding of testing and test case writing knowledge (as for manyapplications, i have written many positive and negative conditions in a single test case andverified different scenarios by generating such test cases)Answer2:The answer to this question will be 3 Test cases may contain both valid and invalid conditions.Since there is no restriction for the test case to be of multiple steps or more than one valid orinvalid conditions. But A test case whether it is feature ,unit level or end to end test case ,it cannot contain both valid and invalid condition in a unit test case.Because if this will happen then the concept of test case for a result will be dwindled and hencehas no meaning.What is “Quality Assurance”?“Quality Assurance” measures the quality of processes used to create a quality product.Software Quality Assurance (‘SQA’ or ‘QA’) is the process of monitoring and improving all
  • 15. activities associated with software development, from requirements gathering, design andreviews to coding, testing and implementation.It involves the entire software development process - monitoring and improving the process,making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring thatproblems are found and dealt with, at the earliest possible stage. Unlike testing, which is mainlya ‘detection’ process, QA is ‘preventative’ in that it aims to ensure quality in the methods &processes – and therefore reduce the prevalence of errors in the software.Organisations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing.Sometimes they’re the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common areproject teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, withoverall QA processes monitored by project managers or quality managers.Quality Assurance and Software DevelopmentQuality Assurance and development of a product are parallel activities. Complete QA includesreviews of the development methods and standards, reviews of all the documentation (not justfor standardisation but for verification and clarity of the contents also). Overall QualityAssurance processes also include code validation.A note about quality assurance: The role of quality assurance is a superset of testing. Itsmission is to help minimise the risk of project failure. QA people aim to understand the causesof project failure (which includes software errors as an aspect) and help the team prevent,detect, and correct the problems. Often test teams are referred to as QA Teams, perhapsacknowledging that testers should consider broader QA issues as well as testing.Which things to consider to test a mobile application through black box technique?Answer1:Not sure how your device/server is to operate, so mold these ideas to fit your app. Somehighlights are:Range testing: Ensure that you can reconnect when leaving and returning back into range.Port/IP/firewall testing - change ports and ips to ensure that you can connect and disconnect.modify the firewall to shutoff the connection.Multiple devices - make sure that a user receives his messages with other devices connected tothe same ip/port. Your app should have a method to determine which device/user sent themessage and only return to it. Should be in the message string sent and received. Unless youhave conferencing capabilities within the application.Cycle the power of the server and watch the mobile unit reconnect automatically.Mobile unit sends a message and then power off the unit, when powering back on andreconnecting, ensure that the message is returned to the mobile unit.
  • 16. Answer2:Not clearly mentioned which area of the mobile application you are testing with. Whether is itsimple SMS application or WAP application, you need to specify more details.If you are workingwith WAP then you can download simulators from net and start testing over it.What is the general testing process?The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes thecreation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and testprocedures) and the execution of tests. Test data are inputs that have been devised to test thesystemTest Cases are inputs and outputs specification plus a statement of the function under the test.Test data can be generated automatically (simulated) or real (live).The stages in the testing process are as follows:1. Unit testing: (Code Oriented)Individual components are tested to ensure that they operate correctly. Each component istested independently, without other system components.2. Module testing:A module is a collection of dependent components such as an object class, an abstract datatype or some looser collection of procedures and functions. A module encapsulates relatedcomponents so it can be tested without other system modules.3. Sub-system testing: (Integration Testing) (Design Oriented)This phase involves testing collections of modules, which have been integrated into sub-systems. Sub-systems may be independently designed and implemented. The most commonproblems, which arise in large software systems, are sub-systems interface mismatches. Thesub-system test process should therefore concentrate on the detection of interface errors byrigorously exercising these interfaces.4. System testing:The sub-systems are integrated to make up the entire system. The testing process is concernedwith finding errors that result from unanticipated interactions between sub-systems and systemcomponents. It is also concerned with validating that the system meets its functional and non-functional requirements.5. Acceptance testing:This is the final stage in the testing process before the system is accepted for operational use.The system is tested with data supplied by the system client rather than simulated test data.Acceptance testing may reveal errors and omissions in the systems requirements definition(
  • 17. user - oriented) because real data exercises the system in different ways from the test data.Acceptance testing may also reveal requirement problems where the system facilities do notreally meet the users needs (functional) or the system performance (non-functional) isunacceptable.Acceptance testing is sometimes called alpha testing. Bespoke systems are developed for asingle client. The alpha testing process continues until the system developer and the clientagrees that the delivered system is an acceptable implementation of the system requirements.When a system is to be marketed as a software product, a testing process called beta testing isoften used.Beta testing involves delivering a system to a number of potential customers who agree to usethat system. They report problems to the system developers. This exposes the product to realuse and detects errors that may not have been anticipated by the system builders. After thisfeedback, the system is modified and either released fur further beta testing or for general sale.Whats normal practices of the QA specialists with perspective of software?These are the normal practices of the QA specialists with perspective of software[note: these are all QC activities, not QA activities.]1-Desgin Review Meetings with the System Analyst and If possible should be the part inRequirement gathering2-Analysing the requirements and the desing and to trace the desing with respect to therequirements3-Test Planning4-Test Case Identification using different techniques (With respect to the Web BasedApplciation and Desktoip Applications)5-Test Case Writing (This part is to be assigned to the testing engineers)6-Test Case Execution (This part is to be assigned to the testing engineers)7-Bug Reporting (This part is to be assigned to the testing engineers)8-Bug Review and thier Analysis so that future bus can be removed by desgining somestandardsfrom low-level to high level (Testing in Stages)Except for small programs, systems should not be tested as a single unit. Large systems arebuilt out of sub-systems, which are built out of modules that are composed of procedures andfunctions. The testing process should therefore proceed in stages where testing is carried outincrementally in conjunction with system implementation.The most widely used testing process consists of five stages
  • 18. Unit TestingComponenttesting Module Testing White Box Testing Techniques Verification (Tests that are derived from knowledge of Sub-system (Process the programs structure andIntegrated Testing Oriented) implementation)testing System Testing Validation Black Box Testing Techniques AcceptanceUser testing (Product (Tests are derived from the program Testing Oriented) specification)However, as defects are discovered at any one stage, they require program modifications tocorrect them and this may require other stages in the testing process to be repeated.Errors in program components, say may come to light at a later stage of the testing process.The process is therefore an iterative one with information being fed back from later stages toearlier parts of the process.How to test and to get the difference between two images which is in the same window?Answer1:How are you doing your comparison? If you are doing it manually, then you should be able tosee any major differences. If you are using an automated tool, then there is usually acomparison facility in the tool to do that.Answer2:Jasper Software is an open-source utility which can be compiled into C++ and has a imgcmpfunction which compares JPEG files in very good detail as long as they have the samedimentions and number of components.Answer3:Rational has a comparison tool that may be used. Im sure Mercury has the same tool.Answer4:The key question is whether we need a bit-by-bit exact comparison, which the current tools aregood at, or an equivalency comparison. What differences between these images are notdifferences? Near-match comparison has been the subject of a lot of research in printer testing,including an M.Sc. thesis at Florida Tech. Its a tough problem.Testing Strategies
  • 19. Strategy is a general approach rather than a method of devising particular systems forcomponent tests.Different strategies may be adopted depending on the type of system to be tested and thedevelopment process used. The testing strategies areTop-Down TestingBottom - Up TestingThread TestingStress TestingBack- to Back Testing1. Top-down testingWhere testing starts with the most abstract component and works downwards.2. Bottom-up testingWhere testing starts with the fundamental components and works upwards.3. Thread testingWhich is used for systems with multiple processes where the processing of a transactionthreads its way through these processes.4. Stress testingWhich relies on stressing the system by going beyond its specified limits and hence testing howwell the system can cope with over-load situations.5. Back-to-back testingWhich is used when versions of a system are available. The systems are tested together andtheir outputs are compared. 6. Performance testing.This is used to test the run-time performance of software.7. Security testing.This attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into system will protect it from improperpenetration.8. Recovery testing.This forces software to fail in a variety ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed.Large systems are usually tested using a mixture of these strategies rather than any singleapproach. Different strategies may be needed for different parts of the system and at differentstages in the testing process.
  • 20. Whatever testing strategy is adopted, it is always sensible to adopt an incremental approach tosub-system and system testing. Rather than integrate all components into a system and thenstart testing, the system should be tested incrementally. Each increment should be testedbefore the next increment is added to the system. This process should continue until allmodules have been incorporated into the system.When a module is introduced at some stage in this process, tests, which were previouslyunsuccessful, may now, detect defects. These defects are probably due to interactions with thenew module. The source of the problem is localized to some extent, thus simplifying defectlocation and repaiDebuggingBrute force, backtracking, cause elimination. Focuses on each module and whether it works properly.Unit Testing Coding Makes heavy use of white box testing Centered on making sure that each module works with another module. Comprised of two kinds: Top-down andIntegration Design Bottom-up integration.Testing Or focuses on the design and construction of the software architecture. Makes heavy use of Black Box testing.(Either answer is acceptable)Validation Analysis Ensuring conformity with requirementsTesting Making sure that the software product works with theSystems Systems external environment, e.g., computer system, otherTesting Engineering software products.Driver and StubsDriver: dummy main programStub: dummy sub-programThis is because the modules are not yet stand-alone programs therefore drive and or stubshave to be developed to test each unit.When do we prepare a Test Plan?
  • 21. When do we prepare a Test Plan?[Always prepared a Test Plan for every new version or release of the product? ]For four or five features at once, a single plan is fine. Write new test cases rather than new testplans. Write test plans for two very different purposes. Sometimes the test plan is a product;sometimes its a tool.What is boundary value analysis?Boundary value analysis is a technique for test data selection. A test engineer chooses valuesthat lie along data extremes. Boundary values include maximum, minimum, just insideboundaries, just outside boundaries, typical values, and error values. The expectation is that, ifa systems works correctly for these extreme or special values, then it will work correctly for allvalues in between. An effective way to test code is to exercise it at its natural boundaries.Boundary Value Analysis is a method of testing that complements equivalence partitioning. Inthis case, data input as well as data output are tested. The rationale behind BVA is that theerrors typically occur at the boundaries of the data. The boundaries refer to the upper limit andthe lower limit of a range of values or more commonly known as the "edges" of the boundary.Describe methods to determine if you are testing an application too much?Answer1:While testing, you need to keep in mind following two things always:-- Percentage of requirements coverage-- Number of Bugs present + Rate of fall of bugs-- Firstly, There may be a case where requirement is covered quite adequately but number ofbugs do not fall. This indicates over testing.--- Secondly, There may be a case where those parts of application are also being tested whichare not affected by a CHANGE or BUG FIXTURE. This is again a case of over testing.-- Third is the case as you have suggested, with slight modification, i.e bug has sufficientlydropped off but still testing is being at SAME levels as before.Methods to determine if an application is being over-tested are--1. Comparison of Rate of Drop in number of Bugs & Effort Invested in Testing (With allRequirements been met) That is, if bug rate is falling (as it generally happens in allapplications), but effort invested in man hours does not fall, this implies Over testing.2. Comparison of Achievment of bug rate threshold & Effort Invested in Testing (With allRequirements been met) That is, if bug rate has already achieved the agreed-upon value with
  • 22. business and still the testing efforts are being invested with no/little reduction.3. Verifying if the Impact Analysis for Change Requests has been done properly and beingimplemented correctly. That is, to check and verify that the components of AUT which have gotimpacted by the new change are being tested only and no other unrequired component is beingtested unneccessarily. If unaffected components are being tested, this implies Over testing.Answer2:If the bug find rate has dropped off considerably, the test group should shift its testing strategy.One of the key problems with heavy reliance on regression testing is that the bug find rate dropsoff even though there are plenty of bugs not yet found. To find new bugs, you have to run newtests.Every test technique is stronger for some types of bugs and weaker for others. Many testgroups use only a few techniques. In our consulting, James Bach and I repeatedly worked withcompanies that relied on only one or two main techniques.When one technique, any one test technique, yields few bugs, shifting to new technique(s) islikely to expose new problems.At some point, you can use a measure that is only partially statistical -- if your bug find rate islow AND you cant think of any new testing approaches that look promising, THEN you are atthe limit of your effectiveness and you should ship the product. That still doesnt mean that theapplication is overtested. It just means that YOURE not going to find many new bugs.Answer3:Best way is to monitor the test defects over the period of timeRefer williams perry book, where he has mentioned the concept of under test and over test, infact the data can be plotted to see the criteria.Yes one of the criteria is to monitor the defect rate and see if it is almost zero second methodwould be using test coverage when it reach 100% (or 100% requirement coverage)Procedural Software Testing IssuesSoftware testing in the traditional sense can miss a large number of errors if used alone. That iswhy processes like Software Inspections and Software Quality Assurance (SQA) have beendeveloped. However, even testing all by itself is very time consuming and very costly. It also tiesup resources that could be used otherwise. When combined with inspections and/or SQA orwhen formalized, it also becomes a project of its own requiring analysis, design andimplementation and supportive communications infrastructure. With it interpersonal problemsarise and need managing. On the other hand, when testing is conducted by the developers, itwill most likely be very subjective. Another problem is that developers are trained to avoiderrors. As a result they may conduct tests that prove the product is working as intended (i.e.proving there are no errors) instead of creating test cases that tend to uncover as many errorsas possible.
  • 23. How do I start with testing?Think twice (or may be more) times before you choose a career. Are you interested in it or do ujust want to jump on the bandwagon?PrerequisiteYou can join a software development company as a tester if you can convince the interviewer1. You have a knack for breaking software2. You are aware of basic Quality concepts and belive in them3. You want to pursue Testing as a career and not just to try itOO Software Testing IssuesA common way of testing OO software testing-by-poking-around (Binder, 1995). In this case thedevelopers goal is to show that the product can do something useful without crashing. Attemptsare made to "break" the product. If and when it breaks, the errors are fixed and the product isthen deemed "tested".Testing-by-poking-around method of testing OO software is, in my opinion, as unsuccessful asrandom testing of procedural code or design. It leaves the finding of errors up to a chance.Another common problem in OO testing is the idea that since a superclass has been tested, anysubclasses inheriting from it dont need to be.This is not true because by defining a subclass we define a new context for the inheritedattributes. Because of interaction between objects, we have to design test cases to test eachnew context and re-test the superclass as well to ensure proper working order of those objects.Yet another misconception in OO is that if you do proper analysis and design (using the classinterface or specification), you dont need to test or you can just perform black-box testing only.However, function tests only try the "normal" paths or states of the class. In order to test theother paths or states, we need code instrumentation. Also it is often difficult to exerciseexception and error handling without examination of the source code.What is the purpose of black box testing?Answer1:The main purpose of BB Testing is to validate that the application works as the user will beoperating it and in the environments of their systems. How do you do system testing andintegration testing?You may lose time and money but you may also lose Quality and eventually Customers!Answer2:"What is the purpose of black box testing?"Black-box testing checks that the user interface and user inputs and outputs all work correctly.
  • 24. Part of this is that error handling must work correctly. Its used in functional and system testing."We do everything in white box testing: - we check each modules function in the unit testing"Who is "we"? Are you programmers or quality assurance testers? Usually, unit testing is doneby programmers, and white-box testing would be how theyd do it."- once unit test result is ok, means that modules work correctly (according to the requirementdocumemts)"Not quite. It means that on a stand-alone basis, each module is okay. White box testing onlytests the internal structure of the program, the code paths. Functional testing is needed to testhow the individual components work together, and this is best done from an externalperspective, meaning by using the software the way an end user would, without reference to thecode (which is what black-box testing is).if we doing testing again in black box will we lose time and money?"No, the opposite: Youll lose money from having to repair errors you didnt catch with the white-box testing if you dont do some black-box testing. Its far more expensive to fix errors afterrelease than to test for them and fix them early on.But again, who is "we"? The black box testers should not be the people who did theprogramming; they should be the QA team -- also some end users for the usability testing.Now that Ive said that, good programmers will run some basic black-box tests before handingthe application to QA for testing. This isnt a substitute for having QA do the tests, but its a lotquicker for the programmer to find and fix an error right away than to have to go through thewhole process of reporting a bug, then fixing and releasing a new build, then retesting.How do you create a test plan/design?Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirements of the releaseand preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken into test procedures. Testprocedures define test conditions, data to be used for testing and expected results, includingdatabase updates, file outputs, report results. Generally speaking...* Test cases and scenarios are designed to represent both typical and unusual situations thatmay occur in the application.* Test engineers define unit test requirements and unit test cases. Test engineers also executeunit test cases.* It is the test team that, with assistance of developers and clients, develops test cases andscenarios for integration and system testing.* Test scenarios are executed through the use of test procedures or scripts.* Test procedures or scripts define a series of steps necessary to perform one or more testscenarios.* Test procedures or scripts include the specific data that will be used for testing the process ortransaction.* Test procedures or scripts may cover multiple test scenarios.* Test scripts are mapped back to the requirements and traceability matrices are used to ensure
  • 25. each test is within scope.* Test data is captured and base lined, prior to testing. This data serves as the foundation forunit and system testing and used to exercise system functionality in a controlled environment.* Some output data is also base-lined for future comparison. Base-lined data is used to supportfuture application maintenance via regression testing.* A pretest meeting is held to assess the readiness of the application and the environment anddata to be tested. A test readiness document is created to indicate the status of the entrancecriteria of the release.Inputs for this process:* Approved Test Strategy Document.* Test tools, or automated test tools, if applicable.* Previously developed scripts, if applicable.* Test documentation problems uncovered as a result of testing.* A good understanding of software complexity and module path coverage, derived from generaland detailed design documents, e.g. software design document, source code, and softwarecomplexity data.Outputs for this process:* Approved documents of test scenarios, test cases, test conditions, and test data.* Reports of software design issues, given to software developers for correction.What is the purpose of a test plan?Reason number 1: We create a test plan because preparing it helps us to think through theefforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product.Reason number 2: We create a test plan because it can and will help people outside the testgroup to understand the why and how of product validation.Reason number 3: We create a test plan because, in regulated environments, we have to havea written test plan.Reason number 4: We create a test plan because the general testing process includes thecreation of a test plan.Reason number 5: We create a test plan because we want a document that describes theobjectives, scope, approach and focus of the software testing effort.Reason number 6: We create a test plan because it includes test cases, conditions, the testenvironment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria, and risk assessment.Reason number 7: We create test plan because one of the outputs for creating a test strategy isan approved and signed off test plan document.Reason number 8: We create a test plan because the software testing methodology a three stepprocess, and one of the steps is the creation of a test plan.Reason number 9: We create a test plan because we want an opportunity to review the testplan with the project team.
  • 26. Reason number 10: We create a test plan document because test plans should be documented,so that they are repeatable.Can we prepare Test Plan without SRS?It is not always mandatory that you should have SRS document to prepare a Test Plan. Thiskind of Documents Hierarchy is maintained to maintain Organizational standards and also tohave clear understanding of the things.Yes you can Prepare a Test plan directly without SRS, When the Requirements are clear withyour clients,and when your URD(User Requirement Document ) is supportive enough to clarifythe issues.Though we dont have SRS clients will be giving some information SRS only contains mainlyProduct informationBut we will not know the Testing effort if we dont have SRS.SRS contains How many cycles we are testing, and on the platforms we are testing , etc.Actually there wont be any harm in doing so, becoz, ultimately you will send your Test plandocument to your client and after getting approval from him only you start Testing.(Note:- SRS is the document which you get in the Analysis phase of your SoftwareDevelopment. Test plan is the document , which contains the details of Product interms of , Tsetstrategy , Scope of testing, Types of tests to be conducted,Risk Managemnet , Mention ofAutomation Tool ,About Bug tracking Tool, etc..,)How do test plan templates look like?The test plan document template helps to generate test plan documents that describe theobjectives, scope, approach and focus of a software testing effort. Test document templates areoften in the form of documents that are divided into sections and subsections. One example of atemplate is a 4-section document where section 1 is the description of the "Test Objective",section 2 is the the description of "Scope of Testing", section 3 is the the description of the "TestApproach", and section 4 is the "Focus of the Testing Effort".All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. Standards and templatesmaintain document uniformity. They also help in learning where information is located, making iteasier for a user to find what they want. With standards and templates, information will not beaccidentally omitted from a document. Once Rob Davis has learned and reviewed yourstandards and templates, he will use them. He will also recommend improvements and/oradditions.A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach andfocus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to thinkthrough the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completeddocument will help people outside the test group understand the why and how of productvalidation.
  • 27. How to Test a desktop systems ?You will likely have to use a programming or scripting language to interact with the servicedirectly. You will have more control over the raw information that way.You will have to determine what the service is supposed to do and how it is supposed to interactwith other applications and services. A data dictionary likely exists. It may not be called thathowever. What this document does is explain what commands the service will respond to andwhat sort of data should be sent. You will have to use this document to do your testing. Getclose to the person or people who created the document or the service and expect them to keepyou in the loop when changes take place (it doesnt help anyone if you report a defect and itsreally only reflecting an expected change in the operation of the service).Desktop applications are generally designed to run and quit. You have to be concerned withmemory leaks and system usage.How do you create a test strategy?The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategyis developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements,writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may includetest cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and riskassessment.Inputs for this process:* A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools. Thisinformation comes from the test environment, including test tool data.* A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and scheduleconstraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules.* Testing methodology. This is based on known standards.* Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes fromrequirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.* Requirements that the system can not provide, e.g. system limitations.Outputs for this process:* An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases.* Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the projectmanagement level.How to do Estimating Testing effort ?Time Estimation method for Testing ProcessNote : folloing method is based on use case driven specification.Step 1 : count number of use cases (NUC) of systemstep 2 : Set Avg Time Test Cases(ATTC) as per test plan
  • 28. step 3 : Estimate total number of test cases (NTC)Total number of test cases = Number of usecases X Avg testcases per a use caseStep 4 : Set Avg Execution Time (AET) per a test case (idelly 15 min depends on your system)Step 5 : Calculate Total Execution Time (TET)TET = Total number of test cases * AETStep 6 : Calculate Test Case Creation Time (TCCT)useually we will take 1.5 times of TET as TCCTTCCT = 1.5 * TETStep 7 : Time for ReTest Case Execution (RTCE) this is for retestinguseually we take 0.5 times of TETRTCE = 0.5 * TETStep 8 : Set Report generation Time (RGTusually we take 0.2 times of TETRGT = 0.2 * TETStep 9 : Set Test Environment Setup Time (TEST)it also depends on test planStep 10 : Total Estimation time = TET + TCCT+ RTCE + RGT + TEST + some buffer...;)ExampleTotal No of use cases (NUC) : 227Average test cases per Use cases(AET) : 10Estimated Test cases(NTC) : 227 * 10 = 2270Time estimation execution (TET) : 2270/4 = 567.5 hrTime for creating testcases (TCCT) : 567.5*4/3 = 756.6 hrTime for retesting (RTCE) : 567.5/2 = 283.75 hrReport Generation(RGT) = 100 hrTest Environment Setup Time(TEST) = 20 hr.-------------------Total Hrs 1727.85 + buffer-------------------here 4 means Number of testcases executed per houri.e 15 min will take for execution of each test caseWhat is the purpose of test strategy?Reason number 1: The number one reason of writing a test strategy document is to "have" asigned, sealed, and delivered, FDA (or FAA) approved document, where the document includesa written testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.Reason number 2: Having a test strategy does satisfy one important step in the software testingprocess.Reason number 3: The test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.Reason number 4: The creation of a test strategy document presents an opportunity to review
  • 29. the test plan with the project team.Reason number 5: The test strategy document describes the roles, responsibilities, and theresources required for the test and schedule constraints.Reason number 6: When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing anytesting issues requiring resolution (and usually this means additional negotiation at the projectmanagement level).Reason number 7: The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made onthe test plan, test design, and other testing issues.Whats Quality Approach document? what should be the contents and things like that...Answer1:you should start thinking from your company business type, and according to it define differentprocesses for your organization. like procurment, CM etcThen think over different matrices you will be calculating for each process, and define them withformula, the kind of analysis will be doing and when shall the red flag to be raised,Decide on your audit policies frequencies etc. Think on the change control board if any processneeds modification.Answer2:By defining the process i mean the structured collection of practices that describe thecharacteristics of the work and its quality. writting process means creating a system with whichevery one will work, the benefits of it are like common language and a shared vision acrossorganization, its will be a frame work for prioritizing actions.From implementation point of view first you need to break the complete life cycle of your productin diffrent meaningful steps, and setting the goals for each can create different document templates which every one shall follow, Define thedependencies among different groups for each project, Define risks for each project and what ismitigation plan for each risk. etcYou can read the CMMI model, customize that as per your organization goal. for a start upcompany As per my personal opinion, its better to define and reach at the process for Level 3First and then go for level 5.What does a test strategy document contain?The test strategy document contains test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list ofrelated tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment. The test strategy document is a formaldescription of how a software product will be tested. What is the test strategy documentdeveloped for? It is developed for all levels of testing, as required. How is it written, and who
  • 30. writes it? It is the test team that analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy, and reviewsthe plan with the project team.Why Q/A should not report to development?Based on research from the Quality Assurance Institute, the percent of quality groups in eachlocation is noted,50% - reports to Senior IT Manager - This is the best positioning because it gives the QualityManager immediate access to the IT Manager to discuss and promote Quality issues, when thequality manager reports elsewhere, quality issues may not be raised to the appropriate level orreceive the necessary action.25% - reports to Manager of systems/programming15 % reports to Manger oprerations.10 % outside IT function.Which of the following statements about Regression statements are true?Which of the following statements about Regression statements are true?1---Regression testing must consist of a fixed set of tests to create a base line2---Regression tests should be used to detect defects in new feature3---Regression testing can be run on every build4--- Regression testing should be targeted areas of high risk and known code change5---Regression testing when automated, is highly effective in preventing defects.Answer1:1---Regression testing must consist of a fixed set of tests to create a base lineDont think it is true as a "must" -- itdepends on whether your regression testing style involves repeating identical tests or redoingtesting in previously tested areas with similar tests or tests that address the same risks. Forexample, some people do regression testing with tests whose specific parameters aredetermined randomly. They broaden the set of values they test while achieving essentially thesame testing. Second example--some regression test suites include random stringing togetherof test cases (they include load testing and duration testing in their regression series, reportingtheir results as part of the assessment of each build). Depending on your theory of the _point_of regression testing, these may or may not be entirely valid regression tests.2---Regression tests should be used to detect defects in new featureHow do you create new regression tests? Should you design new tests as standalone, or shouldyou develop a strategy in which the tests you use for bug-hunting are designed to be reusableas regression tests? If the latter, and I have certainly heard some skilled testers argue that thelatter approach worked well in their sistuation, then #2 is sometimes true.
  • 31. 3---Regression testing can be run on every buildThis is true, though it might be silly and a big waste of time.4--- Regression testing should be targeted areas of high risk and known code changeHmmm, theres a area of computer science called program slicing and one of the objectives ofthis class of work is to figure out how to restrict the regression test suite to a smaller number oftests, which test only those things that might have been impacted by a change. Bob Glass hascriticized the results of some of this work, but if #4 is false, some Ph.D.s and big researchgrants should be retracted.5---Regression testing when automated, is highly effective in preventing defects.Unit-level automated regression testing is highly effective in preventing defects--read up on test-driven development.Answer2:Let me explain why I think 2 & 5 are false2---Regression tests should be used to detect defects in new featureSince regression tests only address existing features and functionality, it cant find defects innew features. It can only find where existing features and functionality have been broken bychanges.5---Regression testing when automated, is highly effective in preventing defects.Since no tests prevent defects, they only find them, its impossible to prevent defects with aregression test. I will add, however, that if a developer can use an automated regression test totest their own code before submitting it to the code repository (say in the form a series of unittests coupled to a library, etc.) then you could in some way prevent defects with a regressiontest.I also dont like 1- and 4. 1- since a regression test suite grows as the product does. Thereforethe tests are not fixed. 4- because a regression test tests the whole application, not just atargeted area. In the past, I have used the concept of test depth (level 1 being the basicregression tests--higher number reflect additional functionality) so you could run a level oneregression on the whole program but do level three on the transport layer "because weveupdated the library". Tan automated set of tests would be the most likely way to make 3- a possibility. It is unlikely thatwith daily builds, as many companies run their build process, that anything short of anautomated regression test suite would be able to be run daily with any efficacy. if the buildswere weekly, then a manual regression test would be likely.
  • 32. Answer3:As per the difinition of regression testing and actual workaround if you have to have answer thisquestion then option 3 & 4 is the best choice among all.The reason behind it is :3---Regression testing can be run on every build It is a normal phenomenon if there is buildcoming on weekly basis or it is a RC build.Since,there is nothing mention about daily build ,onlything mention is every build so it can be correct.4---Regression testing should be targeted areas of high risk and known code change This isalso true in most of the situation,it is not universally true but in certain condition where there iscode change and the related modules are only tested in regression automation rather thanwhole code.5 is not true coz in regression we detect the defect not prevent normally.How do you execute tests?Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodical manner. Aseach test procedure is performed, an entry is recorded in a test execution log to note theexecution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects.Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. Checkpoint meetings are helddaily, if required, to address and discuss testing issues, status and activities.* The output from the execution of test procedures is known as test results. Test results areevaluated by test engineers to determine whether the expected results have been obtained. Alldiscrepancies/anomalies are logged and discussed with the software team lead, hardware testlead, programmers, software engineers and documented for further investigation and resolution.Every company has a different process for logging and reporting bugs/defects uncovered duringtesting.* A pass/fail criteria is used to determine the severity of a problem, and results are recorded in atest summary report. The severity of a problem, found during system testing, is defined inaccordance to the customers risk assessment and recorded in their selected tracking tool.* Proposed fixes are delivered to the testing environment, based on the severity of the problem.Fixes are regression tested and flawless fixes are migrated to a new baseline. Followingcompletion of the test, members of the test team prepare a summary report. The summaryreport is reviewed by the Project Manager, Software QA Manager and/or Test Team Lead.* After a particular level of testing has been certified, it is the responsibility of the ConfigurationManager to coordinate the migration of the release software components to the next test level,as documented in the Configuration Management Plan. The software is only migrated to theproduction environment after the Project Managers formal acceptance.* The test team reviews test document problems identified during testing, and updatedocuments where appropriate.Inputs for this process:* Approved test documents, e.g. Test Plan, Test Cases, Test Procedures.* Test tools, including automated test tools, if applicable.
  • 33. * Developed scripts.* Changes to the design, i.e. Change Request Documents.* Test data.* Availability of the test team and project team.* General and Detailed Design Documents, i.e. Requirements Document, Software DesignDocument.* A software that has been migrated to the test environment, i.e. unit tested code, via theConfiguration/Build Manager.* Test Readiness Document.* Document Updates.Outputs for this process:* Log and summary of the test results. Usually this is part of the Test Report. This needs to beapproved and signed-off with revised testing deliverables.* Changes to the code, also known as test fixes.* Test document problems uncovered as a result of testing. Examples are Requirementsdocument and Design Document problems.* Reports on software design issues, given to software developers for correction. Examples arebug reports on code issues.* Formal record of test incidents, usually part of problem tracking.* Base-lined package, also known as tested source and object code, ready for migration to thenext level.What is a requirements test matrix?The requirements test matrix is a project management tool for tracking and managing testingefforts, based on requirements, throughout the projects life cycle.The requirements test matrix is a table, where requirement descriptions are put in the rows ofthe table, and the descriptions of testing efforts are put in the column headers of the sametable.The requirements test matrix is similar to the requirements traceability matrix, which is arepresentation of user requirements aligned against system functionality. The requirementstraceability matrix ensures that all user requirements are addressed by the system integrationteam and implemented in the system integration effort.The requirements test matrix is a representation of user requirements aligned against systemtesting. Similarly to the requirements traceability matrix, the requirements test matrix ensuresthat all user requirements are addressed by the system test team and implemented in thesystem testing effort.
  • 34. Can you give me a requirements test matrix template?For a requirements test matrix template, you want to visualize a simple, basic table that youcreate for cross-referencing purposes.Step 1: Find out how many requirements you have.Step 2: Find out how many test cases you have.Step 3: Based on these numbers, create a basic table. If you have a list of 90 requirements and360 test cases, you want to create a table of 91 rows and 361 columns.Step 4: Focus on the the first column of your table. One by one, copy all your 90 requirementnumbers, and paste them into rows 2 through 91 of the table.Step 5: Now switch your attention to the the first row of the table. One by one, copy all your 360test case numbers, and paste them into columns 2 through 361 of the table.Step 6: Examine each of your 360 test cases, and, one by one, determine which of the 90requirements they satisfy. If, for the sake of this example, test case number 64 satisfiesrequirement number 12, then put a large "X" into cell 13-65 of your table... and then you have it;you have just created a requirements test matrix template that you can use for cross-referencingpurposes.What metrics are used for bug tracking?Metrics that can be used for bug tracking include the followings: the total number of bugs, totalnumber of bugs that have been fixed, number of new bugs per week, and the number of fixesper week. Metrics for bug tracking can be used to determine when to stop testing, for example,when bug rate falls below a certain level. You CAN learn to use defect tracking software.In QA team, everyone talks about process. What exactly they are taking about? Are thereany different type of process?Answer1:When you talk about "process" you are generally talking about the actions used to accomplish atask.Heres an example: How do you solve a jigsaw puzzle?You start with a box full of oddly shaped pieces. In your mind you come up with a strategy formatching two pieces together (or no strategy at all and simply grab random pieces until you finda match), and continue on until the puzzle is completed.If you were to describe the *way* that you go about solving the puzzle you would be describingthe process.Some follow-up questions you might think about include things like:- How much time did it take you to solve the puzzle?- Do you know of any skills, tricks or practices that might help you solve the puzzle quicker?
  • 35. - What if you try to solve the puzzle with someone else? Does that help you go faster, orslower? (why or why not?) Can you have *too* many people on this one task?- To answer your second question, Ill ask *you* the question: Are there different ways thatpeople can solve a jigsaw puzzle?There are many interesting process-related questions, ideas and theories in Quality Assurance.Generally the identification of workplace processes lead to the questions of improvement inefficiency and productivity. The motivation behind that is to try and make the processes asefficient as possible so as to incur the least amount of time and expense, while providing ageneral sense of repeatability, visibility and predictability in the way tasks are performed andcompleted.The idea behind this is generally good, but the execution is often flawed. That is what makesQA so interesting. You see, when you work with people and processes, it is very different thanworking with the processes performed by machines. Some people in QA forget that distinctionand often become disillusioned with the whole thing.If you always remember to approach processes in the workplace with a people-centric view, youshould do fine.Answer2:There is:* Waterfall* Spiral* Rapid prototype* Clean room* Agile (XP, Scrum, ...)What metrics are used for test report generation?Metrics that can be used for test report generation include...McCabe metrics: cyclomatic complexity metric (v(G)), actual complexity metric (AC), moduledesign complexity metric (iv(G)), essential complexity metric (ev(G)), pathological complexitymetric (pv(G)), design complexity metric (S0), integration complexity metric (S1), objectintegration complexity metric (OS1), global data complexity metric (gdv(G)), data complexitymetric (DV), tested data complexity metric (TDV), data reference metric (DR), tested datareference metric (TDR), maintenance severity metric (maint_severity), data reference severitymetric (DR_severity), data complexity severity metric (DV_severity), global data severity metric(gdv_severity).McCabe object-oriented software metrics: encapsulation percent public data (PCTPUB), accessto public data (PUBDATA), polymorphism percent of unoverloaded calls (PCTCALL), number ofroots (ROOTCNT), fan-in (FANIN), quality maximum v(G) (MAXV), maximum ev(G) (MAXEV),and hierarchy quality (QUAL).Other object-oriented software metrics: depth (DEPTH), lack of cohesion of methods (LOCM),number of children (NOC), response for a class (RFC), weighted methods per class (WMC),
  • 36. Halstead software metrics program length, program volume, program level and programdifficulty, intelligent content, programming effort, error estimate, and programming time.Line count software metrics: lines of code, lines of comment, lines of mixed code andcomments, and lines left blank.What is quality plan?Answer1:the test plan is the document created before starting the testing process, it includes that types oftesting that will be performed, high level scope of the project, the envirnmental requirements ofthe testing process, what automated testing tools will be used (If available), the schedule ofeach test, when it will start and end.Answer2:you should not only understand what a Quality Plan is, but you should understand why youremaking it. I dont beleieve that "because I was told to do so" is a good enough reason. If theperson who told you to create it cant tell you 1) what it is, and 2) how to create it, I dont thinkthat they actually know why its needed. That breaks the primary rule of all plans used in testing:We write quality plans for two very different purposes. Sometimes the quality plan is a product;sometimes its a tool. Its too easy, but also too expensive, to confuse these goals.If its not being used as a tool, dont waste your time (and your companys money) doing this.What are the five dimensions of the Risks?Schedule: Unrealistic schedules, exclusion of certain activities when chalking out a scheduleetc. could be deterrents to project delivery on time. Unstable communication link can beconsidered as a probable risk if testing is carried out from a remote location.Client: Ambiguous requirements definition, clarifications on issues not being readily available,frequent changes to the requirements etc. could cause chaos during project execution.Human Resources: Non-availability of sufficient resources with the skill level expected in theproject are not available; Attrition of resources - Appropriate training schedules must be plannedfor resources to balance the knowledge level to be at par with resources quitting.Underestimating the training effort may have an impact in the project delivery.System Resources: Non-availability of /delay in procuring all critical computer resources eitherhardware and software tools or licenses for software will have an adverse impact.Quality: Compound factors like lack of resources along with a tight delivery schedule andfrequent changes to requirements will have an impact on the quality of the product tested.
  • 37. What is good code?A good code is code that works, is free of bugs and is readable and maintainable. Organizationsusually have coding standards all developers should adhere to, but every programmer andsoftware engineer has different ideas about what is best and what are too many or too fewrules. We need to keep in mind that excessive use of rules can stifle both productivity andcreativity. Peer reviews and code analysis tools can be used to check for problems and enforcestandards.Why back-end testing is required, if we are going to check the front-end ....?Why we need to do unit testing, if all the features are being tested in System testing.What extra things are tested in unit testing, which can not be tested in System testing.Answer1:Assume that youre thinking client-server or web. If you test the application on the front end onlyyou can see if the data was stored and retrievd correctly. You cant see if the servers are in anerror state or not. many server processes are monitored by another process. If they crash, theyare restarted. You cant see that without looking at it.The data may not be stored correctly either but the front end may have cached data lyingaround and it will use that instead. The least you should be doing is verifying the data as storedin the database.It is easier to test data being transferred on the boundaries and see the results of thosetransactions when you can set the data in a driver.Answer2:Back-End testing : Basically the requirement of this testing depends on ur project. like Say if urproject is .Ticket booking system,Front end u will provided with an Interface , where u can bookthe ticket by giving the appropriate details ( Like Place to go, and Time when u wanna go etc..).It will have a Data storage system (Database or XL sheet etc) which is a Back end for storingdetails entered by the user.After submitting the details ,U might have provided with a correct acknowledgement.But in backend , the details might not updated correctly in Database becoz of wrong logic development.Then that will cause a major problem.and regarding Unit level testing and System testing Unit level testing is for testing the basicchecks whether the application is working fyn with the basic requirements.This will be done bydevelopers before delivering to the QA.In System testing , In addition to the unit checks ,u willbe performing all the checks ( all possible integrated checks which required) .Basically this willbe carried out by testerAnswer3:
  • 38. Ever heard about divide and conquer tactic ? It is a same method applied in backend andfrontend testing.A good back end test will help minimize the burden of frontend test.Another point is you can test the backend while develope the frontend. A true pararelism couldbe achived.Backend testing has another problem which must addressed before front end could use it. Theproblem is concurency. Building a scenario to test concurency is formidable task.A complex thing is hard to test. To create such scenarios will make you unsure which test youalready done and which you havent. What we need is an effective methods to test ourapplication. The simplest method i know is using divide and conquer.Answer4:A wide range of errors are hard to see if you dont see the code. For example, there are manyoptimizations in programs that treat special cases. If you dont see the special case, you donttest the optimization. Also, a substantial portion of most programs is error handling. Mostprogrammers anticipate more errors than most testers.Programmers find and fix the vast majority of their own bugs. This is cheaper, because there isno communication overhead, faster because there is no delay from tester-reporter toprogrammer, and more effective because the programmer is likely to fix what she finds, and sheis likely to know the cause of the problems she sees. Also, the rapid feedback gives theprogrammer information about the weaknesses in her programming that can help her writebetter code.Many tests -- most boundary tests -- are done at the system level primarily because we donttrust that they were done at the unit level. They are wasteful and tedious at the system level. Idrather see them properly done and properly automated in a suite of programmer tests.What is the difference between verification and validation?Verification takes place before validation, and not vice versa.Verification evaluates documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. Validation, onthe other hand, evaluates the product itself.The inputs of verification are checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs and inspection meetings,reviews and meetings. The input of validation, on the other hand, is the actual testing of anactual product.The output of verification is a nearly perfect set of documents, plans, specifications, andrequirements document. The output of validation, on the other hand, is a nearly perfect, actualproduct.
  • 39. What is the difference between efficient and effective?"Efficient" means having a high ratio of output to input; which means working or producing witha minimum of waste. For example, "An efficient engine saves gas." Or, "An efficient testengineer saves time"."Effective", on the other hand, means producing or capable of producing an intended result, orhaving a striking effect. For example, "For rapid long-distance transportation, the jet engine ismore effective than a witchs broomstick". Or, "For developing software test procedures,engineers specializing in software testing are more effective than engineers who aregeneralists".How effective can we implement six sigma principles in a very large software servicesorganization?Answer1:Effective way of implementing sixsigma.there are quite a few things one needs1. management buyin2. dedicated team both drivers as well as adopters3. training4. culture building - if you have a pro process culture, life is easy5. sustained effort over a period towards transforming, people, thoughts and actions Personallytechnical content is never a challenge, but adoption is a challenge.Answer2:"Six sigma" is a combination of process recommendations and mathematical model. The name"six sigma" reflects the notion of reducing variation so much that errors -- events out oftolerance -- are six standard deviations from a desired mean. The mathematics are at the coreof the process implementation.The problem is that software is not hardware. Software defects are designed in, not the result ofmanufacturing variation.The other side of six sigma is the drive for continuous improvement. You dont need the sixsigma math for this and the concept has been around long before the six sigma movement.To improve anything, you need some type of indicator of its current state and a way to tell that itis improved. Plus determination to improve it. Management support helps.Answer3:There are different methodologies adopted in sixsigma. However, it is commonly referencedfrom the variance based approach. If you are trying to look at sixsigma from that, for softwareservices, fundamentally the measurement system should be reliable - industry has not reached
  • 40. the maturity level of manufacturing industry where it fits to a T. The differences between SWand HW/manufacturing industry is slightly difficult to address.There are some areas you can adopt sixsigma in its full statistical form(eg in-process error rate,productivity improvements etc), some areas are difficult.The narrower the problem area is, the better it gets even in software services to addressadopting the statistical method.There are methodologies that have a bundle of tools,along with statistical techniques, are usedon the full SDLC.A generic observation is ,SS helps if we look for proper fitment of methodology for the purpose.Else doubts creep in.What stage of bug fixing is the most cost effective?Bug prevention techniques (i.e. inspections, peer design reviews, and walk-throughs) are morecost effective than bug detection.What is Defect Life Cycle.?Answer1:Defect life cycle is....different stages after a defect is identified.New (When defect is identified)Accepted (when Development team and QA team accepts its a Bug)In Progress (when a person is working to resolve the issue-defect)Resolved (once the defect resolved)Completed (Some one who can take up the responsibly Team lead)Closed/reopened (Retested by TE and he will update the Status of the bug)Answer2:Defect Life Cycle is nothing but the various phases a Bug undergoes after it is raised orreported.A general Interview answer can be given as:1. New or Opened2. Assinged3. Fixed4. Tested5. Closed.
  • 41. What is the difference between a software bug and software defect?"Software bug" is nonspecific; it means an inexplicable defect, error, flaw, mistake, failure, fault,or unwanted behavior of a computer program. Other terms, e.g. "software defect", or "softwarefailure", are more specific.While the word "bug" has been a part of engineering jargon for many-many decades; many-many decades ago even Thomas Edison, the great inventor, wrote about a "bug" - today thereare many who believe the word "bug" is a reference to insects that caused malfunctions in earlyelectromechanical computers.In software testing, the difference between "bug" and "defect" is small, and also depends on theend client. For some clients, bug and defect are synonymous, while others believe bugs aresubsets of defects.Difference number one: In bug reports, the defects are easier to describe.Difference number two: In my bug reports, it is easier to write descriptions as to how to replicatedefects. In other words, defects tend to require only brief explanations.Commonality number one: We, software test engineers, discover both bugs and defects, beforebugs and defects damage the reputation of our company.Commonality number two: We, software QA engineers, use the software much like real userswould, to find both bugs and defects, to find ways to replicate both bugs and defects, to submitbug reports to the developers, and to provide feedback to the developers, i.e. tell them if theyveachieved the desired level of quality.Commonality number three: We, software QA engineers, do not differentiate between bugs anddefects. In our reports, we include both bugs and defects that are the results of software testing.Are developers smarter than tester? Any suggestion about the future prospects andtechnicality involvedin the testing job?Answer1:QA & Testing are thankless jobs. In a software development company developer is a coreperson. As you are a fresh graduate, it would be good for you to work as a developer. Fromdevelopment you can always move to testing or QA or other admin/support tasks. But fromTesting or QA it is little difficult to go back to development, though not impossible(as u are BEcomp)Seeing the job market, it is not possible for each & every fresher to get into development. Butyou can keep searching for it.Some big companys have seperate Verifiction & Validation groups where only testing projectsare executed. Those teams have TLs, PLs who are testing experts. They earn good salarysame as development people.In technical projects the testing team does lot of technical work. You can do certifications toimprove your technical skills & market value.
  • 42. It all depends on your way of handling things & interpersonal, communication and leadershipskills. If it is difficult for you to get a job in developement or you really like testing, just go ahead.Try to achieve excellence as a testing professional. You will never have a job problem .Also youwill always get onsite opportunities too!! Yuo might have to struggle for initial few years like allother freshers.Answer2:QA and Testing are thankless only in some companies.Testing is part of development. Rather than distinguish between testing anddevelopment,distinguish between testing and programming.Programming is also thankless in some companies.Not suggesting that anyone should or should not go into testing. It depends on your skills andinterests. Some people are better at programming and worse at testing, some better at testingand worse at programming, some are not suited for either role. You should decide what you aregood at and what fascinates you. What type of work would make you WANT to stay at work for60-80 hours a week for a few years because it is so interesting?Suggesting that there are excellent testing jobs out there, but there are bad ones too (in testingand in programming, both).Have not seen any certification in software testing that improves the technical skill of anyone.Apparently, testing certification improves a testers market value in some markets.Most companies mean testing when they say "QA". Or they mean Testing plus Metrics, wherethe metrics tasks are low-skill data collection and basic data analysis rather than thinking up andjustifying measurement systems appropriate to the questions at hand. In terms of skill, salary,intellectual challenge and value to the company, testing+metrics is the same as testing. Somecompanies see QA more strategically, and hire more senior people into their groups. Here is ahint--if you can get a job in a group called QA with less than 5 years of experience, its a testinggroup or something equivalent to it.Answer3:Nothing is considered as great or a mean job. As long as you like and love to do, everything inthat seems to be interesting.I started as a developer and slowly moved to Testing. I find testing to be more challenging andinteresting. I have solid 6 years of testing experience alone and many sernior people are therein my team, who are professional testers.Answer4:testing is low-skill work in many companies.Scripted testing of the kind pushed by ISEB, ISTQB, and the other certifiers is low skill, lowprestige, offers little return value to the company that pays for it, and is often pushed to offsitecontracting firms because it isnt worth doing in-house. In many cases, it is just a process of"going through the motions" -- pretending to do testing (and spending a lot of money in the
  • 43. pretense) but without really looking for any important information and without creating anyartifacts that will be useful to the project team.The only reason to take a job doing this kind of work is to get paid for it. Doing it for too long isbad for your career.There are much higher-skill ways to do testing. Some of them involve partial automation (writingor using programs to help you investigate the program more effectively), but automation toolsare just tools. They are often used just as mind-numbingly and valuelessly as scripted manualtesting. When youre offered this kind of position, try to find out how much judgment you willhave to exercise in the analysis of the product under test and the ways that it provides value tothe users and other stakeholders, in the design of tests to check that value and to check forother threats to value (security failures, performance failures, usability failures, etc.)--and howmuch this position will help you develop your judgment. If you will become a more skilled andmore creative investigator who has a better collection of tools to investigate with, that might beinteresting. If not, you will be marking time (making money but learning little) while the rest ofthe technical world learns new ideas and skills.Whats the difference between priority and severity?The word "priority" is associated with scheduling, and the word "severity" is associated withstandards. "Priority" means something is afforded or deserves prior attention; a precedenceestablished by urgency or order of or importance.Severity is the state or quality of being severe; severe implies adherence to rigorous standardsor high principles and often suggests harshness; severe is marked by or requires strictadherence to rigorous standards or high principles. For example, a severe code of behavior.The words priority and severity do come up in bug tracking. A variety of commercial, problem-tracking / management software tools are available. These tools, with the detailed input ofsoftware test engineers, give the team complete information so developers can understand thebug, get an idea of its severity, reproduce it and fix it. The fixes are based on project prioritiesand severity of bugs. The severity of a problem is defined in accordance to the end clients riskassessment, and recorded in their selected tracking tool. A buggy software can severely affectschedules, which, in turn can lead to a reassessment and renegotiation of priorities.How to test a web based application that has recently been modified to give support forDouble Byte Character Sets?Answer1:should apply black box testing techniques (boundary analysis, equivalence partioning)Answer2:The Japanese and other East Asian Customers are very particular of the look and feel of the UI.
  • 44. So please make sure, there is no truncation at any place.One Major difference between Japanese and English is that there is no concept of spacesbetween the words in Japanese. The line breaks in English usually happens whenever there isa Space. In Japanese this leads to a lot of problem with the wrapping on the text and if you havea table with defined column length, you might see text appearing vertical.On the functionality side:1. Check for the date format and Number format. (it should be in the native locale)2. Check that your system accepts 2-byte numerals and characters.3. If there is any fields with a boundary value of 100 characters, the field should accept, thesame number of 2-byte character as well.4. The application should work on a Native (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) OS as well as on anEnglish OS with the language pack installed.Writing a high level test plan for 2-byte support will require some knowledge of the applicationand its architecture.What is the difference between software fault and software failure?Software failure occurs when the software does not do what the user expects to see. Softwarefault, on the other hand, is a hidden programming error.A software fault becomes a software failure only when the exact computation conditions aremet, and the faulty portion of the code is executed on the CPU. This can occur during normalusage. Or, when the software is ported to a different hardware platform. Or, when the softwareis ported to a different complier. Or, when the software gets extended.before creating test cases to "break the system", a few principles have to be observed:Testing should be based on user requirements. This is in order to uncover any defects thatmight cause the program or system to fail to meet the clients requirements.Testing time and resources are limited. Avoid redundant tests.It is impossible to test everything. Exhaustive tests of all possible scenarios are impossible,simple because of the many different variables affecting the system and the number of paths aprogram flow might take.Use effective resources to test. This represents use of the most suitable tools, procedures andindividuals to conduct the tests. The test team should use tools that they are confident andfamiliar with. Testing procedures should be clearly defined. Testing personnel may be atechnical group of people independent of the developers.Test planning should be done early. This is because test planning can begin independently ofcoding and as soon as the client requirements are set.Testing should begin at the module. The focus of testing should be concentrated on the smallestprogramming units first and then expand to other parts of the system.We look at software testing in the traditional (procedural) sense and then describe some testing
  • 45. strategies and methods used in Object Oriented environment. We also introduce some issueswith software testing in both environments.Would like to know whether Black Box testing techniques like Boundary Value Analysisand Equivalence Partitioning - during which phases of testing are they used,if possiblewith examples ?Answer1:Also Boundary Value Analysis and Equivalence Partitioning can be used in unit or componenttesting, and generally is used in system testingExample, you have a module designed to work out the tax to be paid:An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%The next £28000 is taxed at 22%Any further amount is taxed at 40%You must define test cases that exercise valid and invalid equivalence classes:Any value lower than 4000 is tax freeAny value between 4000 and 5500 must paid 10%Any value between 5501 and 33500 must paid 22%Any value bigger than 33500 must paid 40%And the boundary values are: 4000, 4001, 5501, 33501Answer2:This Boundary value analysis and Equivalence partitioning is used to prepare the positive andnegative type test cases.Equivalence partitioning: If you want to validate the text box which accepts the value between2000 to 10000 , then the test case input is partitioned as the following way1. <=20002. >=2000 and <=100003. >10000The boundary Values analysis is checking the input values on boundaries. IN the above case itcan checked with whether the input values is on the boundary or above the boundary or in lowboundary.Test Case DesignTest cases should be designed in such a way as to uncover quickly and easily as many errorsas possible. They should "exercise" the program by using and producing inputs and outputs thatare both correct and incorrect. Variables should be tested using all possible values (for small
  • 46. ranges) or typical and out-of-bound values (for larger ranges). They should also be tested usingvalid and invalid types and conditions. Arithmetical and logical comparisons should be examinedas well, again using both correct and incorrect parameters. The objective is to test all modulesand then the whole system as completely as possible using a reasonably wide range ofconditions.How to use methods/techniques to test the bandwidth usage of a client/serverapplication?Bandwidth Utilization:Basically at the client-server model you will be most concerned about the bandwidth usage ifyour application is a web based one. It surely is a part of concern when the throughput and thedata transfer comes into the picture.I suggest you to use the Radviews Webload for the Load and Stress testing tool for the same.Available at the demoware.. you can record the scenarios of the normal user over the variableconnection speed and then run it for hours to know about the bandwidth utilisation and thethroughput and data trasfer rate, hits per sec, etc... there is a huge list of parameters which canbe tested over a n no of combinations..How do test case templates look like?Software test case templates are blank documents that describe inputs, actions, or events, andtheir expected results, in order to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.Test case templates contain all particulars of test cases. For example, one test case template isin the form of a 6-column table, where column 1 is the "test case ID number", column 2 is the"test case name", column 3 is the "test objective", column 4 is the "test conditions/setup",column 5 is the "input data requirements/steps", and column 6 is the "expected results".All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. Why? Because standardsand templates do help to maintain document uniformity. Also because they help you to learnwhere information is located, making it easier for users to find what they want. Also because,with standards and templates, information is not be accidentally omitted from documents.How to insert a check point to a image to check enable property in QTP?Answer1:AS you are saying that the all images are as push button than you can check the propertyenabled or disabled. If you are not able to find that property than go to object repository for thatobjecct and click on add remove to add the available properties to that object. Let me know ifthat works. And if you take it as image than you need to check visible or invisible property thtalso might help you are there are no enable or disable properties for the image object.
  • 47. Answer2:The Image Checkpoint does not have any property to verify the enable/disable property.One thing you need to check is:* Find out form the Developer if he is showing different images for activating/deactiving i.egreyed out image. That is the only way a developer can show deactivate/activate if he is usingan "image". Else he might be using a button having a headsup with an image.* If it is a button used to display with the headsup as an image you woudl need to use the objectProperties as a checkpoint.How do you write test cases?When I write test cases, I concentrate on one requirement at a time. Then, based on that onerequirement, I come up with several real life scenarios that are likely to occur in the use of theapplication by an end user.When I write test cases, I describe the inputs, action, or event, and their expected results, inorder to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. To make the test casecomplete, I also add particulars e.g. test case identifiers, test case names, objectives, testconditions (or setups), input data requirements (or steps), and expected results.Additionally, if I have a choice, I like writing test cases as early as possible in the developmentlife cycle. Why? Because, as a side benefit of writing test cases, many times I am able to findproblems in the requirements or design of an application. And, because the process ofdeveloping test cases makes me completely think through the operation of the application.Diferences Between System Testing and User Acceptance Testing?Answer1:system testing: The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specifiedrequirements. acceptance testing: Formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements, andbusiness processes conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies the acceptancecriteria and to enable the user, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or notto accept the system.First, I don’t classify the incidents or defects regarding the phase the software developmentprocess or testing, I prefer classify them regarding their type, e. g. Requeriments, features andfunctionality, structural bugs, data, integration, etc The value of categorising faults is that it helpsus to focus our testing effort where it is most important and we should have distinct testactivietis that adrress the problems of poor requerimients, structure, etc.You don’t do User Acceptance Test only because the software is delivered! Take care about theconcepts of testing!
  • 48. Answer2:In my company we do not perform user acceptance testing, our clients do. Once our systemtesting is done (and other validation activities are finished) the software is ready to ship.Therefore any bug found in user acceptance testing would be issued a tracking number andtaken care of in the next release. It would not be counted as a part of the system test.Answer3:This is what i feel is user acceptance testing, i hope u find it useful. Definition:User Acceptance testing is a formal testing conducted to determine whether a software satisfiesits acceptance criteria and to enable the buyer to determine whether to accept the system.Objective:User Acceptance testing is designed to determine whether the software is fit for the user to use.And also to determine if the software fits into users business processes and meets his/herneeds.Entry Criteria:End of development process and after the software has passed all the tests to determinewhether it meets all the predetermined functionality, performance and other quality criteria.Exit Criteria:After the verification that the docs delivered are adequate and consistent with the executablesystem. Software system meets all the requirements of the customerDeliverables:User Acceptance Test PlanUser Acceptance TestcasesUser guides/docsUser Acceptance TestreportsAnswer4:System Testing: Done by QA at developemnt end.It is done after intergration is complete and allintegration P1/P2/P3 bugs are fixed. the code is freezed. No more code changes are taken.Then All the requirements are tested and all the intergration bugs are verified.UAT: Done by QA(trained like end users ). All the requiement are tested and also whole systemis verified and validated.What is the difference between a test plan and a test scenario?Difference number 1: A test plan is a document that describes the scope, approach, resources,and schedule of intended testing activities, while a test scenario is a document that describesboth typical and atypical situations that may occur in the use of an application.Difference number 2: Test plans define the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of theintended testing activities, while test procedures define test conditions, data to be used for
  • 49. testing, and expected results, including database updates, file outputs, and report results.Difference number 3: A test plan is a description of the scope, approach, resources, andschedule of intended testing activities, while a test scenario is a description of test cases thatensure that a business process flow, applicable to the customer, is tested from end to end.Can you give me an example on reliability testing?For example, our products are defibrillators. From direct contact with customers during therequirements gathering phase, our sales team learns that a large hospital wants to purchasedefibrillators with the assurance that 99 out of every 100 shocks will be delivered properly.In this example, the fact that our defibrillator is able to run for 250 hours without any failure inorder to demonstrate the reliability, is irrelevant to these customers. In order to test for reliabilitywe need to translate terminology that is meaningful to the customers into equivalent deliveryunits, such as the number of shocks. Therefore we describe the customer needs in aquantifiable manner, using the customer’s terminology. For example, our quantified reliabilitytesting goal becomes as follows: Our defibrillator will be considered sufficiently reliable if 10 (orfewer) failures occur from 1,000 shocks.Then, for example, we use a test / analyze / fix technique, and couple reliability testing with theremoval of errors. When we identify a failed delivery of a shock, we send the software back tothe developers, for repair. The developers build a new version of the software, and then wedeliver another 1,000 shocks (into dummy resistor loads). We track failure intensity (i.e. failuresper 1,000 shocks) in order to guide our reliability testing, and to determine the feasibility of thesoftware release, and to determine whether the software meets our customers reliabilityrequirements.Need function to find all the positions?Ex: a string "abcd, efgh,ight" .Want break this string based on the criteria here ever found the..Answer1:And return the delimited fields as a list of string? Sound like a perl split function. This could bebuilt on one of your own containing:[ ] //knocked this together in a few min. I am sure there is a much more efficent way of doingthings[ ] //but this is with the cobling together of several built in functions[-] LIST OF STRING Split(STRING sDelim, STRING sData)[ ] LIST OF STRING lsReturn[ ] STRING sSegment[-] while MatchStr("*{sDelim}*", sData)[ ] sSegment = GetField(sData, sDelim, 1)
  • 50. [ ] ListAppend(lsReturn, Trim(sSegment))[ ] //crude chunking:[ ] sSegment += ","[ ] sData = GetField(sData, sSegment, 2)[-] if Len(sData) > 0[ ] ListAppend(lsReturn, Trim(sData))[ ] return lsReturnAnswer2:You could use something like this.... hope I am understanding the problem[+] testcase T1()[ ] string sTest = "hello, there I am happy"[ ] string sTest1 = (GetField (sTest, ",", 2))[ ] Print(sTest1)[][ ] This Prints "there I am happy"[ ] GetField(sTest,","1)) would Print hello, etc....Answer3:Below is the function which return all fields (list of String).[+] LIST OF STRING ConvertToList (STRING sStr, STRING sDelim)[ ] INTEGER iIndex= 1[ ] LIST OF STRING lsStr[ ] STRING sToken = GetField (sStr, sDelim, iIndex)[][+] if (iIndex == 1 && sToken == "")[ ] iIndex = iIndex + 1[ ] sToken = GetField (sStr, sDelim, iIndex)[][+] while (sToken != "")[ ] ListAppend (lsStr, sToken)[ ] iIndex = iIndex+1[ ] sToken = GetField (sStr, sDelim, iIndex)[ ] return lsStrWhat is the difference between monkey testing and smoke testing?Difference number 1: Monkey testing is random testing, and smoke testing is a nonrandomtesting. Smoke testing is nonrandom testing that deliberately exercises the entire system fromend to end, with the the goal of exposing any major problems.
  • 51. Difference number 2: Monkey testing is performed by automated testing tools, while smoketesting is usually performed manually.Difference number 3: Monkey testing is performed by "monkeys", while smoke testing isperformed by skilled testers.Difference number 4: "Smart monkeys" are valuable for load and stress testing, but not veryvaluable for smoke testing, because they are too expensive for smoke testing.Difference number 5: "Dumb monkeys" are inexpensive to develop, are able to do some basictesting, but, if we used them for smoke testing, they would find few bugs during smoke testing.Difference number 6: Monkey testing is not a thorough testing, but smoke testing is thoroughenough that, if the build passes, one can assume that the program is stable enough to be testedmore thoroughly.Difference number 7: Monkey testing either does not evolve, or evolves very slowly. Smoketesting, on the other hand, evolves as the system evolves from something simple to somethingmore thorough.Difference number 8: Monkey testing takes "six monkeys" and a "million years" to run. Smoketesting, on the other hand, takes much less time to run, i.e. from a few seconds to a couple ofhours.Its a good thing to share test cases with customersThats generally a good thing, but the question is why do they want to see them?Potential problems are that they may be considering changing outsourcing firms and want touse the test cases elsewhere. If that can be prevented, please do so.Another problem is that they want to micro manage your testing efforts. Its one thing to audityour work to prove to themselves that youre doing a good job, its an entirely different matter ifthey intend to tell you that you dont have enough test coverage on the activity of module fooand far too much coverage on module bar, please correct it.Another issue may be that they are seeking litigation and they need proof that you werenegligent in some area of testing.Its never a bad thing to have your customer wanting to be involved, unless youre a largecompany and this is a small (in terms of sales) customer.What are your concerns about this? Can you give more information on your situation and thecustomers?Tell me about daily builds and smoke tests.The idea is to build the product every day, and test it every day. The software developmentprocess at Microsoft and many other software companies requires daily builds and smoke tests.According to their process, every day, every single file has to be compiled, linked, andcombined into an executable program; and then the program has to be "smoke tested".Smoke testing is a relatively simple check to see whether the product "smokes" when it runs.
  • 52. Please note that you should add revisions to the build only when it makes sense to do so. Youshould to establish a build group, and build daily; set your own standard for what constitutes"breaking the build", and create a penalty for breaking the build, and check for broken buildsevery day.In addition to the daily builds, you should smoke test the builds, and smoke test them Daily. Youshould make the smoke test evolve, as the system evolves. You should build and smoke testDaily, even when the project is under pressure.Think about the many benefits of this process! The process of daily builds and smoke testsminimizes the integration risk, reduces the risk of low quality, supports easier defect diagnosis,improves morale, enforces discipline, and keeps pressure cooker projects on track. If you buildand smoke test DAILY, success will come, even when youre working on large projects!How to Read data from the Telnet session?Declared[+] window DialogBox Putty[ ] tag "* - PuTTY"[][ ] // Capture the screen contents and return as a list of strings[+] LIST OF STRING getScreenContents()[][ ] LIST OF STRING ClipboardContents[][ ] // open the system menu and select copy all to clipboard menu command[ ] this.TypeKeys("<ALT-SPACE>o")[][ ] // get the clipboard contents[][ ] ClipboardContents = Clipboard.getText()[ ] return ClipboardContentsI then created a function that searches the screen contents for the required data to validate.This works fine for me. Here it is to study. Hope it may helpvoid CheckOutPut(string sErrorMessage)[ ]Putty.setActive ()[][ ] // Capture screen contents[ ] lsScreenContents = Putty.GetScreenContents ()[ ] Sleep(1)[ ] // Trim Screen Contents[ ] lsScreenContents = TrimScreenContents (lsScreenContents)
  • 53. [ ] Sleep(1)[-] if (sBatchSuccess == "Yes")[-] if (ListFind (lsScreenContents, "BUILD FAILED"))[ ] LogError("Process should not have failed.")[-] if (ListFind (lsScreenContents, "BUILD SUCCESSFUL"))[ ] Print("Successful")[ ] break[ ] // Check to see if launcher has finished[-] else[-] if (ListFind (lsScreenContents, "BUILD FAILED") == 0)[ ] LogError("Error should have failed.")[ ] break[-] else[ ] // Check for Date Conversion Error[-] if (ListFind (lsScreenContents, sErrorMessage) == 0)[ ] LogError ("Error handle")[ ] Print("Expected - {sErrorMessage}")[ ] ListPrint(lsScreenContents)[ ] break[-] else[ ] break[][ ] // Raise exception if kPlatform not equal to windows or putty[+] default[ ] raise 1, "Unable to run console: - Please specify setting"[]What is the difference between system testing and integration testing?"System testing" is a high level testing, and "integration testing" is a lower level testing.Integration testing is completed first, not the system testing. In other words, upon completion ofintegration testing, system testing is started, and not vice versa.For integration testing, test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising theinterfaces between the components. For system testing, the complete system is configured in acontrolled environment, and test cases are developed to simulate real life scenarios that occurin a simulated real life test environment.The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work inaccordance to customer requirements. The purpose of system testing is to validate anapplications accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed, and to test allfunctions of the system that are required in real life.
  • 54. How to trace fixed bug in test case?Answer1:The fixed defects can be tracked in the defect tracking tool. I think it is out of scope of a testcase to maintain this.The defect tracking tool should indicate that the problem has been fixed, and the associated testcase now has a passing result.If and when you report test results for this test cycle, you should provide this sort of information;i.e., test failed, problem report written, problem fixed, test passed, etc...Answer2:As using Jira (like Bugzilla) to manage your testcases as well as your bugs. When a testdiscovers a bug, you will link the two, marking the test as "in work" and "waiting for bug X". Now,when the developer resolves the bug and you retest it, you see the link to the tescase andretest/close it.What is the difference between performance testing and load testing?Load testing is a blanket term that is used in many different ways across the professionalsoftware testing community. The term, load testing, is often used synonymously with stresstesting, performance testing, reliability testing, and volume testing. Load testing generally stopsshort of stress testing. During stress testing, the load is so great that errors are the expectedresults, though there is gray area in between stress testing and load testing.After the migration done, how to test the application (Frontend hasnt changed just thedatabase changed)Answer1:You can concentrate only on those testcases which involve DB transactions likeinsert,update,delete etc.Answer2:Focus on the database tests, but its important to analyze the differences between the twoschemas. You cant just focus on the front end. Also, be careful to look for shortcuts that theDBAs may be taking with the schema.What is the difference between reliability testing and load testing?
  • 55. The term, reliability testing, is often used synonymously with load testing. Load testing is ablanket term that is used in many different ways across the professional software testingcommunity. Load testing generally stops short of stress testing. During stress testing, the load isso great that errors are the expected results, though there is gray area in between stress testingand load testing.Some general guidelines on what to test for web based applications.1. Navigation: Users move to and from pages, click on links, click on images (thumbnails), etc.Navigation in a WebSite shoud be quick and error free.2. Server Response. How fast the WebSite host responds influences whether a user (i.e.someone on the browser) moves on or gives up.3. Interaction & Feedback. For passive, content-only sites the only real quality issue isavailability. For a WebSite that interacts with the user, the big factor is how fast and how reliablethat interaction is.4. Concurrent Users. Do multiple users interact on a WebSite? Can they get in each othersway? While WebSites often resemble client/server structures, with multiple users at multiplelocations a WebSite can be much different, and much more complex, than complexapplications5. Browser Independent. Tests should be realistic, but not be dependent on a particularbrowser6. No Buffering, Caching. Local caching and buffering -- often a way to improve apparentperformance -- should be disabled so that timed experiments are a true measure of the Browserresponse time.7. Fonts and Preferences. Most browsers support a wide range of fonts and presentationpreferences8. Object Mode. Edit fields, push buttons, radio buttons, check boxes, etc. All should betreatable in object mode, i.e. independent of the fonts and preferences.9. Page Consistency. Is the entire page identical with a prior version? Are key parts of the textthe same or different?10. Table, Form Consistency. Are all of the parts of a table or form present? Correctly laid out?Can you confirm that selected texts are in the "right place".11. Page Relationships. Are all of the links on a page the same as they were before? Are therenew or missing links? Are there any broken links?12. Performance Consistency, Response Times. Is the response time for a user action thesame as it was (within a range)?13. Image File Size. File size should be closely examined when selecting or creating images foryour site. This is particularly important when your site is directed to an audience that may notenjoy the high-bandwidth and fast connection speeds available14. Avoid the use of HTML "frames". The problems with frames-based site designs are welldocumented, including; the inability to bookmark subcategories of the site, difficulty in printing
  • 56. frame cell content, disabling the Web browsers "back" button as a navigation aid.15. Security. Ensure data is encrypted before transferring sensitive information, whereverrequired. Test user authentication thoroughly. Ensure all backdoors and test logins are disabledbefore going live with the web application.16. Sessions. Ensure session validity is maintained throughout a web transasction, for e.g. fillinga webform that spans over several webpages. Forms should retain information when using theback button wherever required for user convenience. At the same time, forms need to be resetwherever security is an issue, like the password fields, etc.17. Error handiling. Web navigation should be quick and error free. However, sometimes errorscannot be avoided. It would be a good idea to have a standard error page that handles allerrors. This is cleaner than displaying the 404 page. After displaying the error page, users canthen be automatically redirected to the home page or any other relevant page. At this sametime, this error can also be logged and a message can be sent to notify the admin.What is the difference between volume testing and load testing?The term, volume testing, is often used synonymously with load testing. Load testing is ablanket term that is used in many different ways across the professional software testingcommunity.What types of testing can you tell me about?Each of the followings represents a different type of testing: black box testing, white box testing,unit testing, incremental testing, integration testing, functional testing, system testing, end-to-end testing, sanity testing, regression testing, acceptance testing, load testing, performancetesting, usability testing, install/uninstall testing, recovery testing, security testing, compatibilitytesting, exploratory testing, ad-hoc testing, user acceptance testing, comparison testing, alphatesting, beta testing, and mutation testing.Which test cannot be automated? Acceptence test plan is prepared from? Which is thetest case design methodology? Does test plan contains bug tracing procedure andreporting procedure?1: which test cannot be automated?a. Performance testingb. Regresssssionc. user interfaced.none2: acceptence test plan is prepared from?a. SRS
  • 57. b. HLDc. DDDDddd.ULD/URD3: which is the test case design methodology?a. WBTb: Regressionc: none4: when will u start testinga: After codingb: Requirements gathering5:does test plan contains bug tracing procedure and reporting procedure?6: compatability testing usesa; All S/W componentsb: all H/w componentsc; all networking componentsd; A & Be: A, B, C7: which software model is easy and most efffffectivewhen compared to others?a. Waterfallb.interactive waterfallc. Spirald. Prototyping8: whioch is not system level testinga. system testingb. performance testingc. instalable testingd. none9: why do u need testers?a: they think in clients viewb: bettttter than developersc. they think in processss viewd. none
  • 58. 10. what is Quality Assssurance?a. processb. systemc. businessd. allAns : 1. Performance Testing2. SRS3. dont know4. b. after requirement gathering5. Yes Test Plan will definitely define the procedure for reporting of bugs.6. e: A, B, C7. b.interactive waterfall8. d. none9. the options given are not appropriate.10. a. processWhat testing roles are standard on most testing projects?A: Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testingprojects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Lead, Test/QA Manager, SystemAdministrator, Database Administrator, Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and TestConfiguration Manager.Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, TestEngineers may also wear the hat of Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and TestConfiguration Manager.What is ACH and NACHA?ACH- Automatic clearing houseACH. A nationwide electronic funds transfer network which enables participating financialinstitutions to distribute electronic credit and debit entries to bank accounts and to settle suchentries.NACHA:A membership organization that provides marketing and education assistance and establishesthe rules, standards and procedures that enable Financial Institutions to exchange ACHpayments on a national basis.What is the role of documentation in QA?
  • 59. Documentation plays a critical role in QA. QA practices should be documented, so that they arerepeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, codechanges, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented. Ideally,there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining whatdocument will have a particular piece of information. Use documentation change management,if possible.Is there a way to automate XML file comparison?Use diff called from a scripting language and output the results to a file.orUsing KDiff3orUsing BBEdit in MACHow do you introduce a new software QA process?It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations withhigh-risk projects, a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process isnecessary. For medium size organizations with lower risk projects, management andorganizational buy-in and a slower, step-by-step process is required. Generally speaking, QAprocesses should be balanced with productivity, in order to keep any bureaucracy from gettingout of hand. For smaller groups or projects, an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. A lotdepends on team leads and managers, feedback to developers and good communication isessential among customers, managers, developers, test engineers and testers. Regardless thesize of the company, the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes, wherethe goal is requirements that are clear, complete and testable.Whats requitrement of Bug tracking tool?1. Should maintain version history2. File attachement3. Controlled access (users Level)4. Bug History5. Reports and Metrics6.Track bugs and code changes7.Communicate with teammates8.Submit and review patches9. Manage quality assurance (QA)10.lexible workflow management, defect and change tracking across the application life cycleBug tracking tool:
  • 60. Rational ClearQuest -- expensiveBugzilla is Free and better!!Mantis - opensourceWhen do you choose automated testing?For larger projects, or ongoing long-term projects, automated testing can be valuable. But forsmall projects, the time needed to learn and implement the automated testing tools is usuallynot worthwhile. Automated testing tools sometimes do not make testing easier. One problemwith automated testing tools is that if there are continual changes to the product being tested,the recordings have to be changed so often, that it becomes a very time-consuming task tocontinuously update the scripts. Another problem with such tools is that the interpretation of theresults (screens, data, logs, etc.) can be a time-consuming task.What a Coverage Matrix is? or What is a traceability matrix?Answer1:It is a mapping of one baselined object to another. For testers, the most common documents tobe linked in the manner are a requirements document and the written test cases for thatdocument.In order to facilitate this, testers can add an extra column to their test cases listing therequirement being tested.The requirements matrix is usually stored in a spreadsheet. It contains the test ids down the leftside and the requirements ids across the top. For each test, you place a mark in the cell underthe heading for that requirement it is designed to test. The goal is to find out which requirementsare under-tested and which are either over tested or which are so large that too many testshave to be written to adequately test it.Answer2:The traceability matrix means mapping of all the work products (various design docs, testingdocs) to requirements.Is white box testing different from unit testing?Unit testing is one element of white box testing.Do automated testing tools make testing easier?Yes and no.For larger projects, or ongoing long-term projects, they can be valuable. But for small projects,
  • 61. the time needed to learn and implement them is usually not worthwhile.A common type of automated tool is the record/playback type. For example, a test engineerclicks through all combinations of menu choices, dialog box choices, buttons, etc. in a GUI andhas an automated testing tool record and log the results. The recording is typically in the form oftext, based on a scripting language that the testing tool can interpret.If a change is made (e.g. new buttons are added, or some underlying code in the application ischanged), the application is then re-tested by just playing back the recorded actions andcompared to the logged results in order to check effects of the change.One problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the product being tested,the recordings have to be changed so often that it becomes a very time-consuming task tocontinuously update the scripts.Another problem with such tools is the interpretation of the results (screens, data, logs, etc.) thatcan be a time-consuming task.Ho to write Software Requirement Sepcification (SRS) document for Grade Card System?SRS document is very important to give information what the project is going to do and what it isassuming in advance.below is some idea about SRS document following points should be included.1. Project aim.2. Project objectives.3. Project scope4. Process to be followed.5. Project Deliverables- it includes documents to be submitted and other plans or projectprototypes.6. Requirements in short.How can I schedule the different testcases in a (.t) test script so that all the test cases itcontains run one after another ? ...A small query: a numbe of (.t) script files which contains a number of test cases. Need to call auser defined method in all the (.t) script files.Problem: How to do that.Second is: if this is possible that when one test case is run successfully, can I put in thecondition that if it is successfull, go to testcase 2 else go to test case 3.Third is: How can I schedule the different testcases in a (.t) test script so that all the test cases itcontains run one after another.Answer for Problem: How to do that:
  • 62. X Just take instance for your class and call the method thru that instance.Answer for 2nd and 3rd queries:.t file=======[-] testcase tc1() appstate none[ ] Print("This is tc1")[-] testcase tc2() appstate none[ ] Print("This is tc2")[-] testcase tc3() appstate none[ ] Print("This is tc3")call your test cases under main function as below.[-] main()[][-] tc1()[-] if GetTestsPassedCount ( )!=0 // Executing testcases tc2 and tc3 when testcase tc1 ispassed only.[ ] tc2()[ ] tc3()Why are there so many software bugs?Generally speaking, there are bugs in software because of unclear requirements, softwarecomplexity, programming errors, changes in requirements, errors made in bug tracking, timepressure, poorly documented code and/or bugs in tools used in software development.* There are unclear software requirements because there is miscommunication as to what thesoftware should or shouldnt do.* Software complexity. All of the followings contribute to the exponential growth in software andsystem complexity: Windows interfaces, client-server and distributed applications, datacommunications, enormous relational databases and the sheer size of applications.* Programming errors occur because programmers and software engineers, like everyone else,can make mistakes.* As to changing requirements, in some fast-changing business environments, continuouslymodified requirements are a fact of life. Sometimes customers do not understand the effects ofchanges, or understand them but request them anyway. And the changes require redesign ofthe software, rescheduling of resources and some of the work already completed have to beredone or discarded and hardware requirements can be effected, too.* Bug tracking can result in errors because the complexity of keeping track of changes can
  • 63. result in errors, too.* Time pressures can cause problems, because scheduling of software projects is not easy andit often requires a lot of guesswork and when deadlines loom and the crunch comes, mistakeswill be made.* Code documentation is tough to maintain and it is also tough to modify code that is poorlydocumented. The result is bugs. Sometimes there is no incentive for programmers and softwareengineers to document their code and write clearly documented, understandable code.Sometimes developers get kudos for quickly turning out code, or programmers and softwareengineers feel they cannot have job security if everyone can understand the code they write, orthey believe if the code was hard to write, it should be hard to read.* Software development tools , including visual tools, class libraries, compilers, scripting tools,can introduce their own bugs. Other times the tools are poorly documented, which can createadditional bugs.What are Test Cases, Test Suites, Test Scripts, and Test Scenarios (or Scenaria)?A test case is usually a single step, and its expected result, along with various additional piecesof information. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expectedoutcome. The optional fields are a test case ID, test step or order of execution number, relatedrequirement(s), depth, test category, author, and check boxes for whether the test isautomatable and has been automated. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states orsteps, and descriptions. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Thesesteps can be stored in a word processor document, spreadsheet, database or other commonrepository. In a database system, you may also be able to see past test results and whogenerated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. These pastresults would usually be stored in a separate table.The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. The test suite often alsocontains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It definitelycontains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Agroup of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions of thefollowing tests.Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. They may also be calleda test script, or even a test scenario.A test plan is the approach that will be used to test the system, not the individual tests.Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts.A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through acomplex problem or system. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment orthey could be a description written in prose. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics.It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating, (c) credible, (d) complex, and (e) easy to evaluate. Theyare usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover anumber of steps. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests.
  • 64. See: An Introduction to Scenario TestingScenario testing is similar to, but not the same as session-based testing, which is more closelyrelated to exploratory testing, but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.Scenario testing is similar to, but not the same as session-based testing, which is more closelyrelated to exploratory testing, but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.See Session-Based Test ManagementWhats Exploratory TestA Test Plan gives detailed testing information, includingScope of testingScheduleTest DeliverablesRelease CriteriaRisks and ContingenciesGive me five common problems that occur during software development.Poorly written requirements, unrealistic schedules, inadequate testing, adding new featuresafter development is underway and poor communication.1. Requirements are poorly written when requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, ornot testable; therefore there will be problems.2. The schedule is unrealistic if too much work is crammed in too little time.3. Software testing is inadequate if none knows whether or not the software is any good untilcustomers complain or the system crashes.4. Its extremely common that new features are added after development is underway.5. Miscommunication either means the developers dont know what is needed, or customershave unrealistic expectations and therefore problems are guaranteed.What is SRS and BRS . and what is the difference between them?Answer1:SRS - Software Requirements Specification BRS - Business Requirements SpecificationAnswer2:BRS - Biz Requirements CaseThis doc has to be from the client stating the need for a particular module or a project. Thisbasically tells you why a particular request is needed. Reasons have to be given. Mostly a laypersons document. This has to aproved by te Project Manager
  • 65. SRS - Sq REq SpecificationFollows the BRC after its approval etc. gives a detail func etc details about the project,requirement, use cases, refere..etc and how each module works in detalyour srs cannot start without a brc and an approval of the sameWhat should be done after a bug is found?When a bug is found, it needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it.After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested. Additionally, determinations should bemade regarding requirements, software, hardware, safety impact, etc., for regression testing tocheck the fixes didnt create other problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place,it should encapsulate these determinations. A variety of commercial, problem-tracking/management software tools are available. These tools, with the detailed input ofsoftware test engineers, will give the team complete information so developers can understandthe bug, get an idea of its severity, reproduce it and fix it.Qive some examples of Low Severity and Low Priority Bugs .....Qive some examples ofLow Severity and Low Priority BugsHigh Severity and Low Priority BugsLow Severity and High Priority BugsHigh Severity and High Priority Bugs ?Answer1:First know about severity and priority then its easy to decide Low or Medium or HighPriority-Business orientedSeverity-Effect of bug in the functionality1. For example there is cosmetic change in the clients name and you found this bug at the timeof delivery, so the severity of this bug is low but the priority is high because it affects to thebusiness.2. If you found that there is major crash in the functionality of the application but the crash lies inthe module which is not delivered in the deliverables in this case the priority is low and severityis high.Answer2:Priority - how soon your business side needs a fix. (Tip: The engineering side never decidespriority.)Severity - how bad the bug bites. (Tip: Only engineers decide severity.)For a high priority, low severity example, suppose your program has an easter egg (a secret
  • 66. feature) showing a compromising photo of your boss. Schedule this bug to be removedimmediately.Low priority, high severity example: A long chain of events leads to a crash that risks the maindata file. Because the chain of events is longer than customers might probably reproduce, sokeep an eye on this one while fixing higher priority things.Testers should report bugs, the business side should understand them and set their priorities.Then testers and engineers should capture the bugs with automated tests before killing them.This reduces the odds they come back, and generally reduces "churn", which is bug fixescausing new bugs.Answer3:Priority is how important it is to the customer and if the customer is going to find it. Severity ishow bad it is, if the customer found it.High Priority low severityI have a text editor and every 3 minutes it rings a bell (it is also noted that the editor does anauto-save every 3 minutes). This is going to drive the customer insane. They want it fixedASAP; i.e. high priority. The impact is minimal. They can turn off the audio when using theeditor. There are workarounds. Should be easy for the developer to find the code and fix it.Low Priority High severityIf I press CRTL-Q-SHIFT-T, only in that order, then eject a floppy diskette from the drive itformats my hard drive. It is a low priority because it is unlikely a customer is going to be affectedby it. It is high severity because if a customer did find it the results would be horrific.High Priority High severityIf I open the Save As dialog and same the file with the same name as the Save dialog wouldhave used it saves a zero byte file and all the data is lost. Many customers will select Save Asthen decide to overwrite the original document instead. They will NOT cancel the Save As andselect Save instead, they will just use Save As and pick the same file name as the one theyopened. So the likelihood of this happening is high; therefore high priority. It will cause thecustomer to lose data. This is costly. Therefore high severity.Low Priority low severityIf I hold the key combination LEFT_CTRL+LEFT_ALT+RIGHT_ALT+RIGHT_CTRL+F1+F12 for3 minutes it will display cryptic debug information used by the programmer during development.It is highly unlikely a customer will find this so it is low priority. Even if they do find it it mightresult in a call to customer service asking what this information means. Telling the customer it isdebug code left behind; they didnt want to remove it because it would have added risk anddelayed the release of the program is safer than removing it and potentially breaking somethingelse. Answer4:High Priority low severitySpelling the name of the company president wrongLow Priority High severityYear end processing breaks (cause its 6 more months till year end)
  • 67. High Priority High severityApplication wont startLow Priority low severityspelling error in documentation; occasionally screen is slightlymisdrawn requiring a screen refreshGive me five solutions to problems that occur during software development.Solid requirements, realistic schedules, adequate testing, firm requirements and goodcommunication.1. Ensure the requirements are solid, clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable andtestable. All players should agree to requirements. Use prototypes to help nail downrequirements.2. Have schedules that are realistic. Allow adequate time for planning, design, testing, bugfixing, re-testing, changes and documentation. Personnel should be able to complete the projectwithout burning out.3. Do testing that is adequate. Start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, and plan forsufficient time for both testing and bug fixing.4. Avoid new features. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible. Be prepared to defenddesign against changes and additions, once development has begun and be prepared toexplain consequences. If changes are necessary, ensure theyre adequately reflected in relatedschedule changes. Use prototypes early on so customers expectations are clarified andcustomers can see what to expect; this will minimize changes later on.5. Communicate. Require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate; make extensive useof e-mail, networked bug-tracking tools, tools of change management. Ensure documentation isavailable and up-to-date. Do use documentation that is electronic, not paper. Promote teamworkand cooperation.What is risk analysis? What does it have to do with Severity and Priority?Risk analysis is a method to determine how much risk is involved in something. In testing, it canbe used to determine when to test something or whether to test something at all. Items withhigher risk values should be tested early and often. Items with lower risk value can be testedlater, or under some circumstances if time runs out, not at all. It can also be used with defects.Severity tells us how bad a defect is: "how much damage can it cause?". Priority tells us howsoon it is desired to fix the defect: "should we fix this and if so, by when?".Companies usually use numeric values to calculate both values. The number of values willchange from place to place. I assume a five-point scale but a three-point scale is commonlyused. Using a defect as an example, Major would be Severity1 and Trivial would be Severity5. APriority1 would imply that it needs to be fixed immediately and a Priority5 means that it can waituntil everything else is done. You can add or multiply the two digits together (there is only a
  • 68. small difference in the outcome) and the results become the risk value. You use the events riskvalue to determine how you should address the problem. The lower values must be addressedbefore the middle values, and the higher values can wait the longest.Defect 12345Foo displays an error message with incorrect path separators when the optional showpathswitch is appliedSev5Pri5Risk value (addition method) 10Defect 13579Module Bar causes system crash using derefenced handleSev1Pri1Risk value (addition method) 2Defect 13579 will usually be addressed before 12345.Another method for Risk Assessment is based on a military standard, MIL-STD-882. Itdescribes the risk of failure for military hardware. The main area of interest is section A.4.4.3and its children where they indicate the Assessment of mishap risk. They use a four-pointseverity rating: Catastrophic; Critical; Marginal; Negligible. They then use a five-point probabilityrating: Frequent; Probable; Occasional; Remote; Improbable. Then rather than using amathematical calculation to determine a risk level, they use a predefined chart. It is this chartthat is novel as it groups risks together rather than giving them discrete values. If you want acopy of the current version, search for MIL-STD-882D using Yahoo! or Google.It is logical to be described different expected results for one action? ....If complicated system with a lots of users profiles having different rights. Should to writedifferent test cases for each profile? Or Write one test case describing the expected resultsaccording to the users rights? It is logical to be described different expected results for oneaction?Answer1:You will have to write one test case describing the results of various kinds of users. You couldwrite a tabular data form.For each action you would create a tableFirst column: user typeSecond: expected resultThis avoids the issue of writing a series of test cases where 90% of the information is the same
  • 69. and 10% is different. It makes maintaining teh tests easier as well.And the best way to test your application is to use an automated tool to do it.Answer2:Think of things in terms of use cases. Treat it like a completely different system for each userrole, and create your own suite of cases for each role.What if the software is so buggy it cant be tested at all?In this situation the best bet is to have test engineers go through the process of reportingwhatever bugs or problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs.Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules and indicates deeper problems in thesoftware development process, such as insufficient unit testing, insufficient integration testing,poor design, improper build or release procedures, managers should be notified and providedwith some documentation as evidence of the problem.What is API Testing?An API (Application Programming Interface) is a collection of software functions andprocedures, called API calls, that can be executed by other software applications. Applicationdevelopers code that links to existing APIs to make use of their functionality. This link isseamless and end-users of the application are generally unaware of using a separatelydeveloped API.During testing, a test harness-an application that links the API and methodically exercises itsfunctionality-is constructed to simulate the use of the API by end-user applications. Theinteresting problems for testers are:1. Ensuring that the test harness varies parameters of the API calls in ways that verifyfunctionality and expose failures. This includes assigning common parameter values as well asexploring boundary conditions.2. Generating interesting parameter value combinations for calls with two or more parameters.3. Determining the content under which an API call is made. This might include setting externalenvironment conditions (files, peripheral devices, and so forth) and also internal stored data thataffect the API.4. Sequencing API calls to vary the order in which the functionality is exercised and to make theAPI produce useful results from successive calls.What if there isnt enough time for thorough testing?Since its rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possiblecombination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong, risk analysis isappropriate to most software development projects.Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. This requires judgment skills,
  • 70. common sense and experience. The checklist should include answers to the followingquestions:* Which functionality is most important to the projects intended purpose?* Which functionality is most visible to the user?* Which functionality has the largest safety impact?* Which functionality has the largest financial impact on users?* Which aspects of the application are most important to the customer?* Which aspects of the application can be tested early in the development cycle?* Which parts of the code are most complex and thus most subject to errors?* Which parts of the application were developed in rush or panic mode?* Which aspects of similar/related previous projects caused problems?* Which aspects of similar/related previous projects had large maintenance expenses?* Which parts of the requirements and design are unclear or poorly thought out?* What do the developers think are the highest-risk aspects of the application?* What kinds of problems would cause the worst publicity?* What kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints?* What kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionalities?* Which tests will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio?How to test a module(web based developed in .NET) which would load data from thelist(which is text file) into the database(SQL Server)How to test a module(web based developed in .NET) which would load data from the list(whichis text file) into the database(SQL Server). It would touch approx 10 different tables dependingon data in the list.The job is to verify that data which is suppose to get loaded gets loaded correctly. List mightcontain 60 millions of record. anyone suggest? * Compare the record counts before and afterthe load and match with the expected data load * Sample records shoudl be taken to ensure tehdata integrity* Include Test cases where the loaded data is visible functionally through the application. Foreg: If the data loads new users to the system, tahn the login fucntionlaity using the new userlogin creadentials shoudl work etc...Finally tools available in the market, you can be innovativce in using the Functional Automationtools like Winrunner and adding DB Checkpoints, you can write SQLs to do the Backendtesting. It is upon the Test scenario (Test Case) details that you wooudl have to narrow upon thetools/techniques.What if the project isnt big enough to justify extensive testing?Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing isstill not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the considerations listed under "What if there
  • 71. isnt enough time for thorough testing?" do apply. The test engineer then should do "ad hoc"testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.Is the testing an art of thinking ?Answer1:Think like a guy who would like to break the application. like a hacker...finding the weakness inthe system.Answer2:Think like a Tester then think negative rather than positive. Because tester always try to breakthe application, by putting some negative values.Answer3:How testers think is:- Testers are "negative" thinkers- Testers complain- Testers like to break things- Testers take a special thrill in delivering bad newsThe authors introduce an alternate view:- Testers dont complain, they offer evidence- Testers dont like to break things, they like to dispel the illusion that things work- Testers dont take a special thrill in delivering bad news, they enjoy freeing their clients fromfalse belief.They go on to explain how testers should think:- Deriving inference- Technically- creatively- Critically- practically- Attempting to anwer questions- Exploring, thinking- Using logicAnswer4:Testers are destroyers for a cretive purpose.Always keep one thing in mind "CREATIVEDESTRUCTION IS WHAT WE WANT TO ACHIEVE".Add one thing to it is that the quality of testers while testing an application should be enforcedonly after the smooth flow of the application is assured i.e., the application passes the positive
  • 72. test. If the application doesnt pass even the positive testing than the testing strategy getswaivered.And aftyer all the competition is appreciated when both the sides are equally strong.So before bringing the real quality of testers into act while doing the testing one should ensurethat it has passed the positive testing.What is the role of test engineers?We, test engineers, speed up the work of your development staff, and reduce the risk of yourcompanys legal liability. We give your company the evidence that the software is correct andoperates properly. We also improve your problem tracking and reporting. We maximize thevalue of your software, and the value of the devices that use it. We also assure the successfullaunch of your product by discovering bugs and design flaws, before users get discouraged,before shareholders loose their cool, and before your employees get bogged down. We help thework of your software development staff, so your development team can devote its time to buildup your product. We also promote continual improvement. We provide documentation requiredby FDA, FAA, other regulatory agencies, and your customers. We save your company moneyby discovering defects EARLY in the design process, before failures occur in production, or inthe field. We save the reputation of your company by discovering bugs and design flaws, beforebugs and design flaws damage the reputation of your company.What is the role of a QA engineer?The QA engineers role is as follows: We, QA engineers, use the system much like real userswould, find all the bugs, find ways to replicate the bugs, submit bug reports to the developers,and provide feedback to the developers, i.e. tell them if theyve achieved the desired level ofquality.What are the responsibilities of a QA engineer?Lets say, an engineer is hired for a small software companys QA role, and there is no QAteam. Should he take responsibility to set up a QA infrastructure/process, testing and quality ofthe entire product? No, because taking this responsibility is a classic trap that QA people getcaught in. Why? Because we QA engineers cannot assure quality. And because QAdepartments cannot create quality.What we CAN do is to detect lack of quality, and prevent low-quality products from going out thedoor. What is the solution? We need to drop the QA label, and tell the developers that they areresponsible for the quality of their own work. The problem is, sometimes, as soon as thedevelopers learn that there is a test department, they will slack off on their testing. We need tooffer to help with quality assessment, only.
  • 73. The system runs at Intranet environment and it has a security system.....The system runs at Intranet environment and it has a security system. The security systemsarchitecture designed on User and Role system. There are only one system Role and that isSystem Amdin Role and user can also create as many role as he needs. Role is attached withan user and a user can login to the system if he has a role. Role mainly instanciate thepermissions of resources in that role. And the system has about 100 system defined resourcesand there may be some user-defined resources also.So, in this environment, for testing the security system. how to develop test plan and test script?Assume that roles are generated by combining logical options (can edit this section, can onlygenerate reports here, can not access this).Start by witing down the different activities that each role can access. Then write down thedifferent levels for each activity.Now create a pair-wise combination of them. I wont explain pair-wise testing as you can Googlefor it and get better answers there.Use pair-wise testing to create special roles that are used in testing. If you know that there arecertain default roles, make sure to use them.Then generate a list of tasks that can be preformed on the system (dont concern yourself withroles at this point).Write each of these tasks down and put them into a database (If you have no other option, useMySQL and OpenOffice to create your shared database).Then create another table that contains your roles. Create a third table that takes the indexvalues of the first table and the index values of the second table (the intersections) and thereyou can determine if the scenario can be tested or not using that role. (this can also be done ina spreadsheet with scenarios on the left side and rols across the top).Then run the tests that can be run.What is the ratio of developers and testers?The ratio of developers and testers is not a fixed one, but depends on what phase of thesoftware development life cycle the project is in. When a product is first conceived, organized,and developed, this ratio tends to be 10:1, 5:1, or 3:1, i.e. heavily in favor of developers. Insharp contrast, when the product is near the end of the software development life cycle, justbefore alpha testing begins, this ratio tends to be 1:1, or even 1:2, in favor of testers.
  • 74. What is the difference between V-model and water fall model?V-model is used for the project based, here the spec is not freezed, the devolpement and QAprocess goes parellel.Water fall model is used for the product based projects, here the spec is defined and freezed inthe starting, Once the developement completes the coding, testers will start testing the product.Which of these roles are the best and most popular?In testing, Tester roles tend to be the most popular. The less popular roles include the roles ofSystem Administrator, Test/QA Team Lead, and Test/QA Managers.For Reliability, Usability and Testability. Explain why you would test for these factors?Reliability:- Extent to which a program can be expected to perform its intended function with requiredprecision.- This testing would be performed if the application has a characteristic that affects human livesor if it is a Real time application.Usability:- Effort required in learning, operating, preparing input & interpreting output of a program.- This testing would be performed if the application has a characteristic that involves a lot ofhuman interaction with the application.Testability:- Effort required in testing a program to ensure it performs its intended function.- This testing would be performed if the application has a characteristic that affects human lives.What other roles are in testing?Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testingprojects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Leads, Test/QA Managers, SystemAdministrators, Database Administrators, Technical Analysts, Test Build Managers, and TestConfiguration Managers.Depending on the project, one person can and often wear more than one hat. For instance, weTest Engineers often wear the hat of Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and TestConfiguration Manager as well.Whats the difference between ISO vs CMM ?Answe1:
  • 75. CMM is much oriented towards S/W engg process improvements and never speaks of customersatisfaction whereas the ISO 9001:2000 speaks of process improvements generic to allorganisations and also speaks of customer satisfaction.A2:FYI. There are 3 popular ISO standards that are commonly used for SW projects. They are12270, 15540, and 9001 (subset or 9000). I hope I got the numbers correct. For CMM, the latestversion is 1.1, however, it is already considered a legacy standard which is to be replaced byCMMI, the latest version is 1.1. For further information re CMM/I, visit the following: build and release the build to the QA. Does any body knowing in detail about thisprofile?Build Release engineer,The nature of the job is to retrieve the source from the confirugartion system, and creates abuild in the build machine, and takes a copy of the files which you moved to buildmachine, andinstall into QA servers.Here the main task when you install in QA servers, you have to be carefull about connectinproperties, whether all applications are extracted properly, whether is QA server should have allsupported softwareWhat makes a good test engineer?Good test engineers have a "test to break" attitude. We, good test engineers, take the point ofview of the customer, have a strong desire for quality and an attention to detail. Tact anddiplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers and an ability tocommunicate with both technical and non-technical people. Previous software developmentexperience is also helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software developmentprocess, gives the test engineer an appreciation for the developers point of view and reducesthe learning curve in automated test tool programming.Whats the role in CMM Level in Testing?Whats the diff b/w 5 levels?which level most commonly used in testing?Answer1:SEI = Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie-Mellon University; initiated by the U.S.Defense Department to help improve software development processes.
  • 76. CMM = Capability Maturity Model, now called the CMMI (Capability Maturity ModelIntegration), developed by the SEI. Its a model of 5 levels of process maturity that determineeffectiveness in delivering quality software. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.S.Defense Department contractors. However, many of the QA processes involved are appropriateto any organization, and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Organizations can receive CMMIratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.Level 1 - characterized by chaos, periodic panics, and heroic efforts required by individuals tosuccessfully complete projects. Few if any processes in place; successes may not berepeatable.Level 2 - software project tracking, requirements management, realistic planning, andconfiguration management processes are in place; successful practices can be repeated.Level 3 - standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughoutan organization; a Software Engineering Process Group is is in place to oversee softwareprocesses, and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.Level 4 - metrics are used to track productivity, processes, and products. Project performance ispredictable, and quality is consistently high.Level 5 - the focus is on continouous process improvement. The impact of new processes andtechnologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. Perspective on CMMratings: During 1997-2001, 1018 organizations were assessed. Of those, 27% were rated atLevel 1, 39% at 2,23% at 3, 6% at 4, and 5% at 5. (For ratings during the period 1992-96, 62%were at Level 1, 23% at 2, 13% at 3, 2% at 4, and 0.4% at 5.) The median size of organizationswas 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel; 32% of organizations were U.S. federalcontractors or agencies. For those rated at Level 1, the most problematical key process areawas in Software Quality Assurance.Answer2:The whole essence of CMM or CMMI is to produce quality software. It targets the wholeorganizational practices (or processes), which are believed to be the best across industries. Forfurther understanding of SEI CMMI visit is the role of CMMI Level in Testing?Please understand that Testing is just part or subset of CMMI. Testing is addressed on aparticular Process Area. If my memory serves me correct, it is the VER or Verification processarea and sometimes addressed also in VAL or the Validation process area. It could also be theother way around.Each Process Area has its own level to be driven to the level 5. This is true for the ContinuousRepresentation of CMMI version 1.1. I am not sure about the Staged Representaiton of thesame version. Please refer to the website above for more details.What is the difference between the levels of CMMI?This was already answered in the same thread by Priya. I would like to add that there is anadditional level for the Continuous Representation which is called Level 0 (zero) --> Incomplete.Which level is most commonly used in Testing?
  • 77. I would say all levels would deal with testing. But again this is true for VAL and VER ProcessAreas.For further readings, try searching google using CMMI+tutorials or Testing+CMMI. Most of thedocuments about CMMI are free and available on the Web.Answer3:Level 1. Initial The organization is characterized by an ad hoc set of activities. The processesarent defined and success depends on individual effort and heroics.Level 2. Repeatable At this level, basic project management processes are established to trackcosts, to schedule, and to define functionality. The discipline is available to repeat earliersuccesses on similar projects.Level 3. Defined All processes are documented for both management and engineeringactivities, and standards are defined.Level 4. Managed Detailed measures of each process are defined and product quality data isroutinely collected. Both process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled.Level 5. Optimizing Continuous process improvement is enabled by quantitative feedback fromthe process and from piloting innovative ideas and technologies.There are 3 popular ISO standards that are commonly used for SW projects. They are 12270,15540, and 9001 (subset or 9000). I hope I got the numbers correct. For CMM, the latestversion is 1.1, however, it is already considered a legacy standard which is to be replaced byCMMI, the latest version is 1.1.What are Internationalization, Localization, Globalization, and MultilingualizationTesting?Internationalization and localization are a means of adapting software for non-nativeenvironments, especially other nations and cultures. Internationalization is often abbreviated asI18N (or i18n or I18n), where the number 18 refers to the number of letters omitted."Localization" is often abbreviated l10n in the same manner. Both are sometimes collectivelytermed globalization (g11n). Also seen in some circles, but less commonly, are "p13n" forpersonalization? and "r3h" for reach, as in the reach of a website across countries and markets.L10N should support two languages or character codes simultaneously, usually English (ASCII)and another specific one. Since each programmer has his or her own mother tongue, there arenumerous L10N patches and L10N programs written to satisfy his or her own need. L10N ispreparing a feature or system for use in a local market, e.g., Russia, Japan, Québec. Usually amarket has a distinct language, customs and regulations. At the very least, user interfaceelements are translated into the local language.I18N is also sometimes used interchangeably with G11N when speaking broadly of theeconomic and cultural effects of an increasingly interconnected world. In software terms, Usageof the term I18N has become rare; the term globalization (G11N) is preferred mostly because ofcorporate globalization where many companies and products find themselves in many countries
  • 78. worldwide.G11N is a multi-step process to prepare a feature or system for use in multiple markets, or atleast so that it can easily be localized. It is most commonly taken to refer to the addition of aframework for multiple language support. This implies that the application is capable of input ofand displaying non-western character sets. These activities include software localization, andtechnical document translation result in user interfaces, on-line help systems, anddocumentation that are adapted to the cultural, linguistic, and technical requirements of specificinternational markets. This has given rise to increasing requirements for localization (L10N) ofproducts and services.M17N (multilingualization) model is to support many languages at the same time. For example,Mule (MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs) can handle a text file which contains multiplelanguages - for example, a paper on differences between Korean and Chinese whose main textis written in Finnish. GNU Emacs 20 and XEmacs now include Mule. Note that the M17N modelcan only be applied in character-related instances. For example, it is nonsense to display amessage like file not found in many languages at the same time. Unicode and UTF-8 aretechnologies which can be used for this model. Viewing a website in English and same inFrench should not have any functionality differences ideally, and no runtime errors. Check forincorrect translations, misspelled words and wrong symbols for the particular language chosenby the user. The language conversion should be consistent throughout the application. Use ofshared variables can cause serious bugs, like when users select same page or content to viewbut choose different languages however the page is renderd in the previous users language.What makes a good QA engineer?The same qualities a good test engineer has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, RobDavis understands the entire software development process and how it fits into the businessapproach and the goals of the organization. Rob Davis communication skills and the ability tounderstand various sides of issues are important. Good QA engineers understand the entiresoftware development process and how it fits into the business approach and the goals of theorganization. Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues areimportant.Difference between Verification and Validation?Answer1:The ISO would say that Verification is a process of determining whether or not the products of agiven phase of the software development cycle meets the implementation steps and can betraced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques forverification are testing, inspection and reviewing.Validation is a process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to
  • 79. ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation are testing,inspection and reviewing.Answer2:Validation:Determination of the correctness of the products with respect to the user needs andrequirements.Verification:Determination of the correctness of the product with respect to the testconditions/requirement imposed at the start.Answer3:the diifernce between V & V.*no.*Verification ensures that the system complies with organizations standards & processes.Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan.Relies on non-executable methods of analyzing various artifacts.Executes the system functions through a series of tests that can be observed & evaluated.Answers the question "Did we build the right system?"Answers the question "Did we build the system right?"E.g. Check sheets, traceability matrix,Uses functional or structural testing techniques to catch defects.Includes Requirement reviews, design reviews, code walkthroughs, code inspections, testreviews, independent static analyzers, confirmation in which 3rd party attests to the document,desk checking.Includes Unit testing, coverage analysis, black box techniques, Integrated testing, Systemtesting & User Acceptance testing.Most effective, it has been proven that 65% defects can be discovered here.Effective, but not as effective as verification, for removing defects. It has been proven that 30%of defects can be discovered here.Can be used throughout SDLC.Looking for a tool whcih can do bulk data insert to various tables in the test databaseand also that tool which work with DB2, SQLServer and Oracle.Answer1:First copy the existing data to an excel file by DTS import/export wizard in SQL server 2000Export the contents of the table to an excel file . In the Excel change the integrity constraints. forexample the table had one primary key column. So using excel you just changed the values ofthe priamary key by using linear fill option of Excel. Then save it.Now import data from this excel sheet to the table.
  • 80. Answer2:Using Perl and their DBI modules. You will also need DBD modules for the specific databasesthat you want to test with. In theory, you should be able to re-use the scripts and just changeDBD connections or possibly create handles to all three RDBMSs simultaneously. Ruby andPython have similar facilities.You will just have to have access to the data files somewhere and then you can then read thedata and insert the data into the database using the correct insert statements.There are other tools, but since they cost money to purchase I have never bothered toinvestigate them.Scripting is the most powerful (and cheapest) way to do it. preferred method is to use Pythonand its ODBC module. This way you can use the same code and just change the data sourcefor whichever DB youre connecting to. Also, you could potentially have the script generaterandom data if you dont have any source data to begin with.need to have the proper ODBC client drivers installed on the box youre running the script fromfor the ODBC module. Theres also a PyPerl distribution that will let you use the Perl DBImodule with Python. Its really up to personal preference on what youre comfortable scripting in.What makes a good QA/Test Manager?QA/Test Managers are familiar with the software development process; able to maintainenthusiasm of their team and promote a positive atmosphere; able to promote teamwork toincrease productivity; able to promote cooperation between Software and Test/QA Engineers,have the people skills needed to promote improvements in QA processes, have the ability towithstand pressures and say *no* to other managers when quality is insufficient or QAprocesses are not being adhered to; able to communicate with technical and non-technicalpeople; as well as able to run meetings and keep them focused.Need to shut down network connectivity mid tansaction. How to do thisprogrammatically via windows interface?From the command line, IPCONFIG /RELEASE, should do it. or do the old fashion way. removethe cable on your machine. if u r using a wireless connection, it is better to use ipconfig then.What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?Work with management early on to understand how requirements might change, so thatalternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance. It is helpful if the applicationsinitial design allows for some adaptability, so that later changes do not require redoing theapplication from scratch. Additionally, try to...* Ensure the code is well commented and well documented; this makes changes easier for thedevelopers.
  • 81. * Use rapid prototyping whenever possible; this will help customers feel sure of theirrequirements and minimize changes.* In the projects initial schedule, allow for some extra time to commensurate with probablechanges.* Move new requirements to a Phase 2 version of an application and use the originalrequirements for the Phase 1 version.* Negotiate to allow only easily implemented new requirements into the project; move moredifficult, new requirements into future versions of the application.* Ensure customers and management understand scheduling impacts, inherent risks and costsof significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customers decide if thechanges are warranted; after all, thats their job.* Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required toredo them to deal with changes.* Design some flexibility into automated test scripts;* Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remainunchanged;* Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes, in order to minimize regression-testingneeds;* Design some flexibility into test cases; this is not easily done; the best bet is to minimize thedetail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans;* Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad-hoc testing with anunderstanding of the added risk this entails.What if the application has functionality that wasnt in the requirements?It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hiddenfunctionality, which it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. Ifthe functionality isnt necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed, as itmay have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designeror the customer.If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs orregression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks asa result of the unexpected functionality. If the functionality only affects areas, such as minorimprovements in the user interface, it may not be a significant risk.How to write Test Case for telephone ?Answer1:Test cases for telephonetest the "functionality" of telephone,
  • 82. 1. Test for presence of dial tone.2. Dial Local number and check that receiver phone(dialled no.) rings.3. Dial any STD number and check that intended phone number rings.4. Dial the number of "under test" phone and check that it rings.5. When ringing, pick it up and check that ringing stops.6. When talking - then there should be no noise or disturbance.7. Check that "redial" works properly.8. Check STD lock facility works.9. Check speed dialing facility.10. Check for call waiting facility.11. Check that only the caller can disconnect the call.12. If "telephone Under test" is engaged with any caller and at this time if a third caller attemptsto call the "telephone under test" then call between two other parties should not getdisconnected.13. If "telephone Under test" is engaged with any caller and at this time if a third caller attemptsto call the "telephone under test" then third caller will listen to engage tone or message fromexchange.14. Check for volume(increase or decrease) of the handset.15. Keep the hand set down from base unit and attempt to call the "telephone under test" then itshould not ring.16. Check for call transfer facility.test the telephone itself1. Check for extreme temparatures (hot and cold)2. Check for different atmospheric conditions (humidity etc..)3. Check for exterme power conditions4. Check for button durability5. Check for body strengthetc...Answer2:My company designs and build phone system software, so I am very familiar with phone testing.You could be dealing with an IVR system that has menu-driven logic, or you could be dealingwith an auto-attendant with directory features. The basic idea is that you need to be able todefine your expected results, and record your actual results. The medium is different, but thesame basic concepts apply. In some ways the phone is easier becuase it can be a more linearprocess than say, a web system.
  • 83. How do you know when to stop testing?This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex and run insuch an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Common factorsin deciding when to stop are...* Deadlines, e.g. release deadlines, testing deadlines;* Test cases completed with certain percentage passed;* Test budget has been depleted;* Coverage of code, functionality, or requirements reaches a specified point;* Bug rate falls below a certain level; or* Beta or alpha testing period ends.WHAT WILL BE TESTED ON A STATIC WEB PAGE?1. Testing all links are working properly.There are link checker programs that can help you verify if your links are broken2. Test GUI design.3. Test spelling and grammer for contents.4. Test page fonts are consistent.Again depending on the page, this may not be essential, but you can suggest to the designed touse a cascading style sheet to easily maintain a consistent style across pages.5.Title bar message testing.6.Status bar message testing.7.Scroll bars presence at page.8. Browser compatibility(IE and NetScape)IE and FireFox. Ironicly, Netscape 8 has two modes now that allows you to swicth betweenusing the gecko render engine in Firefox and the internal IE render engine that ships with everyWindows OS. Its very cool and it can save you a lot of time.9.Changing browser options of IE from Tools --> Internet Options --->10.Advanced tab?11.Changing font for browser and also font size for browser.12. Changing any privacy option from Tools --> Internet Options.13. the images are present14. conformance to W3C standards WRT tags".Thats a pretty big topic, but I can touch on it. Every HTML document should tell the browserabout the DTD that it was built using. Things like<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN"><!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN">Each DTD version has different standards. Some allow frames others dont, etc. You will have tolearn what the DTD is supposed to use and what its not supposed to use. Only the best webdesigners have the various DTDs memorised. Fortunately the W3C has made a page that will
  • 84. validate your pages for you at your page passes through that you will get a report that lists errors and info. While mostrender engines will gloss over the errors and display the page "correctly", it may causeproblems further down the road when editing the page. You can discuss these things with yourweb designer.How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?Implement QA processes slowly over time. Use consensus to reach agreement on processesand adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures. Productivity will be improvedinstead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection. Panics andburnout will decrease and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort.At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimizepaperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting,minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process.However, no one, especially talented technical types, like bureaucracy and in the short runthings may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning anddevelopment will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calmingof irate customers.How to solve this issue - When developers blame testers for reporting bugs that is notreproducible on their machine?Avoid this differences by taking screenshots and attaching them in bug tracking seems that since the environment was not the cause then the "Steps to Reproduce" portion ofthe Bug report were lacking clarity. Screenshots along the way are a great way to prove a point,especially when you are dealing with something that is reproducible.Sure as a test engineer we surely understand functionality and to an extent we understand thearchitecture of the software. Hence, we can surly say that some bugs are related to each otherand some are not. So, We can introduc a column/field in our bug reporting format (What ever itis...a tool or an excel) for related bug ID.This will actually be helpful for the development community too fix the bugs.Actually Development environment should be same as Testing environment so that this issuewill not arise. Make sure that before getting a Build the environment is same . Before Testingbriefly go through with the Internal Release note. While Defect reporting mention proper Testdata, steps etc. so that next time you can reproduce it.Why do we recommended that we test during the design phase?Because testing during the design phase can prevent defects later on. We recommend verifyingthree things...
  • 85. 1. Verify the design is good, efficient, compact, testable and maintainable.2. Verify the design meets the requirements and is complete (specifies all relationships betweenmodules, how to pass data, what happens in exceptional circumstances, starting state of eachmodule and how to guarantee the state of each module).3. Verify the design incorporates enough memory, I/O devices and quick enough runtime for thefinal product.Exceptional circumstances, starting state of each module and how to guarantee the state ofeach module). Verify the design incorporates enough memory, I/O devices and quick enoughruntime for the final product.How to test a application in flash?Manually testing flash animations is as simple as making sure that the objects do what theyresupposed to do. manually mostly because flash isnt really a programming language. Mostdevelopers consider it to be a toy. So the big automation companies wont consider plug-ins forthe flash objects.If the flash application is a: E learning Application:1. Need to know the the Hardware Configuration, becauase if this animation contains someheavy images or movie files then it works slowly, and which is a each and every images and movie should be of light weight, as far the quality says.2. File naming convention3. Flash detection4. Objects should do what they are supposed to do5. Etc.If the flash application is a: Web Application:1. File size, should be light weight, beacuase most of the user dont have high speed connection,load testing require2. Quality of texts, images and movieHow test estimation (in terms of schedule, cost, resources required) will be done duringdeveloping of test plan?Reads on the topic:Factors that Influence Test EstimationWhat kind of automated software used to test a Web-based application with a .NET(ASP.NET and C#...also SQL Server) framework?Answer1:
  • 86. Mercury makes some decent products. Quick Test Pro can be used for a lot of yourrequirements... It can be costly and mind-numbing at times though.Answer2:Selenium is a test tool for web applications. Selenium tests run directly in a browser, just as realusers do. And they run in Internet Explorer, Mozilla and Firefox on Windows, Linux, andMacintosh. No other test tool covers such a wide array of platforms.* Browser compatability testing. Test your application to see if it works correctly on differentbrowsers and operating systems. The same script can run on any Selenium platform.* System functional testing. Create regression tests to verify application functionality and useracceptance.Answer3:Ruby is becoming a preferred standard for testingPerl is also used a great dealWhat kind of automated testing tool should Small company use?Automation is not designed for small test teams in companies. It does not make your testingmore efficient, it just make it faster. When you hit problems (and you likely will) it will take a lot oftime to fix these problems.At the only time that a good automated process can be put in place.After your company starts growing and product releases, service packs, etc start to pile up inthe horizon, your team will not have the time to automate because it will come after anythingelse to keep revenue coming and customers happy.Automation makes you faster, a nice outcome that will become vital later. The trick is incontrolling the inputs of that process to get a good bang for the buck.The standard QA tools cause a lot of trouble and more often than not end up collecting dust inthe shelves.Just throwing people and money at the problem does not work and is just available to biggercompanies.Reads on the topic: How do I know when to Automate?These articles will help you decide if youre even ready to automate.When Should a Test Be Automated?Brian MarickSoftware Test Automation and the Product Life Cycle: Implementingsoftware test in the product life cycleDave KellyWhat if organization is growing so fast that fixed QA processes are impossible?
  • 87. This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There isno easy solution in this situation, other than...* Hire good people* Ruthlessly prioritize quality issues and maintain focus on the customer;* Everyone in the organization should be clear on what quality means to the customer.Can We do performance testing manually?*Yes you can do Performance testing manually. For this you should open many active sessionsof the application and should test it out. It also depends on what type of performance test youwant to do. However, in general you can judge the active sessions, number of DB connectionsopen, number of threads running (I have taken JAVA based Web applications as eg), theamount of the CPU time and memory being used by having a performance viewer. You canhave IBM Tivoli Performance viewer. It is available for trial version also. Usually the the test isdone by deploying the application on the server and accessing the application from multipleclient machines and making multiple threads to run. The performance viewer should of coursebe installed on the server.Whats the SDLC models- waterfall and v-models?Answer1:In large scale company first of all they are followed waterfall method. now days mostlycompanies are following V models.model - means the testing involvement starts from the design state itself & continues till systemtest.Phase TestingRequirements - reviewdesign - reviewTR - TUTthen testing phases starts.So, like this testing makes a perfect V. so we call it V model.Indicate the flow of activities in the V-model, please look at:Test Process in the V-modelAnswer2:The waterfall is the General concept of all the models and most of the project based companiesuse V-Model. Testing will be involved from the requirements phase till the User AcceptanceTest.
  • 88. Whats server side testingIts testing the applications and daemons that run on a server.Server Side testing can involve testing of Servlets and Controllers.How a particular test team is formed ?Putting together a test team is1 - get an understanding of the application being tested2 - understand the underlying technologies3 - understand the roadmap (future plans) for the product4 - understand the budgetary limitations you are working underPoints 1 and 2 are pretty obvious. Point 3 is more to do with future planning (they might bemoving from client/server to webapp, so dont go recruiting lots of client/server specialist - badexample, but you get the drift ..). Point 4 is important as it will determine not just the number oftesters, but the skill level of the testers you can afford to employ, training required etc ...Need a template for preparing the Test Environment.Answer1:A test environment can be as simple or as complex as can be, but it *must* be seperate from adevelopment environment. In an ideal world, youd have a DEVelopment environment, a TESTenvironment, an ACCeptance environment and a partitioned PRODuction environment.The DEV environment no one in QA touches, the TEST environment no one in developmenttouches, the ACCeptance environment is for acceptance testing by end-users andadminstrators, performance/stress/load testing and so on and should mirror the PRODuctionenvironment. The PRODuction environment should be a live/hot swap configuration; therelease is deployed to hot swap, tested by the administrators and final acceptance testingbefore being hot swapped to live.Answer2:TEST ENVIRONMENT:Setup of a test environment will require:- Hardware- Operating systems- Software that needs to be tested- Other required software like tools (And people who can use them)- Data configurations- Interfaces to other systems, communications
  • 89. - Documentation like user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guidesSetting up a dedicated Test Environment is expensive and the following needs to beconsidered:- To create an internal Test Environment or to outsource- To follow any External (IEEE, ISO etc.) or Internal company standards- The initial set-up & running costs- How long will the Test Environment be required?- How production like does it need to be? If the environment does not mirrors production thendifferences between the test and production systems and their impact on test validity must bedetermined.- Can you support the environment either technically or within the building infrastructure?- Could any exisiting setup for other projects in the company can be re-used- Could the setup be used for other projects within the company? - Day to day management- Procedures for controlling change (Configuration management) - Data loading and securityrequirementsWhat is the exact difference between functional and non functional testing?Functional testing means we do functional testing to validate the functionality of the applicationagainst functional requirements document.we test for functionality of the application only. Non-functional testing means we do not test for functionality of the application System testing, loadtesting, stress testing, performance testing etc come under non functional testing.How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internaldesign to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing(where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-boxtesting can be oriented to the applications objects. If the application was well designed this cansimplify test design.Standards and templates - what is supposed to be in a document?All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. Standards and templatesmaintain document uniformity. It also helps in learning where information is located, making iteasier for a user to find what they want. Lastly, with standards and templates, information willnot be accidentally omitted from a document.
  • 90. Need some QA advice: * Improve Management Commitment to Quality Assurance , *Improve the Internalization Quality Assurance as a processThe first part of the battle is already won: product quality is suffering due to financial andbusiness drivers outside of your control. In other words, there is awareness (or there is a meansof obtaining) awareness that although products are shipping, quality is suffering and if this isallowed to continue, your product will be bogged down in patches, bad customer experienceand perception. Ultimately your product will fail. This is a very powerful argument with which toconvince your management that the situation cannot be allowed to continue. The expression"once you have them by the balls, their hearts and minds will follow" is particularly true here.So step 1: recognize there is a problem and highlight the consequences. Awareness is key!Step 2: Define your role and get clarity about your objectives and understand the expectationsyour managers have of your department.QA is not just testing. Testing is not just QA. Are you expected to test, or are you expected tomanage quality? Depending on the answer you can focus on the areas that the business placesas top priority and fill the areas where you are lacking expertise.Example 1: they want you to be a Quality Assurance manager. Now were in the realms of ISO,CMM etc. Coding standards, documentation standards, process flows, organisational structure,communication standards, release management procedures, process improvement andmaintenance, change management procedures, review cycle management, requirementmangement lifecycles etc. In other words, you are responsible for the process that assurequality. How that is monitored and controlled is quality control.Example 2: they want you to test the software. Now were talking Test methodologies, testplans, test team organisation and so on.By clarifying your role you not only get an idea of your areas of responsiblitiy, you are alsoempowered to bring about change, to introduce quality and turn the ship around! Make sure youhave the means to carry out your job (budget, resources, a senior management sponsor to helpyou through the hard time). If you dont, then you will fight a losing battle.Step 3: Now that you know your role; evangelise! Let everyone know what you are going to doand what the end-results are going to be. Include everyone (yes, quality is everyones business)and be aware that change meets with resistance. Check out the paterson-connor changelifecycle model for an example and structure of your change activities and the problems you willface.Step 4: Depending on your role, implement your procedures. The business will decide what ismore important. If it wants to ship product, focus on the release management/servicedelivery/service management to make sure that customers get their products quickly and get thesupport they need. If they want quality, focus more on standards and development/qa lifecycles.
  • 91. I dont have a lot of money. How can I become a good tester?If you dont have a lot of money, but want to become a good tester, the cheapest or freeeducation is sometimes provided on the job, by an employer, while youre getting paid to do ajob that requires the use of WinRunner and many other software testing tools.Whats fuzz testing ?Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a programto a source of random data. If the program fails (for example, by crashing, or by failing built-incode assertions), then there are defects to correct.The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple, and free ofpreconceptions about system behaviorWhich of these tools should I learn?Learn ALL you can! Learn all the tools that you are able to master! Ideally, this will include someof the most popular software tools, i.e. LabView, LoadRunner, Rational Tools, WinRunner,SilkTest etc.Whats differentiate Test_Plan and Test_StrategyTest plan is developed by test lead with the help of other team members. Test plan containsobjective, test strategy, test scope, resources, schedule, deliverables and risks anddependancies. Test strategy is part of the test plan. Based on the application type test strategywill be derived. It specifies what type of tests are required and how the testers are going to betested on the application.What are some of the software configuration management tools?Software configuration management tools include Rational ClearCase, DOORS, PVCS, CVS;and there are many others.Rational ClearCase is a popular software tool for revision control of source code. Made byRational Software.DOORS, or "Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System", is a requirements version controlsoftware tool.CVS, or "Concurrent Version System", is another popular, open source version control tool. Itkeeps track of changes in documents associated with software projects. It enables several,often distant, developers to work together on the same source code.PVCS is a document version control tool, a competitor of SCCS. SCCS is an original UNIXprogram, based on "diff". Diff is a UNIX command that compares contents of two files.
  • 92. How to write Nunit test casesWhat Is NUnit?NUnit is a unit-testing framework for all .Net languages. Initially ported from JUnit, the currentproduction release, version 2.2, is the fourth major release of this xUnit based unit testing toolfor Microsoft .NET. It is written entirely in C# and has been completely redesigned to takeadvantage of many .NET language features, for example custom attributes and other reflectionrelated capabilities. NUnit brings xUnit to all .NET languages.A: Read the following:How to write Nunit test casesWhat is documentation change management?Documentation change management is part of configuration management (CM). CM covers thetools and processes used to control, coordinate and track code, requirements, documentation,problems, change requests, designs, tools, compilers, libraries, patches, changes made to themand who makes the changes.How can I test without requirements?By Anuj MagazineTesting Without Requirements: A Practical ApproachWhat is the difference between user documentation and user manual?When a distinction is made between those who operate and use a computer system for itsintended purpose, a separate user documentation and user manual is created. Operators getuser documentation, and users get user manuals.Why was bug x or bug y caught NOT during testing?"Why the defect was allowed to be introduced into the code? Why dont they have better codereviews? Why dont the developers understand the product better? Why are the requirementsnot fully understood by these people?The real issue here is that they are passing quality off to the testing team and its not our job tomake the product a quality one--its the responsibility of everyone in the company including thereceptionist.It is not the job of testing to be responsible for assuring quality and it is not the purpose oftesting to find bugs.
  • 93. Classic Testing MistakesDo they rely on strange configurations: ones you could never hope to reproduce? Is itreasonable that your testers should have "caught" these defects? If it is, dont make anyexcuses.Alternately, if its really the requirements, how can the developers make the right product andthe testers dont understand what the developers are making? There is communication aboutwhat needs to be done, and the developers seem to be getting that communication, why cantyour testers? We know the reason: the developers didnt get the communication right--thatswhy there was a defect. So you can point out the communication as well.when there is a requirements document, testers have a tendency to only test the main path, ortheyll only run one test case per requirement, when there clearly should be many tests to catchall boundaries and failures. Testers do need to be able to think about what they are doing, and itis very possible that the testers themselves are at fault. Dont be afraid to hold themaccountable for being lazy.The main cause of the problem is not enough testing time allocated:NO time for doc reviews;Little time for test design and creation;Little time for test execution.How do you conduct peer reviews?The peer review, sometimes called PDR, is a formal meeting, more formalized than a walk-through, and typically consists of 3-10 people including the test lead, task lead (the author ofwhatever is being reviewed) and a facilitator (to make notes). The subject of the PDR is typicallya code block, release, or feature, or document. The purpose of the PDR is to find problems andsee what is missing, not to fix anything. The result of the meeting is documented in a writtenreport. Attendees should prepare for PDRs by reading through documents, before the meetingstarts; most problems are found during this preparation.Why is the PDR great? Because it is a cost-effective method of ensuring quality, because bugprevention is more cost effective than bug detection.500 Internal Server Error problem while doing load testing using Microsoft WebApplication Stress Tool ....500 Internal Server Error problem while doing load testing using Microsoft Web ApplicationStress Tool When doing Load testing using WAS (Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool), get "500 Internal Server Error" problem for most of the "POST" querries. The Log file it showed thefollowing data:"GET /imse/Global/images/Default/arrow.gif 500""GET /imse/client/Template/images/Default/arrow.gif 500"
  • 94. "GET /imse/client/Template/images/Default/Plus1.gif 500"What could be the reason for this?The problem is because the response will have not come. The session will have timed out. Thiswill be the application will have taken more memory. This might be because of multiple threadsrunning with each thread taking much CPU time. Please check the Server of the system wherethe build is deployed for Heap Dump. The Garbage collector will have created Java Heap andCore dumps in the Application folder.Try increasing the number of DB Connections in the server. This might solve the Problem. Alsoincrease the Final Heap size also. This might solve the problems.How do you check the security of an application?To check the security of an application, one can use security/penetration testing.Security/penetration testing is testing how well a system is protected against unauthorizedinternal, or external access, or willful damage. This type of testing usually requires sophisticatedtesting techniques.How do I write a Test Case?Read the following:What Is a Good Test Case?Cem KanerHow to Write Better Test CasesDianne RunnelsReducing Test Case Documentation TimeRanjit ShewaleTesting in the Dark: A pragmatic approach to overcoming undocumented requirementsBy Johanna Rothman/Brian LawrenceSession-Based Test Management: A strategy for structuring exploratory testingBy Jonathan BachAdventures in Session-Based TestingBy James LyndsayAn Introduction to Scenario TestingBy Cem KanerHow to estimate product test hours for new releases?Answer1:
  • 95. Your main task is to convince your company of the- value of structured testing and the benefits it brings to the end product- the risks of not testing properly (high maintenance, lots of bugs found in production (and thesegenerally found by your customers!), loss of market reputation ("another crap product from xyzcompany).Another approach might be to consider starting your test processes earlier (i am guessing fromyour message that you are following some kind of waterfall method) - its a sort of design a little,build a little, test a little, design a little ... approach.Answer2:Tell the folks making decisions to read user feedback. No time for testing = angry users whowant their money back or worse angry clients who suddenly hire a team of lawyers.Warned all the stakeholders early on and then sent user feedback emails up the chain. Userscan be brutal and they tell the truth! Comments like YOU SUCK!!It may also convince them to get more support people instead of increasing testing.Answer3:The ratios:3/1 Developers to QA (industry)3/2 Developers to QA (Microsoft)There is also a really good article called "A Better Bug Trap" published by The Economist in2004, which is pretty telling: according to NIST 80% of a software project belongs to testing anddebugging.There is also the classic book called "Mythical Man Month". There are a couple of pertinentpassages there:1) Back when the book was written, the percentage quoted by NIST was 50%, which meansthat software development has become less efficient over the last 20 years or so.2) There is a 30% that a change in any line of code will break something down stream.3) There is another article published by McKinsey Quarterly called "What high tech can learnfrom slow-growth industries".When testing the password field, what is your focus?When testing the password field, one needs to focus on encryption; one needs to verify that thepasswords are encrypted.What are the metrics to be collected as part of testing?A metric is a measurement. While its easy to count things that are easy to count, and to dividethe counts by other things that you count, its harder to decide what the counts and ratios mean.What are we trying to measure, and what model and what evidence lead us to believe that the
  • 96. counts measure the attribute we claim to be trying to measure?Without clear thinking about validity, the numbers are more of a dangerous distraction than auseful tool. Rather than blindly using a well-known metric, decide what goal you are trying toachieve and find out how best to measure to achieve that goal.Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.Questions you must ask before starting to use metrics are:* Who will use these metrics?* What behaviour are you trying to promote with these metrics?* What information is important to know across the project?* What requires increased visibility or transparency?Please see Software Engineering MetricsWhat is your view of software QA/testing?Software QA/testing is easy, if requirements are solid, clear, complete, detailed, cohesive,attainable and testable, and if schedules are realistic, and if there is good communication in thegroup.Software QA/testing is a piece of cake, if project schedules are realistic, if adequate time isallowed for planning, design, testing, bug fixing, re-testing, changes, and documentation.Software QA/testing is easy, if testing is started early on, if fixes or changes are re-tested, andsufficient time is planned for both testing and bug fixing.Software QA/testing is easy, if new features are avoided, if one sticks to initial requirements asmuch as possible.How to test a web application, for security testing of Web Application?Answer1:Two most common security vulnerabilities that often times overlooked by developers aresession and cookie management. Check out google for possible hacks re the two items.Develop test scenario from the kb that you find in the web.Another test would be to concentrate on the log in page and log out.In some cases the back button could be a security problem especially if the previousscreen/page has sensitive data and could easily be modified if the back button is used.Lastly, test the user roles properly. Making sure that the specific role only sees what s/he isintended to see.Answer2:Can test one more scenario for security,1. Login into the application.2. Then copy the url.
  • 97. 3. Click Logout button4. Now paste this url in Browsers Address bar or from History access the url of the applicationafter logging outAlso do not forget to check the timeout setting for the application1. Login into the app2. Leave the browser for sometime idle3. then checkout that user session gets expired or not.Who write the user acceptance testing testcases?Whoever is assigend the task. It is usually best done by a third-party hired by the client todetermine that their product works as contracted, however it can be done by someone one thetesting team, product management, or even a technical writer. UATs as usually positive tests.A2: 1. Get requirements2. Design the HLD and LLD documents (high and low level design docs) This is the way we willimplement the clients requirements in the software.from 1 Get the UAT test cases.from 2 Get the system test cases.its not a subsetEach and every organisation has its own way designing the test cases sometimes form differentsources.UAT is usually designed by the test team itself.What Is UAT, And Why Do It?What is automatic recovery testing?Say you are writing a series of transactions to a database and halfway through the power fails,or the comms link drops. You now have a database with incomplete or corrupt data.Once the link is back up, or the application is restarted, how does the database (or application)restore itself and how is the data integrity verified? If there are automatic processes that do this(e.g rollback procedures coded into the application), test if these work correctly.Whats the difference between Alpha, Beta and User Acceptance testing?The focus in this question is somewhat wrong. You dont do Alpha testing, you do testingagainst the Alpha cycle of the software. The Alpha cycle is during the development phase. Theproduct has many defects and is not suitable for users in a production environment to be using.Once the Show-Stopper, Critical and most Major defects have been resolved, and once themajority of planned functionality has been added to the product, a Beta release can occur. It isbest to have someone coordinate the beta testers rather than just throw the software out to thegeneral public--this way you can keep track of the defects generated by beta users in the field.
  • 98. User Acceptance testing occurs when you have to deliver your product to a customer based oncontractual obligations. The User Acceptance test is usually written by the customer or an agenton their part. It is designed to verify, usually only with positive test cases, that the product is asdescribed in the contract.How can I be a good tester?We, good testers, take the customers point of view. We are also tactful and diplomatic. Wehave a "test to break" attitude, a strong desire for quality, an attention to detail, and goodcommunication skills, both oral and written. Previous software development experience is alsohelpful, as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process.How to do Laod testing for web based Application?1. Recording a scenerio in QTP of my web based application.2. Make 100 copies of that scenerio and run the test (scenerio run for 100 times)3. In that case, do the load of application on server.4. The basic logic of running the copy 100 times is to create same scenerio as if 100 users wereworking.What is GUI testing? What elements will we cover in GUI testing?In GUI testing, need to cover the customer requirement if dont have to validate 1. Font size,colors, spellings(labels) etc2. Every application should follow Microsoft rules like2.1 Controls should be Initcap (i.e every label should start with Capital letter )Can observe that in Win applications every label starts with Caps2.2 OK or Cancel button should exist2.3 Controls should not be overlapped2.4 Controls should be alligned properly (left side alignment is mandatory but the right side isoptional)2.5 Controls should be visible2.6 Short cut keys should be provided2.7 System menu should exist (i.e if u press Alt key + Space bar a menu will appear at the leftmost corner )2.8 Mouse pointer eventsColors, Label Names, Tab Order, Alignment, graphs , Navigation of the software to test in GUITesting.What is that column "steps to reproduce" mean in bug tracking?
  • 99. Answer1:Well, steps to reproduce are just that: what are the steps you need to take to reproduce thestated problem.The steps to reproduce (STR) must be as clear as possible, preferably with screenshots and/ortest data. The steps should also be definite (so no maybe, it sometimes works if you do thistype statements).In the test projects, youve always tried to keep the STR down to a maximum of 5, this to makesure that the problem is easy and clear to communicate to the developers, to reproduce andhence resolve.Answer2:Ideally, once you identify a bug - you would need to determine the least number of stepsrequired to reproduce the bug. This would help your developer to reproduce the bug easily onhis development environment.When is a process repeatable?A process repeatable when we use detailed and well-written processes and procedures; thisway we ensure the correct steps are being executed. This also facilitates a successfulcompletion of the task, and ensures the process is repeatable.A process is repeatable, whenever we have the necessary processes in place, in order torepeat earlier successes on projects with similar applications. A process is repeatable, if we usedetailed and well-written processes and procedures. A process is repeatable, if we ensure thatthe correct steps are executed.When the correct steps are executed, we facilitate a successful completion of the task.Documentation is critical. A software process is repeatable, if there are requirementsmanagement, project planning, project tracking, subcontract management, QA, andconfiguration management.Both QA processes and practices should be documented, so that they are repeatable.Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, testplans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented, so that they arerepeatable.Document files should be well organized. There should be a system for easily finding andobtaining documents, and determining what document has a particular piece of information. Weshould use documentation change management, if possible.If you dont have requirements specification, how will you go about testing theapplication?
  • 100. Answer1:if there is no requirement specification and testing is required then smoke testing or Gorillatesting is a best option for it in this way we can understand the functionality and Bugs of theapplicationAnswer2:As a thumb rude, never test or signoff on undocumented (applications without completefunctional specifications) applications. Its quite similar to swiming in unknown waters - you neverknow what you could encounter. In the case of software testing, its not what you will encounter,but its what you will not encounter. There is a very high possibility that you could completelymiss out some functionality or even worse, misunderstand the functionality.Software Testing is closely associated with the Program management Team or the requirmentanalysis team rather than the Development Team. When you test an application without theknowledge of the requirments, you only see what the developer wants you to see and not whatthe customer want to see. And customers / end users are our prime audience.In the case of missing requirments, you would try out something what is called FocusedExploratory Testing, identifying every piece in the application, its functionality and gradually digdeeper.Smoke Testing or Gorilla Testing (Monkey Testing) is a different type of testing and the purposeof same is very diffferent.Smoke Testing or Sanity Testing is used, only to certify builds and is no measure for quality. Itonly ensures that there are no blocking issues in the build and ensures that the same canundergo a test pass.Gorilla Testing or Monkey Testing (Gorilla being the smarter among the Monkey kind) is allabout adhoc testing. You would probably try hitting the ENTER key 100 times, or try aSUBMIT followed by CANCEL followed by SUBMIT again.The idea of Exploratory Testing is to identify the functionality of the application along withTesting the same.How can I start my career in automated testing?To start your career in automated testing:1. Read all you can, and that includes reading product descriptions, pamphlets, manuals, books,information on the Internet, and whatever information you can lay your hands on.2. Get some hands on experience in using automated testing tools. e.g. WinRunner and manyother automated testing tools.What should test in BANKING DOMAIN application ?
  • 101. You would like to test:Banking WorkflowsData Integrity issuesSecurity and access issuesRecovery testingAll the above needs to be tested in the expected banking environment (hardwares, LAN, OpSys, domain configurations, databases)Collaboration between dev and testingUnit testing is entirely the responsibility of the developer. A tester is not in as knowledgable aposition to write meaningful unit tests as the developer who did the feature. I would push backhard against a development team that tried to do this. A feature is not done (as in ready fortest) until- the requirements are met (be they specifications or use case)- the code has all be checked into revision control- it has been verified that the newly checked in code does not break the compile/existing tests- a comprehensive suite of feature specific unit tests has been created and integrated into thebuild process- there are no TODOs (or similar watermarks) left in the new code- all FIXMEs (or similar watermarks) have bug numbers assigned to them in the new codeIs there any common testing framework or testing best practices for distributed system?For example, for distrbuted database management system?A distributed database management based on mysql. It has three components.1. A jdbc driver providing services for users applications, including distributed transactionmanagement, load balancing, query processor, table id management, etc.2. A master process, which manages global dirstributed transaction id, load balancing, loadbalancing strategy, etc.3. An agent running on the same box with mysql, which get mysql servers balance statisticinfo.AN OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR TESTING DISTRIBUTED SOFTWAREDistributed applications have traditionally been designed as systems whose data andprocessing capabilities reside on multiple platforms, each performing an assigned functionwithin a known and controlled framework contained in the enterprise. Even if the testing toolswere capable of debugging all types of software components, most do not provide a singlemonitoring view that can span multiple platforms. Therefore, developers must jump betweenseveral testing/monitoring sessions across the distributed platforms and interpret the cross–platform gap as best they can. That is, of course, assuming that comparable monitoring toolsexist for all the required platforms in the first place. This is particularly difficult when one server
  • 102. platform is the mainframe as generally the more sophisticated mainframe testing tools do nothave comparable PC– or Unix–based counterparts. Therefore, testing distributed applications isexponentially more difficult than testing standalone applications.To overcome this problem, we present an operational environment for testing distributedapplications based on the Java Development Kit (JDK) as shown in Figure 1, allowing testers totrack the flow of messages and data across and within the disparate platforms.The primary goalof this operational environment is an attempt to provide a coherent, seamless environment thatcan serve as a single platform for testing distributed applications. The hardware platform of thetestbed at the lowest level in Figure 1, is a network of SUN workstations running the Solaris 2.xoperating system which often plays a part in distributed and client–server system. Thewidespread use of PCs has also prompted an ongoing effort to port the environment to thePC/Windows platform. On the top of the hardware platform is Java Development Kit. It consistsof the Java programming language core functionality, the Java Application ProgrammingInterface (API) with multiple package sets and the essential tools such as Remote MethodInvocations (RMI), Java DataBase Conncetivity (JDBC) and Beans for creating Javaapplications. On top of this platform is the SITE which secures automated support for the testingprocess, including modeling, specification, statistical analysis, test data generation, test resultsinspection and test path tracing. At the top of this environment are the distributed applications.These can use or bypass any of the facilities and services in this operational environment. Thisenvironment receives commands from the users (testers) and produces the test reports back.Why is that my company requires a PDR?Your company requires a PDR, because your company wants to be the owner of the very bestpossible design and documentation. Your company requires a PDR, because when youorganize a PDR, you invite, assemble and encourage the companys best experts to voice theirconcerns as to what should or should not go into your design and documentation, and why.Please dont be negative. Please do not assume your company is finding fault with your work, ordistrusting you in any way. Remember, PDRs are not about you, but about design anddocumentation. There is a 90+ per cent probability your company wants you, likes you and trustyou because youre a specialist, and because your company hired you after a long and carefulselection process.Your company requires a PDR, because PDRs are useful and constructive. Just abouteveryone - even corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) - attend PDRs from time to time.When a corporate CEO attends a PDR, he has to listen for "feedback" from shareholders. Whena CEO attends a PDR, the meeting is called the "annual shareholders meeting".A list of ten good things about PDRs!Number 1: PDRs are easy, because all your meeting attendees are your co-workers andfriends.
  • 103. Number 2: PDRs do produce results. With the help of your meeting attendees, PDRs help youproduce better designs and better documents than the ones you could come up with, withoutthe help of your meeting attendees.Number 3: Preparation for PDRs helps a lot, but, in the worst case, if you had no time to readevery page of every document, its still OK for you to show up at the PDR.Number 4: Its technical expertise that counts the most, but many times you can influence yourgroup just as much, or even more so, if youre dominant or have good acting skills.Number 5: PDRs are easy, because, even at the best and biggest companies, you candominate the meeting by being either very negative, or very bright and wise.Number 6: It is easy to deliver gentle suggestions and constructive criticism. The brightest andwisest meeting attendees are usually gentle on you; they deliver gentle suggestions that areconstructive, not destructive.Number 7: You get many-many chances to express your ideas, every time a meeting attendeeasks you to justify why you wrote what you wrote.Number 8: PDRs are effective, because there is no need to wait for anything or anyone;because the attendees make decisions quickly (as to what errors are in your document). Thereis no confusion either, because all the groups recommendations are clearly written down foryou by the PDRs facilitator.Number 9: Your work goes faster, because the group itself is an independent decision makingauthority. Your work gets done faster, because the groups decisions are subject to neitheroversight nor supervision.Number 10: At PDRs, your meeting attendees are the very best experts anyone can find, andthey work for you, for FREE!What is the best way to simulate the real behavior of a web based system?It may seem obvious, but the best way to simulate real behavior of a web based system is tosimulate user actual behavior, and the way to do this is from an actual browser with testfunctionality built inside.The key to achieving the kind of test accuracy that eValid provides is to understand that its theeValid browser that is doing the the actual navigating and processing. And, it is the eValidbrowser that is taking the actual performance timing measurements.eValid employs IE-equivalent multi-threaded HTTP/S processing and uses IE-equivalent pagerendering. While there is some overhead with injecting actions into the browser, it is very, verylow. eValids timers resolve to 1.0 msec and this precision is usually enough to produce verymeaningful performance testing results.How can I shift my focus and area of work from QC to QA?Number one: Focus on your strengths, skills, and abilities! Realize that there are MANYsimilarities between Quality Control and Quality Assurance! Realize you have MANY
  • 104. transferable skills!Number two: Make a plan! Develop a belief that getting a job in QA is easy! HR professionalscannot tell the difference between quality control and quality assurance! HR professionals tendto respond to keywords (i.e. QC and QA), without knowing the exact meaning of thosekeywords!Number three: Make it a reality! Invest your time! Get some hands-on experience! Do some QAwork! Do any QA work, even if, for a few months, you get paid a little less than usual! Yourgoals, beliefs, enthusiasm, and action will make a huge difference in your life!Number four: Read all you can, and that includes reading product pamphlets, manuals, books,information on the Internet, and whatever information you can lay your hands on!How to use loadrunner for testing web-based application?Exactly the data which a user of your site will enter as soon as it will be in an e-commercewebsite.Check your concept by implementing a simple test case, e.g.logon - some info - logoffstress your site with this simple script and n parallel virtual users(n = 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000)create some more complex tests and repeat.Any server setup that is not needed in order to use Loadrunner for an e-commerce website.From the server point of view, it is just if many real users would stress your site.What techniques and tools can enable me to migrate from QC to QA?Technique number one: Mental preparation. Understand and believe what you want is notunusual at all! Develop a belief in yourself! Start believing what you want is attainable! You canchange your career! Every year, millions of men and women change their careers successfully!Number two: Make a plan! Develop a belief that getting a job in QA is easy! HR professionalscannot tell the difference between quality control and quality assurance! HR professionals tendto respond to keywords (i.e. QC and QA), without knowing the exact meaning of thosekeywords!Number three: Make it a reality! Invest your time! Get some hands-on experience! Do some QAwork! Do any QA work, even if, for a few months, you get paid a little less than usual! Yourgoals, beliefs, enthusiasm, and action will make a huge difference in your life!Number four: Read all you can, and that includes reading product pamphlets, manuals, books,information on the Internet, and whatever information you can lay your hands on!
  • 105. What is the BEST WAY to write test cases?Answer1:1) List down usecases (taken from business cases) from function specs. For each use casewrite a test case and categorize them into sanity tests, functionality, GUI, performance etc. Thenfor each test case, write its workflow.2) For a GUI application - make a list of all GUI controls. For each control start writing test casesfor testing of the control UI, functionality (impact on the whole application), negative testing (forincorrect inputs), performance etc.Answer2:1. Generate Sunny day scenarios based on use cases and/or requirements.2. Generate Rainy Day (negative, boundary, etc.) tests that correspond to the previously definedSunny Day scenarios.3. Based on past experience and a knowledge of the product, generate tests for anything thatmight have been missed in steps one and two above. These tests need not correspond to anydocumented requirements or use cases. Its generally not possible to test every facet of thedesign, but with a little work and forethought you can test the high risk areas or high impactfeatures.What is the difference between build and release?Builds and releases are similar, because both builds and releases are end products of softwaredevelopment processes. Builds and releases are similar, because both builds and releases helpdevelopers and QA teams to deliver reliable software.A build is a version of a software; typically one that is still in testing. A version number is usuallygiven to a released product, but sometimes a build number is used instead.Difference number one: "Build" refers to software that is still in testing, but "release" refers tosoftware that is usually no longer in testing.Difference number two: "Builds" occur more frequently; "releases" occur less frequently.Difference number three: "Versions" are based on "builds", and not vice versa. Builds (or aseries of builds) are generated first, as often as one build per every morning (depending on thecompany), and then every release is based on a build (or several builds), i.e. the accumulatedcode of several builds.How to test the memory leakeage mannually?Answer1:Here are tools to check this. Compuware DevPartner can help you test your application for
  • 106. Memory leaks if the application is complex. Also depending upon the OS on which you need tocheck for memory leaks you need to select the tool.Answer2:Tools are more effective to do so. the tools watch to see when memory is allocated and notfreeed. You can use various tools manually to see if the same happens. You just wont be ableto find the exact points where this happens.In windows you would use task manager or process explorer (freeware from Sysinternals) andswitch to process view and watch memory used. Record the baseline memory usage (BL) . Runan action once and record the memory usage (BLU). Perform the same actions repeatedlty andthen if the memory usage has not returned to at least BLU, you have a memory leak. The trick isto wait for the computer to clean up after the transactions have finished. This should take a fewseconds.What is the difference between version and release?Both version and release indicate particular points in the software development life cycle, or inthe life cycle of a document. Both terms, version and release, are similar, i.e. pretty much thesame thing, but there are minor differences between them.Minor difference number 1: Version means a variation of an earlier or original type. Forexample, you might say, "Ive downloaded the latest version of XYZ software from the Internet.The version number of this software is _____"Minor difference number 2: Release is the act or instance of issuing something for publication,use, or distribution. Release means something thus released. For example, "Microsoft has justreleased their brand new gaming software known as _______"How to write Test cases for Login screen?the format for all test cases could be something like this1. test cases for GUI2. +ve test cases for login.3. -ve test cases for the -ve scenario :- we should include boundary analysis to create test cases ,Value Analysis.Equivalence Classes,Positive and Negative test cases) plus cross-site scripting and SQLinjection. SQL injection is especially high-risk for login pages.( Test case is Enter special char for username and it should displays a message that usernameshould have char a-z and 0-9 )What is the checklist for credit card testing?
  • 107. In credit card testing the following validations are considered1)Testing the 4-DBC (Digit batch code) for its uniqueness (present on right corner of creditcard)2)The message formats in which the data is sent3)LUHN testing4)Network response5) Terminal validationsHow do you test data integrity?Data integrity is tested by the following tests:Verify that you can create, modify, and delete any data in tables.Verify that sets of radio buttons represent fixed sets of values.Verify that a blank value can be retrieved from the database.Verify that, when a particular set of data is saved to the database, each value gets saved fully,and the truncation of strings and rounding of numeric values do not occur.Verify that the default values are saved in the database, if the user input is not specified.Verify compatibility with old data, old hardware, versions of operating systems, and interfaceswith other software.Why do we perform data integrity testing? Because we want to verify the completeness,soundness, and wholeness of the stored data. Testing should be performed on a regular basis,because important data could, can, and will change over time.What is the difference between data validity and data integrity?Difference number one: Data validity is about the correctness and reasonableness of data, whiledata integrity is about the completeness, soundness, and wholeness of the data that alsocomplies with the intention of the creators of the data.Difference number two: Data validity errors are more common, and data integrity errors are lesscommon.Difference number three: Errors in data validity are caused by human beings - usually data entrypersonnel - who enter, for example, 13/25/2010, by mistake, while errors in data integrity arecaused by bugs in computer programs that, for example, cause the overwriting of some of thedata in the database, when somebody attempts to retrieve a blank value from the database.What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?Difference number 1: Static testing is about prevention, dynamic testing is about cure.Difference number 2: The static tools offer greater marginal benefits.Difference number 3: Static testing is many times more cost-effective than dynamic testing.Difference number 4: Static testing beats dynamic testing by a wide margin.
  • 108. Difference number 5: Static testing is more effective!Difference number 6: Static testing gives you comprehensive diagnostics for your code.Difference number 7: Static testing achieves 100% statement coverage in a relatively short time,while dynamic testing often often achieves less than 50% statement coverage, becausedynamic testing finds bugs only in parts of the code that are actually executed.Difference number 8: Dynamic testing usually takes longer than static testing. Dynamic testingmay involve running several test cases, each of which may take longer than compilation.Difference number 9: Dynamic testing finds fewer bugs than static testing.Difference number 10: Static testing can be done before compilation, while dynamic testing cantake place only after compilation and linking.Difference number 11: Static testing can find all of the followings that dynamic testing cannotfind: syntax errors, code that is hard to maintain, code that is hard to test, code that does notconform to coding standards, and ANSI violations.What testing tools should we use?Ideally, you should use both static and dynamic testing tools. To maximize software reliability,you should use both static and dynamic techniques, supported by appropriate static anddynamic testing tools.Reason number 1: Static and dynamic testing are complementary. Static and dynamic testingfind different classes of bugs. Some bugs are detectable only by static testing, some only bydynamic.Reason number 2: Dynamic testing does detect some errors that static testing misses. Toeliminate as many errors as possible, both static and dynamic testing should be used.Reason number 3: All this static testing (i.e. testing for syntax errors, testing for code that ishard to maintain, testing for code that is hard to test, testing for code that does not conform tocoding standards, and testing for ANSI violations) takes place before compilation.Reason number 4: Static testing takes roughly as long as compilation and checks everystatement you have written.Why should I use static testing techniques?There are several reasons why one should use static testing techniques.Reason number 1: One should use static testing techniques because static testing is a bargain,compared to dynamic testing.Reason number 2: Static testing is up to 100 times more effective. Even in selective testing,static testing may be up to 10 times more effective. The most pessimistic estimates suggest afactor of 4.Reason number 3: Since static testing is faster and achieves 100% coverage, the unit cost ofdetecting these bugs by static testing is many times lower than detecting bugs by dynamictesting.
  • 109. Reason number 4: About half of the bugs, detectable by dynamic testing, can be detectedearlier by static testing.Reason number 5: If one uses neither static nor dynamic test tools, the static tools offer greatermarginal benefits.Reason number 6: If an urgent deadline looms on the horizon, the use of dynamic testing toolscan be omitted, but tool-supported static testing should never be omitted.What is the definiton of top down design?Top down design progresses from simple design to detailed design. Top down design solvesproblems by breaking them down into smaller, easier to solve subproblems. Top down designcreates solutions to these smaller problems, and then tests them using test drivers. In otherwords, top down design starts the design process with the main module or system, thenprogresses down to lower level modules and subsystems. To put it differently, top down designlooks at the whole system, and then explodes it into subsystems, or smaller parts. A systemsengineer or systems analyst determines what the top level objectives are, and how they can bemet. He then divides the system into subsystems, i.e. breaks the whole system into logical,manageable-size modules, and deals with them individually.What is the future of software QA/testing?In software QA/testing, employers increasingly want us to have a combination of technical,business, and personal skills. By technical skills they mean skills in IT, quantitative analysis,data modeling, and technical writing. By business skills they mean skills in strategy andbusiness writing. By personal skills they mean personal communication, leadership, teamwork,and problem-solving skills. We, employees, on the other hand, want increasingly moreautonomy, better lifestyle, increasingly more employee oriented company culture, and bettergeographic location. We continue to enjoy relatively good job security and, depending on thebusiness cycle, many job opportunities. We realize our skills are important, and have strongincentives to upgrade our skills, although sometimes lack the information on how to do so.Educational institutions increasingly ensure that we are exposed to real-life situations andproblems, but high turnover rates and a rapid pace of change in the IT industry often act asstrong disincentives for employers to invest in our skills, especially non-company specific skills.Employers continue to establish closer links with educational institutions, both through in-houseeducation programs and human resources. The share of IT workers with IT degrees keepsincreasing. Certification continues to keep helping employers to quickly identify us with the latestskills. During boom times, smaller and younger companies continue to be the most attractive tous, especially those that offer stock options and performance bonuses in order to retain andattract those of us who are the most skilled. High turnover rates continue to be the norm,especially during economic boom. Software QA/testing continues to be outsourced to offshore
  • 110. locations. Software QA/testing continues to be performed by mostly men, but the share ofwomen keeps increasing.How can I be effective and efficient, when Im testing e-commerce web sites?When youre doing black box testing of an e-commerce web site, youre most efficient andeffective when youre testing the sites visual appeal, content, and home page. When you wantto be effective and efficient, you need to verify that the site is well planned; verify that the site iscustomer-friendly; verify that the choices of colors are attractive; verify that the choices of fontsare attractive; verify that the sites audio is customer friendly; verify that the sites video isattractive; verify that the choice of graphics is attractive; verify that every page of the site isdisplayed properly on all the popular browsers; verify the authenticity of facts; ensure the siteprovides reliable and consistent information; test the site for appearance; test the site forgrammatical and spelling errors; test the site for visual appeal, choice of browsers, consistencyof font size, download time, broken links, missing links, incorrect links, and browsercompatibility; test each toolbar, each menu item, every window, every field prompt, every pop-up text, and every error message; test every page of the site for left and right justifications,every shortcut key, each control, each push button, every radio button, and each item on everydrop-down menu; test each list box, and each help menu item. Also check, if the commandbuttons are grayed out when theyre not in use.What is the difference between top down and bottom up design?Top down design proceeds from the abstract entity to get to the concrete design. Bottom updesign proceeds from the concrete design to get to the abstract entity.Top down design is most often used in designing brand new systems, while bottom up design issometimes used when one is reverse engineering a design; i.e. when one is trying to figure outwhat somebody else designed in an existing system.Bottom up design begins the design with the lowest level modules or subsystems, andprogresses upward to the main program, module, or subsystem. With bottom up design, astructure chart is necessary to determine the order of execution, and the development of driversis necessary to complete the bottom up approach.Top down design, on the other hand, begins the design with the main or top-level module, andprogresses downward to the lowest level modules or subsystems.Real life sometimes is a combination of top down design and bottom up design. For instance,data modeling sessions tend to be iterative, bouncing back and forth between top down andbottom up modes, as the need arises.
  • 111. Give me one test case that catches all the bugs!On the negative side, if there was a "magic bullet", i.e. the one test case that was able to catchALL the bugs, or at least the most important bugs, itd be a challenge to find it, because testcases depend on requirements; requirements depend on what customers need; and customershave great many different needs that keep changing. As software systems are changing andgetting increasingly complex, it is increasingly more challenging to write test cases.On the positive side, there are ways to create "minimal test cases" which can greatly simplifythe test steps to be executed. But, writing such test cases is time consuming, and projectdeadlines often prevent us from going that route. Often the lack of enough time for testing is thereason for bugs to occur in the field.However, even with ample time to catch the "most important bugs", bugs still surface withamazing spontaneity. The fundamental challenge is, developers do not seem to know how toavoid providing the many opportunities for bugs to hide, and testers do not seem to know wherethe bugs are hiding.What testing approaches can you tell me about?Each of the followings represents a different testing approach: black box testing, white boxtesting, unit testing, incremental testing, integration testing, functional testing, system testing,end-to-end testing, sanity testing, regression testing, acceptance testing, load testing,performance testing, usability testing, install/uninstall testing, recovery testing, security testing,compatibility testing, exploratory testing, ad-hoc testing, user acceptance testing, comparisontesting, alpha testing, beta testing, and mutation testing.Can you give me five common problems?Poorly written requirements, unrealistic schedules, inadequate testing, adding new featuresafter development is underway and poor communication.Requirements are poorly written when theyre unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable;therefore there will be problems.The schedule is unrealistic if too much work is crammed in too little time.Software testing is inadequate if none knows whether or not the software is any good untilcustomers complain or the system crashes.Its extremely common that new features are added after development is underway.Miscommunication either means the developers dont know what is needed, or customers haveunrealistic expectations and therefore problems are guaranteed.Can you give me five common solutions?
  • 112. Solid requirements, realistic schedules, adequate testing, firm requirements, and goodcommunication.Ensure the requirements are solid, clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable and testable.All players should agree to requirements. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.Have schedules that are realistic. Allow adequate time for planning, design, testing, bug fixing,re-testing, changes and documentation. Personnel should be able to complete the projectwithout burning out.Do testing that is adequate. Start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, and plan forsufficient time for both testing and bug fixing.Avoid new features. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible. Be prepared to defenddesign against changes and additions, once development has begun and be prepared toexplain consequences.If changes are necessary, ensure theyre adequately reflected in related schedule changes. Useprototypes early on so customers expectations are clarified and customers can see what toexpect; this will minimize changes later on.Communicate. Require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate; make extensive use ofe-mail, networked bug-tracking tools, tools of change management. Ensure documentation isavailable and up-to-date. Use documentation that is electronic, not paper. Promote teamworkand cooperation.What if the application has functionality that wasnt in the requirements?It can take a serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hiddenfunctionality, which can indicate deeper problems in the software development process.If the functionality isnt necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed, as itmay have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designeror the customer.If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs orregression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks asa result of the unexpected functionality. If the unexpected functionality only affects areas, e.g.minor improvements in user interface, then it may not be a significant risk.How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?When you implement software QA processes without stifling productivity, you want to implementyhem slowly over time. You want to use consensus to reach agreement on processes, andadjust, and experiment, as an organization grows and matures.Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need forproblem detection. Panics and burnout will decrease, and there will be improved focus, and lesswasted effort.At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize
  • 113. paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting,minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process.However, no one, especially not the talented technical types like bureaucracy, and in the shortrun things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning anddevelopment will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calmingof irate customers.Should I take a course in manual testing?Yes, you want to consider taking a course in manual testing. Why? Because learning how toperform manual testing is an important part of ones education. Unless you have a significantpersonal reason for not taking a course, you do not want to skip an important part of anacademic program.To learn to use WinRunner, should I sign up for a course at a nearby educationalinstitution?Free, or inexpensive, education is often provided on the job, by an employer, while one isgetting paid to do a job that requires the use of WinRunner and many other software testingtools.In lieu of a job, it is often a good idea to sign up for courses at nearby educational institutes.Classes, especially non-degree courses in community colleges, tend to be inexpensive.Test SpecificationsThe test case specifications should be developed from the test plan and are the second phaseof the test development life cycle. The test specification should explain "how" to implement thetest cases described in the test plan.Test Specification ItemsEach test specification should contain the following items:Case No.: The test case number should be a three digit identifer of the following form: c.s.t,where: c- is the chapter number, s- is the section number, and t- is the test case number.Title: is the title of the test.ProgName: is the program name containing the test.Author: is the person who wrote the test specification.Date: is the date of the last revision to the test case.Background: (Objectives, Assumptions, References, Success Criteria): Describes in words howto conduct the test.Expected Error(s): Describes any errors expectedReference(s): Lists reference documententation used to design the specification.Data: (Tx Data, Predicted Rx Data): Describes the data flows between the Implementation
  • 114. Under Test (IUT) and the test engine.Script: (Pseudo Code for Coding Tests): Pseudo code (or real code) used to conduct the test.Example Test SpecificationTest SpecificationCase No. 7.6.3 Title: Invalid Sequence Number (TC)ProgName: UTEP221 Author: B.C.G. Date: 07/06/2000Background: (Objectives, Assumptions, References, Success Criteria)Validate that the IUT will reject a normal flow PIU with a transmissionheader that has an invalidsequence number.Expected Sense Code: $2001, Sequence Number ErrorReference - SNA Format and Protocols Appendix G/p. 380Data: (Tx Data, Predicted Rx Data)IUT<-------- DATA FIS, OIC, DR1 SNF=20<-------- DATA LIS, SNF=20--------> -RSP $2001Script: (Pseudo Code for Coding Tests)SEND_PIU FIS, OIC, DR1, DRI SNF=20SEND_PIU LIS, SNF=20R_RSP $2001Formal Technical Review: Reviews that include walkthroughs, inspection, ....Formal Technical ReviewReviews that include walkthroughs, inspection, round-robin reviews and other small grouptechnical assessment of software. It is a planned and control meeting attended by the analyst,programmers and people involve in the software development.  Uncover errors in logic, function or implementation for any representation of software  To verify that the software under review meets the requirements  To ensure that the software has been represented according to predefined standards  To achieve software that is developed in a uniform manner.  To make project more manageable.  Early discovery of software defects, so that in the development and maintenance phase the errors are substantially reduced. " Serves as a training ground, enabling junior members to observe the different approaches in the software development phases (gives them helicopter view of what other are doing when developing the software).
  • 115.  Allows for continuity and backup of the project. This is because a number of people are become familiar with parts of the software that they might not have otherwise seen,  Greater cohesion between different developers.Reluctance of implementing Software Quality AssuranceManagers are reluctant to incur the extra upfront costSuch upfront cost are not budgeted in software development therefore management may beunprepared to fork out the money.Avoid Red - Tape (Bureaucracy)Red- tape means extra administrative activities that needs to be performed as SQA involves alot of paper work. New procedures to determine that software quality is correctly implementedneeds to be developed, followed through and verified by external auditing bodies. Theserequirements involves a lot of administrative paperwork.Benefits of Software Quality Assurance to the organizationHigher reliability will result in greater customer satisfaction: as software development isessentially a business transaction between a customer and developer, customers will naturallytend to patronize the services of the developer again if they are satisfied with the product.Overall life cycle cost of software reduced.As software quality is performed to ensure that software is conformance to certain requirementsand standards. The maintenance cost of the software is gradually reduced as the softwarerequires less modification after SQA. Maintenance refers to the correction and modification oferrors that may be discovered only after implementation of the program. Hence, proper SQAprocedures would identify more errors before the software gets released, therefore resulting inthe overall reduction of the life cycle cost.Constraints of Software Quality AssuranceDifficult to institute in small organizations where available resources to perform the necessaryactivities are not present. A smaller organization tends not to have the required resources likemanpower, capital etc to assist in the process of SQA.Cost not budgetedIn addition, SQA requires the expenditure of dollars that are not otherwise explicitly budgeted tosoftware engineering and software quality. The implementation of SQA involves immediateupfront costs, and the benefits of SQA tend to be more long-term than short-term. Hence, someorganizations may be less willing to include the cost of implementing SQA into their budget.
  • 116. SOFTWARE TESTING METRICSIn general testers must rely on metrics collected in analysis, design and coding stages of thedevelopment in order to design, develop and conduct the tests necessary. These generallyserve as indicators of overall testing effort needed. High-level design metrics can also helppredict the complexities associated with integration testing and the need for specialized testingsoftware (e.g. stubs and drivers). Cyclomatic complexity may yield modules that will requireextensive testing as those with high cyclomatic complexity are more likely to be error prone.Metrics collected from testing, on the other hand, usually comprise of the number and type oferrors, failures, bugs and defects found. These can then serve as measures used to calculatefurther testing effort required. They can also be used as a management tool to determine theextensity of the projects success or failure and the correctness of the design. In any case theseshould be collected, examined and stored for future needs.OBJECT ORIENTED TESTING METRICSTesting metrics can be grouped into two categories: encapsulation and inheritance.EncapsulationLack of cohesion in methods (LCOM) - The higher the value of LCOM, the more states have tobe tested.Percent public and protected (PAP) - This number indicates the percentage of class attributesthat are public and thus the likelihood of side effects among classes.Public access to data members (PAD) - This metric shows the number of classes that accessother classs attributes and thus violation of encapsulationInheritanceNumber of root classes (NOR) - A count of distinct class hierarchies.Fan in (FIN) - FIN > 1 is an indication of multiple inheritance and should be avoided.Number of children (NOC) and depth of the inheritance tree (DIT) - For each subclass, itssuperclass has to be re-tested. The above metrics (and others) are different than those used intraditional software testing, however, metrics collected from testing should be the same (i.e.number and type of errors, performance metrics, etc.).