DEVELOPMENT OF
PALATE

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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FERTILIZATION

BLASTOCYST

MORULA

2 CELL STAGE

4 CELL STAGE

16 CELL STAGE

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PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
3 – 7 weeks

first 2 weeks

3

STAGES

GERMINAL

EMBRYONIC

8 wks – 9 mths

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3 WEEKS

4

5 WEEKS

WEEKS

6 WEEKS

7 WEEKS

IN FOCUS . . .
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The normal …. at a glance.

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The Hard Palate . . .

MID PALATINE ZONE
GLANDULAR RAPHE
INCISIVE PAPILLA
FATTY ZONE
RUGAE

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Two sides of the
same coin . . .
NASAL SIDE

COLUMNAR CILIATED

ORAL SIDE

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

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The Bony Palate . . .

HORIZONTAL PLATE
PALATINE PROCESS
PALATO MAXILLARY
INTERMAXILLARY
INTERPALATINE
F F.LESSER FORAMEN
...
Nerve Supply . . .
Blood

LESSER PALATINE
NASOPALATINE
GREATER PALATINE
ARTERY
NERVE
NERVE
NERVE

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Soft Palate . . .

REDDISH MUCOSA
TASTE BUDS

NON KERATINISED

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Soft Palate muscles . . .
Tensor veli palatini

Levator veli palatini
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus
Musculus uvulae

www....
Functions . . .

Separation of the two system
Swallowing
Breathing
Phonation
Mastication
Hearing
Taste

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The Process of
Development . . .

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PALATE DEVELOPMENT

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

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PRIMARY PALATE

4 th week of intrauterine life

Fusion of medial nasal process
Forms intermaxillary segment
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PRIMARY PALATE
FRONTAL VIEW

VENTRAL VIEW

Medial nasal
process

INTERMAXILLARY SEGMENT
PRIMARY PALATE
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PRIMARY PALATE

Intermaxillary segment forms the primary palate
which becomes the future premaxilla,
bearing the four inci...
SECONDARY PALATE

Starts at the 6 th week
Palatine shelves emerges laterally
from maxillary process
First descends vertica...
Secondary palate . . .
FRONTAL SECTION
NASAL SEPTUM
MAXILLARY
PROCESS

PRIMITIVE MOUTH
TH
MOU

Stark compares . . .

O

UE...
SECONDARY PALATE
VENTRAL VIEW

Coordinated formation of the primary palate,
secondary palate & nasal septum
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SEM view of various stages
Downward shelf
orientation

PRIMARY
PALATE

7 WEEKS

Horizontal
orientation
8 WEEKS

Fused shel...
Behind The Scene . . .

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Shelf elevation . . . ?
Tongue depression . . .?
Shelves meet . . . ?
Shelf fusion . . . ?
Shelf position . . . ?
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Shelf elevation . . . ?
Hydration & Polymerization
Hyaluronic acid
Seratonin & Acetylcholine release
Swelling of extra cel...
Tongue depression . . . ?
Growth of Meckel’s cartilage
Myoneural activity of tongue
Maxilla – Cranium
Growth of head
Muscl...
Shelves meet . . . ?
Rapid cell proliferation
Muscle segment homeobox
Bone morphogenic protein
Sonic hedge hog

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Shelf fusion . . . ?
3 mechanisms

...

Necrosis of MES due to
lysosomal autolysis
Transformation of basal MEE
to mesenchy...
ADHESION OF SHELVES

SURFACE EPITHELIUM

BASAL EPITHELIUM

GLYCOPROTEIN RICH SEAM
MEDIAN EPITHELIAL COAT
BEFORE

24-36 HOU...
EPITHELIAL - MESENCHYMAL
TRANSFORMATION

II

I
TßR

TßR

Serine – Threonine
Kinases
Indispensable

TGF-ß
Betaglycan

III

...
II

TGF-ß3
I

TGF-ß3

II

I

III
TGF-ß3

TGF-ß3

III

III

III

III
TGF-ß3 I

II

II

I

III

TGF-ß3

III III

I

TGF-ß3
I...
VERTICAL POSITION

HORIZONTAL POSITION
WITH MEE

HORIZONTAL POSITION
WITHOUT MEE
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Shelf position . . . ?
Growth of the mandible
Swallowing of amniotic
fluid

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Back to basics . . .

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Origin of mesenchyme . . .
Neurulution
From mid &
hindbrain
into branchial
arches
Pluripotent Cells
Facial mesenchyme
Home...
Differentiates . . .
OSTEOBLASTS
MYOBLASTS

Bone formation
Muscle development

HAEMOCYTOBLASTS
LYMPHOBLASTS

Blood vessels...
Muscle development of
soft palate…

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Tensor Veli Palatini 40 days
Palatopharyngeous 45 Days
Levator Veli Palatini 8th week
Palatoglossus
Uvular

9th week
11 we...
Origin….

Levator Veli Palatini Palatopharyngeus
&

Palatoglossus
Tensor Uvular
Veli Palatini
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Ossification of Palate …

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INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION
LOOSE MESENCHYME

COLLAGEN FIBRES

MESENCHYMAL CONDENSATION

COLLAGEN
FIBRE
OSTEOID
BUNDLES
G...
OSSIFICATION OF PALATE
At end of 7th week . . .
At the junction of vertical plate & horizontal plate
Tiny cresent places a...
OSSIFICATION OF PALATE
During the 8th week . . .
spreads backward to form
pyramidal process
downwards to form
tuberosity

...
OSSIFICATION OF PALATE
At the 9th week . . .
the two branches of the pyramidal process
are widely seperated for internal p...
OSSIFICATION OF PALATE
In the 10th week . . .
the sphenoidal & orbital
process develops
at the junction bone extends
forwa...
Dimensions . . .
Horizontal more than vertical- fetal
Equal in length – at birth
Vertical more than horizontal – after bir...
Mesenchymal condensation . . .
Reorientation of the Golgi bodies
Fibronectin for cluster formation
Polysaccharide prevents...
Sutures . . .

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Sutures . . .
Site of cellular proliferation &
fibre formation
Appositional osteogenesis
Growth occurs as compensation
to ...
Mid palatal suture . . .
Plane or butt-end type
First evident at 10 ½ weeks i.u
Growth ceases between
1 and 2 years
Oblite...
INFANCY

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Y
CHILDHOOD

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T
ADOLESENCE

HIGHLYwww.indiandentalacademy.com
INTERDIGITATED
Ossifying centres . . .

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DISPUTES IN OSSIFYING
CENTRES

Kölliker

One centre

Albrecht

Two centre

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More disputes . . .

Callender

–

no centre of

Schwink
Piersol
Rambaud & Renault

1

its own

centre

3 centres
Frasetto...
Essential facts . . .
Premaxilla – 8 weeks
Palatine bone – 9 weeks

The centers fuse into a single mass
before the 25 mm s...
GROWTH

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CRANIAL Vs FACIAL GROWTH

POSTNATAL – MORE FACIAL THAN CRANIAL
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REMODELING
Vs

DISPLACEMENT

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REMODELING
Resorption & deposition
Genic tissues
Inferior direction
Resorption on oral side
& deposition on nasal side
Rel...
REMODELING
Changes bone size
Relocates bone
Shapes the bone
Fine tune fitting of bone
Adapts the bone
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FETAL SKULL

ADULT SKULL

Relocation
Increase in vertical dimension
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REMODELING

Resorption

Nasal side
Oral side

Deposition

Downwards
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REMODELING
Resorption
outer side
Deposition
inner side

ds
ar
ow d
t
g en
in r
ov ide
M W

Change in position
Change in si...
DISPLACEMENT
Physical movement as a whole
Expansive force of soft tissues
Simultaneously remodels
Primary / Secondary
Forw...
DISPLACEMENT

1

2
3

REMODELLING
DISPLACEMENT

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GROWTH ROTATION
Compensatory
remodeling
rotation
Fields
reversed

Displacement
rotation
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Drift . . .
drift is the movement of bone in space by virtue of
apposition on one side of a cortex or surface & resorption...
VERTICAL DRIFT or ERUPTION
Takes place in addition to eruption
Occurs by resorption & deposition
periodontal connective ti...
COUNTERPART PRINCIPLE
growth of any given facial or cranial part
relates specifically to other structural &
geometric coun...
COUNTERPART PRINCIPLE

Anterior cranial
palate
fossa

Palate
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Maxillary base
THEORIES OF GROWTH
SICHER’S THEORY

SCOTT’S THEORY

MOSS THEORY
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Sicher’s Sutural dominance theory . . .

Reasons for failure . . .
Growth site

Vs

Growth centre

After transplantation
t...
Compare man . . .
. . . & his best friend !

...A
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Axis .
Maxillo mandibular apparatus . . .
Cranium . . .
Less
Big prominent
Vertical
More
Smallprominent
Horizontal

Human ...
Reasonable hypothesis . . .

Feature
s

Pronograde – four footed
Olfactory sense – the first sense !
Tactile sensation of ...
Reasonable hypothesis . . .
Plantigrade – two footed
Well developed brain – frontal lobe
Liberty of limb movements
Eating ...
Evolution of Palate . . .
d
ape
- sh

UA. Afarensis

3

7

4

DEEP . . .
Homo Erectus

H.Neanderthalensis
12

P.Robustus

...
Foramen . . .
Constant remodeling throughout life
Decreases in size – physiological or pathological
contents are not affec...
The debated Premaxilla . . .

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PARTICIPANTS . . .

Separate . . .

VERSALIUS 1543
COLUMBUS 1559
FALLOPIUS 1561
CAMPER 1778
KOLLIKER 1882
FAWCETT 1911
ALB...
Premaxilla . . . A Problemaxilla?

Separate . .
Suture line
- Fetal

Fused . .
No suture line
- Adult

Suture on palate

O...
BAT

AUSTRALOPITHECUS
AFARENSIS

PE
A

-

CHIMPANZEE

AUSTRALOPITHECUS
AFRICANUS

GORILLA

HOMO SAPIENS

E
K
LI

3RD BRANC...
The difference of opinions . .
Separate ossification centres

Maxillary bone grows & spreads
over the facial surface of
pr...
Convincing Proof . . .
Histological evidence . . .

Distinction between calcified bone
of maxilla and osteoid of the
prema...
Premaxilla . . . Problemaxilla?

The argument continues . . . . .
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Dimensional changes . . .

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CHANGES IN UTERUS
7 - 18 WEEKS

4 MONTHS

Length increases Width increases
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CHANGES OUT OF UTERUS
AT BIRTH

Equal

POST NATAL

Length increases

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The factors influencing. . .

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Genetics . . .
IGF-II R / TGF-ß2 / cdK4
- Break In circuit
TGF –ALPHA A2
MUTATION OF OSR-2 & TBX22
GENE FOR GAD67
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Environmental . . .
DRUGS
Corticosteroids
Anticonvulsants
Benzodiazepines
Methotrexate
Thalidomide
Phenobarbitones
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HABITS
Smoking –

Maternal smoking
leads to cleft

Thumb sucking
Mouth breathing

- leads to narrowing of palate
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DIETARY AGENTS
Vitamin A
Folate

INVESTIGATIONS
Radiation
CVS testing
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L
GU

F

AR
W
CVS TEST
( CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ? )
(CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING)

Detects chromosomal abnormalities
Done at 10 – 12 weeks o...
The abnormalities . . .

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CLEFT PALATE

CROUZAN’S
PIERRE ROBIN
TREACHER COLLINS
SPRENGEL’S
MARFAN’S
APERTS

TREACHERROBINSYNDROME
PIERRE COLLINS’ SY...
Epstein’s pearls
Bohn’s nodules
Dental lamina cysts
Nasopalatine duct cyst
Torus platinus
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. . .of soft Palate
muscle hypoplasia of
musculus uvulae
Paralysis

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Orthodontic
perspectives….
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Occlusion
Landmark in cephalometrics
Spongy bone
Nasorespiratory function
Mid Palatal suture
Onplants
Support www.indiande...
Concluding . . .

“If the rate of growth of the first month
of embryonic life were to be maintained
until adulthood, the r...
4 years . . .

6 years . . .

Adult . . .

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Thank you . . .

For the patience!
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Development of palate /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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  • ……………………..fision of the 3 palatal components initially prodices a flat , unarched roof of the mouth.the fusing lateral palatal shelves overlap the anterior palatal shelves as indicated later by the sloping pathways of the junctional incisive neurovascular canals that carry the previously formed incisive nerves and blood vesels.the site of junction the 3 palatal components is marked by the incisive papilla overlying the incisive canal.the line of fusion of the palatal shelves in adults is traced by the midpalatal suture .and on the surface by the raphae. This fusion seam is reducd in soft palate by the invasion of extraterritorial mesenchyme.
  • Palatopharyngeal incompetance due to muscle hypoplasis of uvula.paralysis following diphtheria due to action of toxin on nerve cells of medulla oblongata. Voice becoms nasal and fluid regurgiatesinto nose.palate is motionless and anaesthetic.other pathology of glossopharyngeal vagus accessory nerve or their nuclei in medulla odlongata causes palatal paralysis.
  • Development of palate /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

    1. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF PALATE INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. FERTILIZATION BLASTOCYST MORULA 2 CELL STAGE 4 CELL STAGE 16 CELL STAGE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 3 – 7 weeks first 2 weeks 3 STAGES GERMINAL EMBRYONIC 8 wks – 9 mths www.indiandentalacademy.com FETAL
    4. 4. 3 WEEKS 4 5 WEEKS WEEKS 6 WEEKS 7 WEEKS IN FOCUS . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. The normal …. at a glance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. The Hard Palate . . . MID PALATINE ZONE GLANDULAR RAPHE INCISIVE PAPILLA FATTY ZONE RUGAE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Two sides of the same coin . . . NASAL SIDE COLUMNAR CILIATED ORAL SIDE STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. The Bony Palate . . . HORIZONTAL PLATE PALATINE PROCESS PALATO MAXILLARY INTERMAXILLARY INTERPALATINE F F.LESSER FORAMEN .GREATER PALATINE PREMAXILLA INCISIVE PALATINE OF PALATINE BONE OF SUTURE SUTURE MAXILLA SUTURE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Nerve Supply . . . Blood LESSER PALATINE NASOPALATINE GREATER PALATINE ARTERY NERVE NERVE NERVE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. Soft Palate . . . REDDISH MUCOSA TASTE BUDS NON KERATINISED www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. Soft Palate muscles . . . Tensor veli palatini Levator veli palatini Palatoglossus Palatopharyngeus Musculus uvulae www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. Functions . . . Separation of the two system Swallowing Breathing Phonation Mastication Hearing Taste www.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 13. The Process of Development . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 14. PALATE DEVELOPMENT PRIMARY SECONDARY www.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 15. PRIMARY PALATE 4 th week of intrauterine life Fusion of medial nasal process Forms intermaxillary segment www.indiandentalacademy.com
    16. 16. PRIMARY PALATE FRONTAL VIEW VENTRAL VIEW Medial nasal process INTERMAXILLARY SEGMENT PRIMARY PALATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 17. PRIMARY PALATE Intermaxillary segment forms the primary palate which becomes the future premaxilla, bearing the four incisor teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. SECONDARY PALATE Starts at the 6 th week Palatine shelves emerges laterally from maxillary process First descends vertically downwards due to presence of tongue Tongue drops, shelves ascends to a horizontal position Moves towards each other www.indiandentalacademy.com Fuses with each other
    19. 19. Secondary palate . . . FRONTAL SECTION NASAL SEPTUM MAXILLARY PROCESS PRIMITIVE MOUTH TH MOU Stark compares . . . O UE NG T Shelves fuse with each other, With base of the shelves assume a Tongue drops & nasal septum Vertically downward orientation & With primary palate anteriorly Horizontal position. www.indiandentalacademy.com of shelves. BASSET HOUND
    20. 20. SECONDARY PALATE VENTRAL VIEW Coordinated formation of the primary palate, secondary palate & nasal septum www.indiandentalacademy.com
    21. 21. SEM view of various stages Downward shelf orientation PRIMARY PALATE 7 WEEKS Horizontal orientation 8 WEEKS Fused shelves 9 www.indiandentalacademy.com WEEKS 22 WEEKS
    22. 22. Behind The Scene . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. Shelf elevation . . . ? Tongue depression . . .? Shelves meet . . . ? Shelf fusion . . . ? Shelf position . . . ? www.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 24. Shelf elevation . . . ? Hydration & Polymerization Hyaluronic acid Seratonin & Acetylcholine release Swelling of extra cellular matrix Biosynthetic activity Pushed by the tongue Epithelial plug of external nares www.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. Tongue depression . . . ? Growth of Meckel’s cartilage Myoneural activity of tongue Maxilla – Cranium Growth of head Muscle traction Swallowing & Hiccups Withdrawal of head from heart www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. Shelves meet . . . ? Rapid cell proliferation Muscle segment homeobox Bone morphogenic protein Sonic hedge hog www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. Shelf fusion . . . ? 3 mechanisms ... Necrosis of MES due to lysosomal autolysis Transformation of basal MEE to mesenchyme Migration of epithelial cells nasally or orally www.indiandentalacademy.com
    28. 28. ADHESION OF SHELVES SURFACE EPITHELIUM BASAL EPITHELIUM GLYCOPROTEIN RICH SEAM MEDIAN EPITHELIAL COAT BEFORE 24-36 HOURS - DNA SYNTHESIS STOPS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. EPITHELIAL - MESENCHYMAL TRANSFORMATION II I TßR TßR Serine – Threonine Kinases Indispensable TGF-ß Betaglycan III Direct modulator TßR www.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 30. II TGF-ß3 I TGF-ß3 II I III TGF-ß3 TGF-ß3 III III III III TGF-ß3 I II II I III TGF-ß3 III III I TGF-ß3 I III II I II II I III TGF-ß3 TGF-ß3 III I TGF-ß3 I II I III II III IIII I TGF-ß3 I II II II III I TGF-ß3 I III II III II I II III III II III SMAD PROTEINS www.indiandentalacademy.com I
    31. 31. VERTICAL POSITION HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH MEE HORIZONTAL POSITION WITHOUT MEE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    32. 32. Shelf position . . . ? Growth of the mandible Swallowing of amniotic fluid www.indiandentalacademy.com
    33. 33. Back to basics . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    34. 34. Origin of mesenchyme . . . Neurulution From mid & hindbrain into branchial arches Pluripotent Cells Facial mesenchyme Homeobox genes www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. Differentiates . . . OSTEOBLASTS MYOBLASTS Bone formation Muscle development HAEMOCYTOBLASTS LYMPHOBLASTS Blood vessels Lymphoid tissue www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. Muscle development of soft palate… www.indiandentalacademy.com
    37. 37. Tensor Veli Palatini 40 days Palatopharyngeous 45 Days Levator Veli Palatini 8th week Palatoglossus Uvular 9th week 11 week th www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. Origin…. Levator Veli Palatini Palatopharyngeus & Palatoglossus Tensor Uvular Veli Palatini www.indiandentalacademy.com
    39. 39. Ossification of Palate … www.indiandentalacademy.com
    40. 40. INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION LOOSE MESENCHYME COLLAGEN FIBRES MESENCHYMAL CONDENSATION COLLAGEN FIBRE OSTEOID BUNDLES GELATINOUS MATRIX OSTEOBLASTS www.indiandentalacademy.com OSTEOCYTES
    41. 41. OSSIFICATION OF PALATE At end of 7th week . . . At the junction of vertical plate & horizontal plate Tiny cresent places antero-posteriorly with concavity towards medial Extends upward to form vertical plate & medialward to form horizontal plate www.indiandentalacademy.com
    42. 42. OSSIFICATION OF PALATE During the 8th week . . . spreads backward to form pyramidal process downwards to form tuberosity www.indiandentalacademy.com
    43. 43. OSSIFICATION OF PALATE At the 9th week . . . the two branches of the pyramidal process are widely seperated for internal pterygoid plate vertical plate is at 45° later stages at right angles to the horizontal plate www.indiandentalacademy.com
    44. 44. OSSIFICATION OF PALATE In the 10th week . . . the sphenoidal & orbital process develops at the junction bone extends forwards & overlaps maxillary bone vertical plate – fan horizontal plate – www.indiandentalacademy.com pyramidal
    45. 45. Dimensions . . . Horizontal more than vertical- fetal Equal in length – at birth Vertical more than horizontal – after birth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    46. 46. Mesenchymal condensation . . . Reorientation of the Golgi bodies Fibronectin for cluster formation Polysaccharide prevents aggregation Hyaluronidase breaks down inhibitors www.indiandentalacademy.com
    47. 47. Sutures . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    48. 48. Sutures . . . Site of cellular proliferation & fibre formation Appositional osteogenesis Growth occurs as compensation to separating forces Alternating oscillatory movement Responds towww.indiandentalacademy.com and tension pressure
    49. 49. Mid palatal suture . . . Plane or butt-end type First evident at 10 ½ weeks i.u Growth ceases between 1 and 2 years Obliteration starts in adolescence Complete fusion rare until www.indiandentalacademy.com
    50. 50. INFANCY www.indiandentalacademy.com Y
    51. 51. CHILDHOOD www.indiandentalacademy.com T
    52. 52. ADOLESENCE HIGHLYwww.indiandentalacademy.com INTERDIGITATED
    53. 53. Ossifying centres . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    54. 54. DISPUTES IN OSSIFYING CENTRES Kölliker One centre Albrecht Two centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
    55. 55. More disputes . . . Callender – no centre of Schwink Piersol Rambaud & Renault 1 its own centre 3 centres Frasetto 5 centres Jarmer – – Fawcett – Prevomerine www.indiandentalacademy.com centre
    56. 56. Essential facts . . . Premaxilla – 8 weeks Palatine bone – 9 weeks The centers fuse into a single mass before the 25 mm stage (CRL) Premaxilla contributes to anterior nasal process after fusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    57. 57. GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
    58. 58. CRANIAL Vs FACIAL GROWTH POSTNATAL – MORE FACIAL THAN CRANIAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
    59. 59. REMODELING Vs DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
    60. 60. REMODELING Resorption & deposition Genic tissues Inferior direction Resorption on oral side & deposition on nasal side Relocation of the palate www.indiandentalacademy.com
    61. 61. REMODELING Changes bone size Relocates bone Shapes the bone Fine tune fitting of bone Adapts the bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
    62. 62. FETAL SKULL ADULT SKULL Relocation Increase in vertical dimension www.indiandentalacademy.com
    63. 63. REMODELING Resorption Nasal side Oral side Deposition Downwards www.indiandentalacademy.com
    64. 64. REMODELING Resorption outer side Deposition inner side ds ar ow d t g en in r ov ide M W Change in position Change in size V rin P ple ci Palate becomes wider www.indiandentalacademy.com
    65. 65. DISPLACEMENT Physical movement as a whole Expansive force of soft tissues Simultaneously remodels Primary / Secondary Forwards & Downwards www.indiandentalacademy.com
    66. 66. DISPLACEMENT 1 2 3 REMODELLING DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
    67. 67. GROWTH ROTATION Compensatory remodeling rotation Fields reversed Displacement rotation www.indiandentalacademy.com
    68. 68. Drift . . . drift is the movement of bone in space by virtue of apposition on one side of a cortex or surface & resorption on the other palatal drift - classic example nasal floor – resorptive & roof of mouth - depository www.indiandentalacademy.com
    69. 69. VERTICAL DRIFT or ERUPTION Takes place in addition to eruption Occurs by resorption & deposition periodontal connective tissue membrane Provide adjustments for palatal displacement rotations to level the occlusal plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
    70. 70. COUNTERPART PRINCIPLE growth of any given facial or cranial part relates specifically to other structural & geometric counterparts if each regional part & its counterpart enlarge to the same extent , balanced growth results www.indiandentalacademy.com
    71. 71. COUNTERPART PRINCIPLE Anterior cranial palate fossa Palate www.indiandentalacademy.com Maxillary base
    72. 72. THEORIES OF GROWTH SICHER’S THEORY SCOTT’S THEORY MOSS THEORY www.indiandentalacademy.com
    73. 73. Sicher’s Sutural dominance theory . . . Reasons for failure . . . Growth site Vs Growth centre After transplantation tissue did not grow Suture are areas that react to stimulus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    74. 74. Compare man . . . . . . & his best friend ! ...A www.indiandentalacademy.com
    75. 75. Axis . Maxillo mandibular apparatus . . . Cranium . . . Less Big prominent Vertical More Smallprominent Horizontal Human skull Dog skull www.indiandentalacademy.com Striking differences . . .
    76. 76. Reasonable hypothesis . . . Feature s Pronograde – four footed Olfactory sense – the first sense ! Tactile sensation of the snout Eating style Other functions – tactile, holding, breaking, fighting etc. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    77. 77. Reasonable hypothesis . . . Plantigrade – two footed Well developed brain – frontal lobe Liberty of limb movements Eating style & defence Cooked food – weaker muscles Speech – broader arches ,forward chin www.indiandentalacademy.com Feature s
    78. 78. Evolution of Palate . . . d ape - sh UA. Afarensis 3 7 4 DEEP . . . Homo Erectus H.Neanderthalensis 12 P.Robustus P.Boisie A. Africanus 14 www.indiandentalacademy.com SHALLOW . . . for speech. 8 Homo sapiens 15 c boli a Par
    79. 79. Foramen . . . Constant remodeling throughout life Decreases in size – physiological or pathological contents are not affected in physiologic change compressed in pathologic conditions eg.cervical stenosis (intervertebral foramen) appears to change in position due to changes in neighboring structures eg. Mental foramen www.indiandentalacademy.com
    80. 80. The debated Premaxilla . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    81. 81. PARTICIPANTS . . . Separate . . . VERSALIUS 1543 COLUMBUS 1559 FALLOPIUS 1561 CAMPER 1778 KOLLIKER 1882 FAWCETT 1911 ALBINUS 1746 Fused . . WOODJONES 1929 . LAWRENCE 1838 ROUSSEAU 1858 - 59 GOETHE 1786 KOSENMUELLER 1804 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    82. 82. Premaxilla . . . A Problemaxilla? Separate . . Suture line - Fetal Fused . . No suture line - Adult Suture on palate Ossification defect Ossification time Later fuse All mammals Humans exception www.indiandentalacademy.com
    83. 83. BAT AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFARENSIS PE A - CHIMPANZEE AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICANUS GORILLA HOMO SAPIENS E K LI 3RD BRANCH 4TH BRANCH www.indiandentalacademy.com 15TH BRANCH
    84. 84. The difference of opinions . . Separate ossification centres Maxillary bone grows & spreads over the facial surface of premaxilla No separate centre for premaxill c – shaped maxillary centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
    85. 85. Convincing Proof . . . Histological evidence . . . Distinction between calcified bone of maxilla and osteoid of the premaxilla www.indiandentalacademy.com
    86. 86. Premaxilla . . . Problemaxilla? The argument continues . . . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    87. 87. Dimensional changes . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    88. 88. CHANGES IN UTERUS 7 - 18 WEEKS 4 MONTHS Length increases Width increases www.indiandentalacademy.com
    89. 89. CHANGES OUT OF UTERUS AT BIRTH Equal POST NATAL Length increases www.indiandentalacademy.com
    90. 90. The factors influencing. . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    91. 91. Genetics . . . IGF-II R / TGF-ß2 / cdK4 - Break In circuit TGF –ALPHA A2 MUTATION OF OSR-2 & TBX22 GENE FOR GAD67 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    92. 92. Environmental . . . DRUGS Corticosteroids Anticonvulsants Benzodiazepines Methotrexate Thalidomide Phenobarbitones www.indiandentalacademy.com
    93. 93. HABITS Smoking – Maternal smoking leads to cleft Thumb sucking Mouth breathing - leads to narrowing of palate www.indiandentalacademy.com
    94. 94. DIETARY AGENTS Vitamin A Folate INVESTIGATIONS Radiation CVS testing www.indiandentalacademy.com L GU F AR W
    95. 95. CVS TEST ( CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ? ) (CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING) Detects chromosomal abnormalities Done at 10 – 12 weeks of pregnancy The sample is removed by suction Risk of miscarriage www.indiandentalacademy.com
    96. 96. The abnormalities . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    97. 97. CLEFT PALATE CROUZAN’S PIERRE ROBIN TREACHER COLLINS SPRENGEL’S MARFAN’S APERTS TREACHERROBINSYNDROME PIERRE COLLINS’ SYNDROME KLIPPEL FEILSYNDROME CROUZON’SSYNDROME MARFAN’S SYNDROME DOWN’S SYNDROME APERT’S SYNDROME www.indiandentalacademy.com
    98. 98. Epstein’s pearls Bohn’s nodules Dental lamina cysts Nasopalatine duct cyst Torus platinus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    99. 99. . . .of soft Palate muscle hypoplasia of musculus uvulae Paralysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
    100. 100. Orthodontic perspectives…. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    101. 101. Occlusion Landmark in cephalometrics Spongy bone Nasorespiratory function Mid Palatal suture Onplants Support www.indiandentalacademy.com baseplate
    102. 102. Concluding . . . “If the rate of growth of the first month of embryonic life were to be maintained until adulthood, the resultant individual would be 1,28,350 to the 1,100 power of light years in length.” -Robert Bean ( Anatomist) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    103. 103. 4 years . . . 6 years . . . Adult . . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
    104. 104. Thank you . . . For the patience! www.indiandentalacademy.com

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