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    Mutual funds is the better investments plan Mutual funds is the better investments plan Document Transcript

    • A PROJECT REPORT ON “MUTUAL FUNDS IS THE BETTER INVESTMENTS PLAN” Submitted in partial fulfillment for MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMIMISTRATION Programme of INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY GHAZIABAD Batch2005-08Submitted by :- Under Guidance :-AKHILESH MISHRA CA SHARAD CHAUHANMBA( Three Year Programme) Manager AccountsBatch (2005-2008) Uttam Sugar Mills LimitedEnrolment No-52102689 Corprote office Noida Department of Business Management INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY GHAZIABAD
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWith regard to my Project with Mutual Fund I would like to thank each and every onewho offered help, guideline and support whenever required. First and foremost I would like to express gratitude to Manager SBI kanwaliRoad Dehradoon and other staffs for their support and guidance in the Project work.. Iam extremely grateful to my guide, CA Sharad Chauhan for their valuable guidanceand timely suggestions. I would like to thank all faculty members of Uttam Sugar MillsLimited for the valuable guidance& support. I would also like to extend my thanks to my members and friends for theirsupport specially .MCA Anuj Panday officer I.T.Uttam Sugar Mills Limited Sharanpur& Mr. Rajeev Goyal consultant, Sales tax, income tax .And lastly, I would like toexpress my gratefulness to the parent’s for seeing me through it all.AKHILESH MISHRA
    • CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Akhilesh Mishra a student of IMT-CDL Ghazibad has completedproject work on “MUTUAL FUNDS IS THE BETTER INVESTMENTS PLAN” under myguidance and supervision. I certify that this is an original work and has not been copied from any source.Signature of GuideName of Project Guide CA Sharad ChauhanDate-
    • DECLERATIONI hereby declare that this Project Report entitled “THE MUTUAL FUND IS BETTERINVESTMENT PLAN in SBI Mutual Fund submitted in the partial fulfillment of therequirement of Master of Business Administration (MBA) of INSTITUTE OFMANAGEMET TECHNOLOGY, GHAZIABAD is based on primary & secondarydata found by me in various departments, books, magazines and websites & Collectedby me in under guidance of C.A. Sharad Chauhan.DATE: AKHILESH MISHRA MBA (Three Years) Enrollment No.52102689
    • EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn few years Mutual Fund has emerged as a tool for ensuring one’s financial wellbeing. Mutual Funds have not only contributed to the India growth story but have alsohelped families tap into the success of Indian Industry. As information and awareness isrising more and more people are enjoying the benefits of investing in mutual funds.The main reason the number of retail mutual fund investors remains small is that ninein ten people with incomes in India do not know that mutual funds exist. But oncepeople are aware of mutual fund investment opportunities, the number who decide toinvest in mutual funds increases to as many as one in five people. The trick forconverting a person with no knowledge of mutual funds to a new Mutual Fundcustomer is to understand which of the potential investors are more likely to buymutual funds and to use the right arguments in the sales process that customers willaccept as important and relevant to their decision.This Project gave me a great learning experience and at the same time it gave meenough scope to implement my analytical ability. The analysis and advice presented inthis Project Report is based on market research on the saving and investment practicesof the investors and preferences of the investors for investment in Mutual Funds. ThisReport will help to know about the investors’ Preferences in Mutual Fund means Arethey prefer any particular Asset Management Company (AMC), Which type of Productthey prefer, Which Option (Growth or Dividend) they prefer or Which InvestmentStrategy they follow (Systematic Investment Plan or One time Plan). This Project as awhole can be divided into two parts.
    • The first part gives an insight about Mutual Fund and its various aspects, the CompanyProfile, Objectives of the study, Research Methodology. One can have a briefknowledge about Mutual Fund and its basics through the Project.The second part of the Project consists of data and its analysis collected through surveydone on 200 people. For the collection of Primary data I made a questionnaire andsurveyed of 200 people. I also taken interview of many People those who were comingat the SBI Branch where I done my Project. I visited other AMCs in Dehradoon to getsome knowledge related to my topic. I studied about the products and strategies ofother AMCs in Dehradoon to know why people prefer to invest in those AMCs. ThisProject covers the topic “THE MUTUAL FUND IS BETTER INVESTMENT PLAN.”The data collected has been well organized and presented. I hope the research findingsand conclusion will be of use.
    • CONTENTSAcknowledgementDeclarationExecutive SummaryChapter - 1 INTRODUCTIONChapter - 2 COMPANY PROFILEChapter - 3 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPEChapter - 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYChapter - 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONChapter - 6 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONSChapter - 7 SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY MUTUAL FUNDS
    • ALL ABOUT MUTUAL FUNDS  WHAT IS MUTUAL FUND  BY STRUCTURE  BY NATURE  EQUITY FUND  DEBT FUNDS  BY INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE  OTHER SCHEMES  PROS & CONS OF INVESTING IN MUTUAL FUNDS  ADVANTAGES OF INVESTING MUTUAL FUNDS  DISADVANTAGES OF INVESTING MUTUAL FUNDS  MUTUAL FUNDS INDUSTRY IN INDIA  MAJOR PLAYERS OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN INDIA  HISTORY OF THE INDIAN MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY  CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUNDS  INVESTMENT STRATEGIES  WORKING OF A MUTUAL FUND  GUIDELINES OF THE SEBI FOR MUTUAL FUND  COMPANIES DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS  DOES FUND PERFORMANCE AND RANKING PERSIST?  PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS TOOLS
    • RESEARCH REPORT  OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH  SCOPE OF THE STUDY  DATA SOURCES  SAMPLING  DATA ANALYSIS  QUESTIONNAIRE
    • Chapter - 1Introduction
    • INTRODUCTION TO MUTUAL FUND AND ITS VARIOUSASPECTS.Mutual fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share acommon financial goal. This pool of money is invested in accordance with a statedobjective. The joint ownership of the fund is thus “Mutual”, i.e. the fund belongs to allinvestors. The money thus collected is then invested in capital market instruments suchas shares, debentures and other securities. The income earned through theseinvestments and the capital appreciations realized are shared by its unit holders inproportion the number of units owned by them. Thus a Mutual Fund is the mostsuitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in adiversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost. AMutual Fund is an investment tool that allows small investors access to a well-diversified portfolio of equities, bonds and other securities. Each shareholderparticipates in the gain or loss of the fund. Units are issued and can be redeemed asneeded. The funds Net Asset value (NAV) is determined each day. Investments in securities are spread across a wide cross-section of industries andsectors and thus the risk is reduced. Diversification reduces the risk because all stocksmay not move in the same direction in the same proportion at the same time. Mutualfund issues units to the investors in accordance with quantum of money invested bythem. Investors of mutual funds are known as unit holders.
    • When an investor subscribes for the units of a mutual fund, he becomes part owner ofthe assets of the fund in the same proportion as his contribution amount put up with thecorpus (the total amount of the fund). Mutual Fund investor is also known as a mutualfund shareholder or a unit holder.Any change in the value of the investments made into capital market instruments (suchas shares, debentures etc) is reflected in the Net Asset Value (NAV) of the scheme. NAVis defined as the market value of the Mutual Fund schemes assets net of its liabilities.NAV of a scheme is calculated by dividing the market value of schemes assets by thetotal number of units issued to the investors.
    • ADVANTAGES OF MUTUAL FUND• Portfolio Diversification• Professional management• Reduction / Diversification of Risk• Liquidity• Flexibility & Convenience• Reduction in Transaction cost• Safety of regulated environment• Choice of schemes• TransparencyDISADVANTAGE OF MUTUAL FUND• No control over Cost in the Hands of an Investor• No tailor-made Portfolios• Managing a Portfolio Funds• Difficulty in selecting a Suitable Fund Scheme
    • HISTORY OF THE INDIAN MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRYThe mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust ofIndia, at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank. Though thegrowth was slow, but it accelerated from the year 1987 when non-UTI players enteredthe Industry.In the past decade, Indian mutual fund industry had seen a dramatic improvement, bothqualities wise as well as quantity wise. Before, the monopoly of the market had seen anending phase; the Assets Under Management (AUM) was Rs67 billion. The privatesector entry to the fund family raised the Aum to Rs. 470 billion in March 1993 and tillApril 2004; it reached the height if Rs. 1540 billion.The Mutual Fund Industry is obviously growing at a tremendous space with the mutualfund industry can be broadly put into four phases according to the development of thesector. Each phase is briefly described as under.First Phase – 1964-87Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament by theReserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory and administrative controlof the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and theIndustrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory andadministrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit
    • Scheme 1964. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6,700 crores of assets undermanagement.Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds)1987 marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sectorbanks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General InsuranceCorporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fundestablished in June 1987 followed by Canbank Mutual Fund (Dec 87), Punjab NationalBank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89), Bank of India (Jun90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fund in June1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990.At the end of 1993, themutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores.Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds)1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, underwhich all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhileKothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sectormutual fund registered in July 1993.The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensiveand revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry now functions under theSEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33mutual funds with total assets of Rs. 1,21,805 crores.Fourth Phase – since February 2003
    • In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI wasbifurcated into two separate entities. One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trustof India with assets under management of Rs.29,835 crores as at the end of January2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured return and certainother schemesThe second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It isregistered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. consolidationand growth. As at the end of September, 2004, there were 29 funds, which manageassets of Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.
    • CATEGORIES OF MUTUAL FUND:
    • Mutual funds can be classified as follow : Based on their structure:• Open-ended funds: Investors can buy and sell the units from the fund, at any point of time.• Close-ended funds: These funds raise money from investors only once. Therefore, after the offer period, fresh investments can not be made into the fund. If the fund is listed on a stocks exchange the units can be traded like stocks (E.g., Morgan Stanley Growth Fund). Recently, most of the New Fund Offers of close-ended funds provided liquidity window on a periodic basis such as monthly or weekly. Redemption of units can be made during specified intervals. Therefore, such funds have relatively low liquidity. Based on their investment objective: Equity funds: These funds invest in equities and equity related instruments. With fluctuating share prices, such funds show volatile performance, even losses. However, short term fluctuations in the market, generally smoothens out in the long term, thereby offering higher returns at relatively lower volatility. At the same time, such funds can yield great capital appreciation as, historically, equities have outperformed all asset classes in the long term. Hence, investment in equity funds should be considered for a period of at least 3-5 years. It can be further classified as:
    • i) Index funds- In this case a key stock market index, like BSE Sensex or Nifty istracked. Their portfolio mirrors the benchmark index both in terms of compositionand individual stock weightages.ii) Equity diversified funds- 100% of the capital is invested in equities spreadingacross different sectors and stocks.iii|) Dividend yield funds- it is similar to the equity diversified funds except that theyinvest in companies offering high dividend yields.iv) Thematic funds- Invest 100% of the assets in sectors which are related throughsome theme.e.g. -An infrastructure fund invests in power, construction, cements sectors etc.v) Sector funds- Invest 100% of the capital in a specific sector. e.g. - A banking sectorfund will invest in banking stocks.vi) ELSS- Equity Linked Saving Scheme provides tax benefit to the investors.Balanced fund: Their investment portfolio includes both debt and equity. As a result, onthe risk-return ladder, they fall between equity and debt funds. Balanced funds are the idealmutual funds vehicle for investors who prefer spreading their risk across various instruments.Following are balanced funds classes:i) Debt-oriented funds -Investment below 65% in equities.ii) Equity-oriented funds -Invest at least 65% in equities, remaining in debt.
    • Debt fund: They invest only in debt instruments, and are a good option for investorsaverse to idea of taking risk associated with equities. Therefore, they invest exclusivelyin fixed-income instruments like bonds, debentures, Government of India securities;and money market instruments such as certificates of deposit (CD), commercial paper(CP) and call money. Put your money into any of these debt funds depending on yourinvestment horizon and needs.i) Liquid funds- These funds invest 100% in money market instruments, a largeportion being invested in call money market.ii) Gilt funds ST- They invest 100% of their portfolio in government securities of andT-bills.iii) Floating rate funds - Invest in short-term debt papers. Floaters invest in debtinstruments which have variable coupon rate.iv) Arbitrage fund- They generate income through arbitrage opportunities due to mis-pricing between cash market and derivatives market. Funds are allocated to equities,derivatives and money markets. Higher proportion (around 75%) is put in moneymarkets, in the absence of arbitrage opportunities.v) Gilt funds LT- They invest 100% of their portfolio in long-term governmentsecurities.
    • vi) Income funds LT- Typically, such funds invest a major portion of the portfolio inlong-term debt papers.vii) MIPs- Monthly Income Plans have an exposure of 70%-90% to debt and anexposure of 10%-30% to equities.viii) FMPs- fixed monthly plans invest in debt papers whose maturity is in line withthat of the fund.
    • INVESTMENT STRATEGIES1. Systematic Investment Plan: under this a fixed sum is invested each month on afixed date of a month. Payment is made through post dated cheques or direct debitfacilities. The investor gets fewer units when the NAV is high and more units when theNAV is low. This is called as the benefit of Rupee Cost Averaging (RCA)2. Systematic Transfer Plan: under this an investor invest in debt oriented fund andgive instructions to transfer a fixed sum, at a fixed interval, to an equity scheme of thesame mutual fund.3. Systematic Withdrawal Plan: if someone wishes to withdraw from a mutual fundthen he can withdraw a fixed amount each month.
    • RISK V/S. RETURN:
    • Chapter – 2 Company ProfileINTRODUCTION TO SBI MUTUAL FUNDSBI Funds Management Pvt. Ltd. is one of the leading fund houses in thecountry with an investor base of over 4.6 million and over 20 years of rich
    • experience in fund management consistently delivering value to its investors.SBI Funds Management Pvt. Ltd. is a joint venture between The State Bank ofIndia one of Indias largest banking enterprises, and Société Générale AssetManagement (France), one of the worlds leading fund management companiesthat manages over US$ 500 Billion worldwide.Today the fund house manages over Rs 28500 crores of assets and has a diverseprofile of investors actively parking their investments across 36 active schemes.In 20 years of operation, the fund has launched 38 schemes and successfullyredeemed 15 of them, and in the process, has rewarded our investors withconsistent returns. Schemes of the Mutual Fund have time after timeoutperformed benchmark indices, honored us with 15 awards of performanceand have emerged as the preferred investment for millions of investors. The trustreposed on us by over 4.6 million investors is a genuine tribute to our expertisein fund management.SBI Funds Management Pvt. Ltd. serves its vast family of investors through anetwork of over 130 points of acceptance, 28 Investor Service Centres, 46Investor Service Desks and 56 District Organizers.SBI Mutual is the first bank-sponsored fund to launch an offshore fund – Resurgent India Opportunities Fund.Growth through innovation and stable investment policies is the SBI MF credo.PRODUCTS OF SBI MUTUAL FUNDEquity schemes
    • The investments of these schemes will predominantly be in the stock marketsand endeavor will be to provide investors the opportunity to benefit from thehigher returns which stock markets can provide. However they are also exposedto the volatility and attendant risks of stock markets and hence should bechosen only by such investors who have high risk taking capacities and arewilling to think long term. Equity Funds include diversified Equity Funds,Sectoral Funds and Index Funds. Diversified Equity Funds invest in variousstocks across different sectors while sectoral funds which are specialized EquityFunds restrict their investments only to shares of a particular sector and hence,are riskier than Diversified Equity Funds. Index Funds invest passively only inthe stocks of a particular index and the performance of such funds move withthe movements of the index.  Magnum COMMA Fund  Magnum Equity Fund  Magnum Global Fund  Magnum Index Fund  Magnum Midcap Fund  Magnum Multicap Fund  Magnum Multiplier plus 1993  Magnum Sectoral Funds Umbrella  MSFU- Emerging Business Fund  MSFU- IT Fund
    •  MSFU- Pharma Fund  MSFU- Contra Fund  MSFU- FMCG Fund  SBI Arbitrage Opportunities Fund  SBI Blue chip Fund  SBI Infrastructure Fund - Series I  SBI Magnum Taxgain Scheme 1993  SBI ONE India Fund  SBI TAX ADVANTAGE FUND - SERIES IDebt schemesDebt Funds invest only in debt instruments such as Corporate Bonds,Government Securities and Money Market instruments either completelyavoiding any investments in the stock markets as in Income Funds or Gilt Fundsor having a small exposure to equities as in Monthly Income Plans or ChildrensPlan. Hence they are safer than equity funds. At the same time the expectedreturns from debt funds would be lower. Such investments are advisable for therisk-averse investor and as a part of the investment portfolio for other investors. • Magnum Children’s benefit Plan • Magnum Gilt Fund
    • • Magnum Income Fund • Magnum Insta Cash Fund • Magnum Income Fund- Floating Rate Plan • Magnum Income Plus Fund • Magnum Insta Cash Fund -Liquid Floater Plan • Magnum Monthly Income Plan • Magnum Monthly Income Plan - Floater • Magnum NRI Investment Fund • SBI Premier Liquid FundBALANCED SCHEMESMagnum Balanced Fund invests in a mix of equity and debt investments. Hencethey are less risky than equity funds, but at the same time providecommensurately lower returns. They provide a good investment opportunity toinvestors who do not wish to be completely exposed to equity markets, but islooking for higher returns than those provided by debt funds. • Magnum Balanced Fund
    • COMPETITORS OF SBI MUTUAL FUNDSome of the main competitors of SBI Mutual Fund in Dehradoon are asFollows: i. ICICI Mutual Fund ii. Reliance Mutual Fund iii. UTI Mutual Fund iv. Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund v. Kotak Mutual Fund vi. HDFC Mutual Fund vii. Sundaram Mutual Fund viii. LIC Mutual Fund ix. Principal x. Franklin TempletonAWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
    • SBI Mutual Fund (SBIMF) has been the proud recipient of the ICRA Online Award - 8times, CNBC TV - 18 Crisil Award 2006 - 4 Awards, The Lipper Award (Year 2005-2006) and most recently with the CNBC TV - 18 Crisil Mutual Fund of the Year Award2007 and 5 Awards for our schemes.
    • Chapter - 3Objectives and scope
    • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY1. To find out the Preferences of the investors for Asset Management Company.2. To know the Preferences for the portfolios.3. To know why one has invested or not invested in SBI Mutual fund4. To find out the most preferred channel.5. To find out what should do to boost Mutual Fund Industry.
    • Scope of the studyA big boom has been witnessed in Mutual Fund Industry in resent times. A largenumber of new players have entered the market and trying to gain market share in thisrapidly improving market.The research was carried on in Dehradoon. I had been sent at one of the branch of StateBank of India Dehradoon where I completed my Project work. I surveyed on myProject Topic “A study of preferences of the Investors for investment in Mutual Fund”on the visiting customers of the SBI Boring Canal Road Branch.The study will help to know the preferences of the customers, which company,portfolio, mode of investment, option for getting return and so on they prefer. Thisproject report may help the company to make further planning and strategy.
    • Chapter – 4Research Methodology
    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This report is based on primary as well secondary data, however primary datacollection was given more importance since it is overhearing factor in attitude studies.One of the most important users of research methodology is that it helps in identifyingthe problem, collecting, analyzing the required information data and providing analternative solution to the problem .It also helps in collecting the vital information thatis required by the top management to assist them for the better decision making bothday to day decision and critical ones.Data sources:Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can be used only for thereference. Research has been done by primary data collection, and primary data hasbeen collected by interacting with various people. The secondary data has beencollected through various journals and websites.Duration of Study:The study was carried out for a period of two months, from 30th May to 30th July 2008.
    • Sampling: Sampling procedure:The sample was selected of them who are the customers/visitors of State Bank if India,Boring Canal Road Branch, irrespective of them being investors or not or availing theservices or not. It was also collected through personal visits to persons, by formal andinformal talks and through filling up the questionnaire prepared. The data has beenanalyzed by using mathematical/Statistical tool. Sample size:The sample size of my project is limited to 200 people only. Out of which only 120people had invested in Mutual Fund. Other 80 people did not have invested in MutualFund. Sample design:Data has been presented with the help of bar graph, pie charts, line graphs etc.
    • Limitation: Some of the persons were not so responsive. Possibility of error in data collection because many of investors may have not given actual answers of my questionnaire. Sample size is limited to 200 visitors of State Bank of India , Boring Canal Road Branch, Dehradoon out of these only 120 had invested in Mutual Fund. The sample. size may not adequately represent the whole market. Some respondents were reluctant to divulge personal information which can affect the validity of all responses. The research is confined to a certain part of Dehradoon.
    • Chapter – 5Data Analysis & Interpretation
    • ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA1. (a) Age distribution of the Investors of Dehradoon Age Group <= 30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 >50 No. of 12 18 30 24 20 16 Investors 35 Investors invested in Mutual Fund 30 25 20 15 30 24 10 18 20 16 5 12 0 <=30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 >50 Age group of the InvestorsInterpretation:
    • According to this chart out of 120 Mutual Fund investors of Dehradoon the most are inthe age group of 36-40 yrs. i.e. 25%, the second most investors are in the age group of41-45yrs i.e. 20% and the least investors are in the age group of below 30 yrs.(b). Educational Qualification of investors of Dehradoon Educational Qualification Number of Investors Graduate/ Post Graduate 88 Under Graduate 25 Others 7 Total 120
    • 6% 23% 71% Graduate/Post Graduate Under Graduate OthersInterpretation:
    • Out of 120 Mutual Fund investors 71% of the investors in Dehradoon areGraduate/Post Graduate, 23% are Under Graduate and 6% are others (under HSC).c). Occupation of the investors of Dehradoon Occupation No. of Investors Govt. Service 30 Pvt. Service 45 Business 35 Agriculture 4 Others 6 . 50 No. of Investors 40 30 20 45 35 30 10 4 6 0 Govt. Pvt. Business Agriculture Others Service Service Occupation of the customers
    • Interpretation:In Occupation group out of 120 investors, 38% are Pvt. Employees, 25% areBusinessman, 29% are Govt. Employees, 3% are in Agriculture and 5% are inothers. (d). Monthly Family Income of the Investors of Dehradoon. Income Group No. of Investors <=10,000 5 10,001-15,000 12 15,001-20,000 28 20,001-30,000 43 >30,000 32 50 45 40 No. of Investors 35 30 25 20 43 15 32 28 10 5 12 5 0 <=10 10-15 15-20 20-30 >30 Income Group of the Investorsn (Rs. in Th.) Interpretation: In the Income Group of the investors of Dehradoon, out of 120 investors, 36% investors that is the maximum investors are in the monthly income group Rs.
    • 20,001 to Rs. 30,000, Second one i.e. 27% investors are in the monthlyincome group of more than Rs. 30,000 and the minimum investors i.e. 4%are in the monthly income group of below Rs. 10,000(2) Investors invested in different kind of investments. Kind of Investments No. of Respondents Saving A/C 195 Fixed deposits 148 Insurance 152 Mutual Fund 120 Post office (NSC) 75 Shares/Debentures 50 Gold/Silver 30 Real Estate 65 65 Kinds of Investment 30 50 er SC ilv 75 /S ce old ) 120 G (N 152 148 ffi ce O an 195 st ur Po s c In A/ 0 50 100 150 200 250 g n vi Sa No.of Respondents
    • Interpretation: From the above graph it can be inferred that out of 200 people,97.5% people have invested in Saving A/c, 76% in Insurance, 74% in Fixed Deposits,60% in Mutual Fund, 37.5% in Post Office, 25% in Shares or Debentures, 15% inGold/Silver and 32.5% in Real Estate.3. Preference of factors while investing Factors (a) Liquidity (b) Low Risk (c) High Return (d) Trust No. of 40 60 64 36 Respondents 18% 20% 32% 30% Liquidity Low R k is H hR ig eturn TrustInterpretation:
    • Out of 200 People, 32% People prefer to invest where there is High Return, 30% preferto invest where there is Low Risk, 20% prefer easy Liquidity and 18% prefer Trust4. Awareness about Mutual Fund and its Operations Response Yes No No. of Respondents 135 65 33% 67% Yes No
    • Interpretation:From the above chart it is inferred that 67% People are aware of Mutual Fund and itsoperations and 33% are not aware of Mutual Fund and its operations. 5. Source of information for customers about Mutual Fund Source of information No. of Respondents Advertisement 18 Peer Group 25 Bank 30 Financial Advisors 62 70 60 espondents 50 No. of 40 30 62 20 25 30 R 10 1 8 0 Advertisem Peer Group ent B nk a F ncia ina l Advisors Source of Inform tion aInterpretation: From the above chart it can be inferred that the Financial Advisor is the most important source of information about Mutual Fund. Out of 135 Respondents, 46% know about Mutual fund Through Financial Advisor, 22% through Bank, 19% through Peer Group and 13% through Advertisement.
    • 6. Investors invested in Mutual Fund Response No. of Respondents YES 120 NO 80 Total 200 No 40% Yes 60%Interpretation:Out of 200 People, 60% have invested in Mutual Fund and 40% do not have investedin Mutual Fund.
    • 7. Reason for not invested in Mutual Fund Reason No. of Respondents Not Aware 65 Higher Risk 5 Not any Specific Reason 10 6% 13% 81% Not Aware H her R k ig is Not AnyInterpretation:Out of 80 people, who have not invested in Mutual Fund, 81% are not aware of MutualFund, 13% said there is likely to be higher risk and 6% do not have any specific reason.8. Investors invested in different Assets Management Co. (AMC)
    • Name of AMC No. of Investors SBIMF 55 UTI 75 HDFC 30 Reliance 75 ICICI Prudential 56 Kotak 45 Others 70 Others 70 HDFC 30 Name of AMC Kotak 45 SBIMF 55 ICICI 56 Reliance 75 UTI 75 0 20 40 60 80 No. of InvestorsInterpretation:In Dehradoon most of the Investors preferred UTI and Reliance Mutual Fund. Out of120 Investors 62.5% have invested in each of them, only 46% have invested in SBIMF,47% in ICICI Prudential, 37.5% in Kotak and 25% in HDFC.
    • 9. Reason for invested in SBIMF Reason No. of Respondents Associated with SBI 35 Better Return 5 Agents Advice 15 27% 9% 64% As ociated with S s BI Better Return Agents AdviceInterpretation:Out of 55 investors of SBIMF 64% have invested because of its association withBrand SBI, 27% invested on Agent’s Advice, 9% invested because of better return.10. Reason for not invested in SBIMF
    • Reason No. of Respondents Not Aware 25 Less Return 18 Agent’s Advice 22 34% 38% 28% Not Aware L Return ess Agents AdviceInterpretation:Out of 65 people who have not invested in SBIMF, 38% were not aware with SBIMF,28% do not have invested due to less return and 34% due to Agent’s Advice.11. Preference of Investors for future investment in Mutual Fund Name of AMC No. of Investors SBIMF 76 UTI 45 HDFC 35 Reliance 82 ICICI Prudential 80
    • Kotak 60 Others 75 Others 75 Kotak 60 Nam of AMC IC I Prudential IC 80 Reliance 82 e H F DC 35 UTI 45 SBIMF 76 0 20 40 60 80 100 No. of InvestorsInterpretation:Out of 120 investors, 68% prefer to invest in Reliance, 67% in ICICI Prudential, 63%in SBIMF, 62.5% in Others, 50% in Kotak, 37.5% in UTI and 29% in HDFC MutualFund.12. Channel Preferred by the Investors for Mutual Fund Investment Channel Financial Advisor Bank AMC No. of Respondents 72 18 30
    • 25% 60% 15% F ncia Advisor ina l B nk a AMCInterpretation:Out of 120 Investors 60% preferred to invest through Financial Advisors, 25% throughAMC and 15% through Bank.13. Mode of Investment Preferred by the Investors Mode of Investment One time Investment Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) No. of Respondents 78 42
    • 35% 65% One tim Inves ent e tm SIPInterpretation:Out of 120 Investors 65% preferred One time Investment and 35 % Preferred throughSystematic Investment Plan.14. Preferred Portfolios by the Investors Portfolio No. of Investors Equity 56 Debt 20 Balanced 44
    • 37% 46% 17% Equity Debt BalanceInterpretation:From the above graph 46% preferred Equity Portfolio, 37% preferred Balance and 17%preferred Debt portfolio15. Option for getting Return Preferred by the Investors Option Dividend Payout Dividend Growth Reinvestment No. of Respondents 25 10 85
    • 21% 8% 71% Dividend Payout Dividend Reinves ent tm GrowthInterpretation:From the above graph 71% preferred Growth Option, 21% preferred Dividend Payoutand 8% preferred Dividend Reinvestment Option.16. Preference of Investors whether to invest in Sectoral Funds Response No. of Respondents Yes 25 No 95
    • 21% 79% Yes NoInterpretation:Out of 120 investors, 79% investors do not prefer to invest in Sectoral Fund becausethere is maximum risk and 21% prefer to invest in Sectoral Fund. Chapter – 6
    • Findings and Conclusion Findings In Dehradoon in the Age Group of 36-40 years were more in numbers. The second most Investors were in the age group of 41-45 years and the least were in the age group of below 30 years. In Dehradoon most of the Investors were Graduate or Post Graduate and below HSC there were very few in numbers.
    •  In Occupation group most of the Investors were Govt. employees, the second most Investors were Private employees and the least were associated with Agriculture. In family Income group, between Rs. 20,001- 30,000 were more in numbers, the second most were in the Income group of more than Rs.30,000 and the least were in the group of below Rs. 10,000. About all the Respondents had a Saving A/c in Bank, 76% Invested in Fixed Deposits, Only 60% Respondents invested in Mutual fund. Mostly Respondents preferred High Return while investment, the second most preferred Low Risk then liquidity and the least preferred Trust. Only 67% Respondents were aware about Mutual fund and its operations and 33% were not. Among 200 Respondents only 60% had invested in Mutual Fund and 40% did not have invested in Mutual fund. Out of 80 Respondents 81% were not aware of Mutual Fund, 13% told there is not any specific reason for not invested in Mutual Fund and 6% told there is likely to be higher risk in Mutual Fund.
    •  Most of the Investors had invested in Reliance or UTI Mutual Fund, ICICI Prudential has also good Brand Position among investors, SBIMF places after ICICI Prudential according to the Respondents. Out of 55 investors of SBIMF 64% have invested due to its association with the Brand SBI, 27% Invested because of Advisor’s Advice and 9% due to better return. Most of the investors who did not invested in SBIMF due to not Aware of SBIMF, the second most due to Agent’s advice and rest due to Less Return. For Future investment the maximum Respondents preferred Reliance Mutual Fund, the second most preferred ICICI Prudential, SBIMF has been preferred after them. 60% Investors preferred to Invest through Financial Advisors, 25% through AMC (means Direct Investment) and 15% through Bank. 65% preferred One Time Investment and 35% preferred SIP out of both type of Mode of Investment. The most preferred Portfolio was Equity, the second most was Balance (mixture of both equity and debt), and the least preferred Portfolio was Debt portfolio.
    •  Maximum Number of Investors Preferred Growth Option for returns, the second most preferred Dividend Payout and then Dividend Reinvestment.  Most of the Investors did not want to invest in Sectoral Fund, only 21% wanted to invest in Sectoral Fund. ConclusionRunning a successful Mutual Fund requires complete understanding of thepeculiarities of the Indian Stock Market and also the psyche of the smallinvestors. This study has made an attempt to understand the financial
    • behavior of Mutual Fund investors in connection with the preferences ofBrand (AMC), Products, Channels etc. I observed that many of peoplehave fear of Mutual Fund. They think their money will not be secure inMutual Fund. They need the knowledge of Mutual Fund and its relatedterms. Many of people do not have invested in mutual fund due to lack ofawareness although they have money to invest. As the awareness andincome is growing the number of mutual fund investors are also growing.“Brand” plays important role for the investment. People invest in thoseCompanies where they have faith or they are well known with them. Thereare many AMCs in Dehradoon but only some are performing well due toBrand awareness. Some AMCs are not performing well although some ofthe schemes of them are giving good return because of not awarenessabout Brand. Reliance, UTI, SBIMF, ICICI Prudential etc. they are wellknown Brand, they are performing well and their Assets UnderManagement is larger than others whose Brand name are not well knownlike Principle, Sunderam, etc.Distribution channels are also important for the investment in mutual fund.Financial Advisors are the most preferred channel for the investment inmutual fund. They can change investors’ mind from one investment option
    • to others. Many of investors directly invest their money through AMCbecause they do not have to pay entry load. Only those people investdirectly who know well about mutual fund and its operations and thosehave time.
    • Chapter – 7 Suggestions AndRecommendations Suggestions and Recommendations The most vital problem spotted is of ignorance. Investors should be made aware of the benefits. Nobody will invest until and unless he is fully convinced. Investors should be made to realize that
    • ignorance is no longer bliss and what they are losing by not investing.  Mutual funds offer a lot of benefit which no other single option could offer. But most of the people are not even aware of what actually a mutual fund is? They only see it as just another investment option. So the advisors should try to change their mindsets. The advisors should target for more and more young investors. Young investors as well as persons at the height of their career would like to go for advisors due to lack of expertise and time.  Mutual Fund Company needs to give the training of the Individual Financial Advisors about the Fund/Scheme and its objective, because they are the main source to influence the investors. Before making any investment Financial Advisors should first enquire about the risk tolerance of the investors/customers, their need and time (how long they want to invest). By considering these three things they can take the customers into consideration.
    •  Younger people aged under 35 will be a key new customer group into the future, so making greater efforts with younger customers who show some interest in investing should pay off. Customers with graduate level education are easier to sell to and there is a large untapped market there. To succeed however, advisors must provide sound advice and high quality. Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) is one the innovative products launched by Assets Management companies very recently in the industry. SIP is easy for monthly salaried person as it provides the facility of do the investment in EMI. Though most of the prospects and potential investors are not aware about the SIP. There is a large scope for the companies to tap the salaried persons. BIBLIOGRAPHY • NEWS PAPERS • OUTLOOK MONEY
    • • TELEVISION CHANNEL (CNBC AAWAJ)• MUTUAL FUND HAND BOOK• FACT SHEET AND STATEMENT• WWW.SBIMF.COM• WWW.MONEYCONTROL.COM• WWW.AMFIINDIA.COM• WWW.ONLINERESEARCHONLINE.COM• WWW. MUTUALFUNDSINDIA.COM
    • Mutual FundsAll About Mutual Funds Before we understand what is mutual fund, it’s very important to know the area in whichmutual funds works, the basic understanding of stocks and bonds.
    • Stocks : Stocks represent shares of ownership in a public company. Examples of public companiesinclude Reliance, ONGC and Infosys. Stocks are considered to be the most common ownedinvestment traded on the market.Bonds : Bonds are basically the money which you lend to the government or a company, and inreturn you can receive interest on your invested amount, which is back over predetermined amountsof time. Bonds are considered to be the most common lending investment traded on the market. Thereare many other types of investments other than stocks and bonds (including annuities, real estate, andprecious metals), but the majority of mutual funds invest in stocks and/or bonds.What Is Mutual Fund A mutual fund is just the connecting bridge or a financial intermediary that allows a group ofinvestors to pool their money together with a predetermined investment objective. The mutual fundwill have a fund manager who is responsible for investing the gathered money into specific securities(stocks or bonds). When you invest in a mutual fund, you are buying units or portions of the mutualfund and thus on investing becomes a shareholder or unit holder of the fund. Mutual funds are considered as one of the best available investments as compare to others theyare very cost efficient and also easy to invest in, thus by pooling money together in a mutual fund,investors can purchase stocks or bonds with much lower trading costs than if they tried to do it ontheir own. But the biggest advantage to mutual funds is diversification, by minimizing risk &maximizing returns. Thus a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers anopportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively lowcost. The flow chart below describes broadly the working of a mutual fundUnit Trust of India is the first Mutual Fund set up under a separate act,UTI Act in 1963, and started its operations in 1964 with the issue ofunits under the scheme US-64.Overview of existing schemes existed in mutual fund category
    • Wide variety of Mutual Fund Schemes exists to cater to the needs such as financial position,risk tolerance and return expectations etc. The table below gives an overview into the existing types ofschemes in the Industry.Type of Mutual Fund SchemesBY STRUCTURE Open Ended Schemes An open-end fund is one that is available for subscription all through the year. These do nothave a fixed maturity. Investors can conveniently buy and sell units at Net Asset Value ("NAV")related prices. The key feature of open-end schemes is liquidity. Close Ended Schemes A closed-end fund has a stipulated maturity period which generally ranging from 3 to 15 years.The fund is open for subscription only during a specified period. Investors can invest in the scheme atthe time of the initial public issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on thestock exchanges where they are listed. In order to provide an exit route to the investors, some close-ended funds give an option of selling back the units to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchaseat NAV related prices. SEBI Regulations stipulate that at least one of the two exit routes is provided tothe investor. Interval Schemes Interval Schemes are that scheme, which combines the features of open-ended and close-endedschemes. The units may be traded on the stock exchange or may be open for sale or redemptionduring pre-determined intervals at NAV related prices.BY NATURE1. Equity fund:
    • These funds invest a maximum part of their corpus into equities holdings. The structure of thefund may vary different for different schemes and the fund manager’s outlook on different stocks. TheEquity Funds are sub-classified depending upon their investment objective, as follows: • Diversified Equity Funds • Mid-Cap Funds • Sector Specific Funds • Tax Savings Funds (ELSS) Equity investments are meant for a longer time horizon, thus Equity funds rank high on the risk-return matrix.2. Debt funds:The objective of these Funds is to invest in debt papers. Government authorities, private companies,banks and financial institutions are some of the major issuers of debt papers. By investing in debtinstruments, these funds ensure low risk and provide stable income to the investors. Debt funds arefurther classified as: • Gilt Funds: Invest their corpus in securities issued by Government, popularly known as Government of India debt papers. These Funds carry zero Default risk but are associated with Interest Rate risk. These schemes are safer as they invest in papers backed by Government. • Income Funds: Invest a major portion into various debt instruments such as bonds, corporate debentures and Government securities. • MIPs: Invests maximum of their total corpus in debt instruments while they take minimum exposure in equities. It gets benefit of both equity and debt market. These scheme ranks slightly high on the risk-return matrix when compared with other debt schemes. • Short Term Plans (STPs): Meant for investment horizon for three to six months. These funds primarily invest in short term papers like Certificate of Deposits (CDs) and Commercial Papers (CPs). Some portion of the corpus is also invested in corporate debentures. • Liquid Funds: Also known as Money Market Schemes, These funds provides easy liquidity and preservation of capital. These schemes invest in short-term instruments like Treasury
    • Bills, inter-bank call money market, CPs and CDs. These funds are meant for short-term cash management of corporate houses and are meant for an investment horizon of 1day to 3 months. These schemes rank low on risk-return matrix and are considered to be the safest amongst all categories of mutual funds.3. Balanced funds: As the name suggest they, are a mix of both equity and debt funds. They invest inboth equities and fixed income securities, which are in line with pre-defined investment objective ofthe scheme. These schemes aim to provide investors with the best of both the worlds. Equity partprovide growth and the debt part provides stability in returns.Further the mutual funds can be broadly classified on the basis of investment parameter viz,Each category of funds is backed by an investment philosophy, which is pre-defined in the objectivesof the fund. The investor can align his own investment needs with the funds objective and investaccordingly.BY INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE
    • • Growth Schemes: Growth Schemes are also known as equity schemes. The aim of these schemes is to provide capital appreciation over medium to long term. These schemes normally invest a major part of their fund in equities and are willing to bear short-term decline in value for possible future appreciation. • Income Schemes: Income Schemes are also known as debt schemes. The aim of these schemes is to provide regular and steady income to investors. These schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds and corporate debentures. Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited. • Balanced Schemes: Balanced Schemes aim to provide both growth and income by periodically distributing a part of the income and capital gains they earn. These schemes invest in both shares and fixed income securities, in the proportion indicated in their offer documents (normally 50:50). • Money Market Schemes: Money Market Schemes aim to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. These schemes generally invest in safer, short-term instruments, such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter-bank call money.OTHER SCHEMES • Tax Saving Schemes: Tax-saving schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under tax laws prescribed from time to time. Under Sec.88 of the Income Tax Act, contributions made to any Equity Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) are eligible for rebate. • Index Schemes: Index schemes attempt to replicate the performance of a particular index such as the BSE Sensex or the NSE 50. The portfolio of these schemes will consist of only those stocks that constitute the index. The percentage of each stock to the total holding will be identical to the stocks index weightage. And hence, the returns from such schemes would be more or less equivalent to those of the Index. • Sector Specific Schemes: These are the funds/schemes which invest in the securities of only those sectors or industries as specified in the offer documents. e.g. Pharmaceuticals, Software,
    • Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Petroleum stocks, etc. The returns in these funds are dependent on the performance of the respective sectors/industries. While these funds may give higher returns, they are more risky compared to diversified funds. Investors need to keep a watch on the performance of those sectors/industries and must exit at an appropriate time.Types of returnsThere are three ways, where the total returns provided by mutual funds can be enjoyed by investors: • Income is earned from dividends on stocks and interest on bonds. A fund pays out nearly all income it receives over the year to fund owners in the form of a distribution. • If the fund sells securities that have increased in price, the fund has a capital gain. Most funds also pass on these gains to investors in a distribution. • If fund holdings increase in price but are not sold by the fund manager, the funds shares increase in price. You can then sell your mutual fund shares for a profit. Funds will also usually give you a choice either to receive a check for distributions or to reinvest the earnings and get more shares.Pros & cons of investing in mutual funds:
    • For investments in mutual fund, one must keep in mind about the Pros and cons ofinvestments in mutual fund.Advantages of Investing Mutual Funds:1. Professional Management - The basic advantage of funds is that, they are professional managed,by well qualified professional. Investors purchase funds because they do not have the time or theexpertise to manage their own portfolio. A mutual fund is considered to be relatively less expensiveway to make and monitor their investments.2. Diversification - Purchasing units in a mutual fund instead of buying individual stocks or bonds,the investors risk is spread out and minimized up to certain extent. The idea behind diversification isto invest in a large number of assets so that a loss in any particular investment is minimized by gainsin others.3. Economies of Scale - Mutual fund buy and sell large amounts of securities at a time, thus help toreducing transaction costs, and help to bring down the average cost of the unit for their investors.4. Liquidity - Just like an individual stock, mutual fund also allows investors to liquidate theirholdings as and when they want.5. Simplicity - Investments in mutual fund is considered to be easy, compare to other availableinstruments in the market, and the minimum investment is small. Most AMC also have automaticpurchase plans whereby as little as Rs. 2000, where SIP start with just Rs.50 per month basis.
    • Disadvantages of Investing Mutual Funds:1. Professional Management- Some funds doesn’t perform in neither the market, as theirmanagement is not dynamic enough to explore the available opportunity in the market, thus manyinvestors debate over whether or not the so-called professionals are any better than mutual fund orinvestor himself, for picking up stocks.2. Costs – The biggest source of AMC income, is generally from the entry & exit load which theycharge from an investors, at the time of purchase. The mutual fund industries are thus charging extracost under layers of jargon.3. Dilution - Because funds have small holdings across different companies, high returns from a fewinvestments often dont make much difference on the overall return. Dilution is also the result of asuccessful fund getting too big. When money pours into funds that have had strong success, themanager often has trouble finding a good investment for all the new money.4. Taxes - when making decisions about your money, fund managers dont consider your personal taxsituation. For example, when a fund manager sells a security, a capital-gain tax is triggered, whichaffects how profitable the individual is from the sale. It might have been more advantageous for theindividual to defer the capital gains liability.
    • Mutual Funds Industry in IndiaThe origin of mutual fund industry in India is with the introduction of the concept of mutual fund byUTI in the year 1963. Though the growth was slow, but it accelerated from the year 1987 when non-UTI players entered the industry.In the past decade, Indian mutual fund industry had seen a dramatic improvements, both quality wiseas well as quantity wise. Before, the monopoly of the market had seen an ending phase, the AssetsUnder Management (AUM) was Rs. 67bn. The private sector entry to the fund family rose the AUMto Rs. 470 in in March 1993 and till April 2004, it reached the height of 1,540 bn.Putting the AUM of the Indian Mutual Funds Industry into comparison, the total of it is less than thedeposits of SBI alone, constitute less than 11% of the total deposits held by the Indian bankingindustry.The main reason of its poor growth is that the mutual fund industry in India is new in the country.Large sections of Indian investors are yet to be intellectuated with the concept. Hence, it is the primeresponsibility of all mutual fund companies, to market the product correctly abreast of selling.The mutual fund industry can be broadly put into four phases according to the development of thesector. Each phase is briefly described as under.
    • The major players in the Indian Mutual Fund Industry are: Major Players of Mutual Funds In India Period (Last&nbsp1 Week) Rank Scheme Name Date NAV Last 1 Since (Rs.) Week Inception 1 JM Core 11 Fund - Series 1 - Mar 26 8.45 5.12 -94.64 Growth , 2008 2 Tata Indo-Global Infrastructure Mar 26 8.26 5.05 -40.42 Fund - Growth , 2008 3 Tata Capital Builder Fund - Mar 26 12.44 5.03 15.35 Growth , 2008 4 Standard Chartered Enterprise Mar 26 14.07 5 20.92 Equity Fund - Growth , 2008 5 DBS Chola Infrastructure Fund - Mar 26 9.01 4.65 -17.17 Growth , 2008 6 ICICI Prudential Fusion Fund - Mar 26 10.2 4.62 23.69 Series III - Institutional - , 2008 Growth 7 DSP Merrill Lynch Micro Cap Mar 26 9.93 4.56 -0.85 Fund - Regular - Growth , 2008 8 ICICI Prudential Fusion Fund - Mar 26 10.19 4.51 22.39 Series III - Retail - Growth , 2008 9 DBS Chola Small Cap Fund - Mar 26 6.36 3.75 -81.78 Growth , 2008 10 Principal Personal Taxsaver Mar 25 124.66 3.44 29.97 , 2008 11 Benchmark Split Capital Fund - Mar 26 141.51 3.14 13.71 Plan A - Preferred Units , 2008 12 ICICI Prudential FMP - Series Mar 26 9.89 2.91 -7.88 33 - Plan A - Growth , 2008 13 Tata SIP Fund - Series I - Mar 26 10.25 2.38 2.39 Growth , 2008 14 Sahara R.E.A.L Fund - Growth Mar 25 7.64 1.86 -49.52 , 2008 15 Tata SIP Fund - Series II - Mar 26 9.93 1.58 -0.94 Growth , 2008
    • A mutual fund is a professionally-managed firm of collective investments that pools money frommany investors and invests it in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or othersecurities.in other words we can say that A Mutual Fund is a trust registered with the Securities andExchange Board of India (SEBI), which pools up the money from individual / corporate investors andinvests the same on behalf of the investors /unit holders, in equity shares, Government securities,Bonds, Call money markets etc., and distributes the profits.The value of each unit of the mutual fund, known as the net asset value (NAV), is mostly calculateddaily based on the total value of the fund divided by the number of shares currently issued andoutstanding. The value of all the securities in the portfolio in calculated daily. From this, all expensesare deducted and the resultant value divided by the number of units in the fund is the fund’s NAV. NAV = Total value of the fund………………. No. of shares currently issued and outstandingAdvantages of a MF – Mutual Funds provide the benefit of cheap access to expensive stocks – Mutual funds diversify the risk of the investor by investing in a basket of assets – A team of professional fund managers manages them with in-depth research inputs from investment analysts. – Being institutions with good bargaining power in markets, mutual funds have access to crucial corporate information, which individual investors cannot access.
    • History of the Indian mutual fund industry:The mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India, at theinitiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank. The history of mutual funds in India can bebroadly divided into four distinct phases.First Phase – 1964-87Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament by the Reserve Bank ofIndia and functioned under the Regulatory and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took overthe regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was UnitScheme 1964. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6,700 crores of assets under management.Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds)1987 marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and LifeInsurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI MutualFund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987 followed by Canbank Mutual Fund(Dec 87), Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89), Bank ofIndia (Jun 90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fund in June 1989while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990.At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industryhad assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores.Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds)1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which allmutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (nowmerged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993.The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revisedMutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund)Regulations 1996. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs.1,21,805 crores.
    • Fourth Phase – since February 2003In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated intotwo separate entities. One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets undermanagement of Rs.29,835 crores as at the end of January 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US64 scheme, assured return and certain other schemesThe second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is registered withSEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. consolidation and growth. As at the end ofSeptember, 2004, there were 29 funds, which manage assets of Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.
    • Categories of mutual funds:
    • Mutual funds can be classified as follow:  Based on their structure: • Open-ended funds: Investors can buy and sell the units from the fund, at any point of time. • Close-ended funds: These funds raise money from investors only once. Therefore, after the offer period, fresh investments can not be made into the fund. If the fund is listed on a stocks exchange the units can be traded like stocks (E.g., Morgan Stanley Growth Fund). Recently, most of the New Fund Offers of close-ended funds provided liquidity window on a periodic basis such as monthly or weekly. Redemption of units can be made during specified intervals. Therefore, such funds have relatively low liquidity.  Based on their investment objective: Equity funds: These funds invest in equities and equity related instruments. With fluctuating share prices, such funds show volatile performance, even losses. However, short term fluctuations in the market, generally smoothens out in the long term, thereby offering higher returns at relatively lower volatility. At the same time, such funds can yield great capital appreciation as, historically, equities have outperformed all asset classes in the long term. Hence, investment in equity funds should be considered for a period of at least 3-5 years. It can be further classified as: i) Index funds- In this case a key stock market index, like BSE Sensex or Nifty is tracked. Theirportfolio mirrors the benchmark index both in terms of composition and individual stockweightages.ii) Equity diversified funds- 100% of the capital is invested in equities spreading across differentsectors and stocks.iii) Dividend yield funds- it is similar to the equity diversified funds except that they invest incompanies offering high dividend yields.iv) Thematic funds- Invest 100% of the assets in sectors which are related through some theme.e.g. -An infrastructure fund invests in power, construction, cements sectors etc.v) Sector funds- Invest 100% of the capital in a specific sector. e.g. - A banking sector fund will investin banking stocks.vi) ELSS- Equity Linked Saving Scheme provides tax benefit to the investors.
    • Balanced fund: Their investment portfolio includes both debt and equity. As a result, on the risk-returnladder, they fall between equity and debt funds. Balanced funds are the ideal mutual funds vehicle for investorswho prefer spreading their risk across various instruments. Following are balanced funds classes:i) Debt-oriented funds -Investment below 65% in equities.ii) Equity-oriented funds -Invest at least 65% in equities, remaining in debt.Debt fund: They invest only in debt instruments, and are a good option for investors averse to idea oftaking risk associated with equities. Therefore, they invest exclusively in fixed-income instrumentslike bonds, debentures, Government of India securities; and money market instruments such ascertificates of deposit (CD), commercial paper (CP) and call money. Put your money into any of thesedebt funds depending on your investment horizon and needs.i) Liquid funds- These funds invest 100% in money market instruments, a large portion being investedin call money market.ii)Gilt funds ST- They invest 100% of their portfolio in government securities of and T-bills.iii)Floating rate funds - Invest in short-term debt papers. Floaters invest in debt instruments whichhave variable coupon rate.iv)Arbitrage fund- They generate income through arbitrage opportunities due to mis-pricing betweencash market and derivatives market. Funds are allocated to equities, derivatives and money markets.Higher proportion (around 75%) is put in money markets, in the absence of arbitrage opportunities.v)Gilt funds LT- They invest 100% of their portfolio in long-term government securities.vi) Income funds LT- Typically, such funds invest a major portion of the portfolio in long-term debtpapers.vii) MIPs- Monthly Income Plans have an exposure of 70%-90% to debt and an exposure of 10%-30% to equities.viii)FMPs- fixed monthly plans invest in debt papers whose maturity is in line with that of the fund.
    • Investment strategies:1. Systematic Investment Plan: under this a fixed sum is invested each month on a fixed date of amonth. Payment is made through post dated cheques or direct debit facilities. The investor gets fewerunits when the NAV is high and more units when the NAV is low. This is called as the benefit ofRupee Cost Averaging (RCA)2. Systematic Transfer Plan: under this an investor invest in debt oriented fund and giveinstructions to transfer a fixed sum, at a fixed interval, to an equity scheme of the same mutual fund.3. Systematic Withdrawal Plan: if someone wishes to withdraw from a mutual fund then he canwithdraw a fixed amount each month.Risk v/s. return:
    • Working of a Mutual fund:
    • The entire mutual fund industry operates in a very organized way. The investors, known as unitholders,handover their savings to the AMCs under various schemes. The objective of the investmentshould match with the objective of the fund to best suit the investors’ needs. The AMCs further investthe funds into various securities according to the investment objective. The return generated from theinvestments is passed on to the investors or reinvested as mentioned in the offer document.
    • Working Of Mutual FundMutual Funds
    • Before we understand what is mutual fund, it’s very important to know the area in whichmutual funds works, the basic understanding of stocks and bonds.Stocks : Stocks represent shares of ownership in a public company. Examples of public companiesinclude Reliance, ONGC and Infosys. Stocks are considered to be the most common ownedinvestment traded on the market.Bonds : Bonds are basically the money which you lend to the government or a company, and inreturn you can receive interest on your invested amount, which is back over predetermined amountsof time. Bonds are considered to be the most common lending investment traded on the market. Thereare many other types of investments other than stocks and bonds (including annuities, real estate, andprecious metals), but the majority of mutual funds invest in stocks and/or bonds.What Is Mutual Fund A mutual fund is just the connecting bridge or a financial intermediary that allows a group ofinvestors to pool their money together with a predetermined investment objective. The mutual fundwill have a fund manager who is responsible for investing the gathered money into specific securities(stocks or bonds). When you invest in a mutual fund, you are buying units or portions of the mutualfund and thus on investing becomes a shareholder or unit holder of the fund. Mutual funds are considered as one of the best available investments as compare to others theyare very cost efficient and also easy to invest in, thus by pooling money together in a mutual fund,investors can purchase stocks or bonds with much lower trading costs than if they tried to do it ontheir own. But the biggest advantage to mutual funds is diversification, by minimizing risk &maximizing returns.Thus a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity toinvest in a diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost. The flowchart below describes broadly the working of a mutual fund
    • Overview of existing schemes existed in mutual fund category
    • Wide variety of Mutual Fund Schemes exists to cater to the needs such as financial position,risk tolerance and return expectations etc. The table below gives an overview into the existing types ofschemes in the Industry.
    • Type of Mutual Fund SchemesBY STRUCTUREOpen Ended SchemesAn open-end fund is one that is available for subscription all through the year. These do not have afixed maturity. Investors can conveniently buy and sell units at Net Asset Value ("NAV") relatedprices. The key feature of open-end schemes is liquidity.Close Ended Schemes A closed-end fund has a stipulated maturity period which generally ranging from 3 to 15 years.The fund is open for subscription only during a specified period. Investors can invest in the scheme atthe time of the initial public issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on thestock exchanges where they are listed. In order to provide an exit route to the investors, some close-ended funds give an option of selling back the units to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchaseat NAV related prices. SEBI Regulations stipulate that at least one of the two exit routes is provided tothe investor.Interval Schemes Interval Schemes are that scheme, which combines the features of open-ended and close-endedschemes. The units may be traded on the stock exchange or may be open for sale or redemptionduring pre-determined intervals at NAV related prices.
    • BY NATUREUnder this the mutual fund is categorized on the basis of Investment Objective. By nature the mutualfund is categorized as follow:1. Equity fund:
    • These funds invest a maximum part of their corpus into equities holdings. The structure of thefund may vary different for different schemes and the fund manager’s outlook on different stocks. TheEquity Funds are sub-classified depending upon their investment objective, as follows: • Diversified Equity Funds • Mid-Cap Funds • Sector Specific Funds • Tax Savings Funds (ELSS) Equity investments are meant for a longer time horizon, thus Equity funds rank high on the risk-return matrix.2. Debt funds:The objective of these Funds is to invest in debt papers. Government authorities, private companies,banks and financial institutions are some of the major issuers of debt papers. By investing in debtinstruments, these funds ensure low risk and provide stable income to the investors. Debt funds arefurther classified as: • Gilt Funds: Invest their corpus in securities issued by Government, popularly known as Government of India debt papers. These Funds carry zero Default risk but are associated with Interest Rate risk. These schemes are safer as they invest in papers backed by Government. • Income Funds: Invest a major portion into various debt instruments such as bonds, corporate debentures and Government securities. • MIPs: Invests maximum of their total corpus in debt instruments while they take minimum exposure in equities. It gets benefit of both equity and debt market. These scheme ranks slightly high on the risk-return matrix when compared with other debt schemes. • Short Term Plans (STPs): Meant for investment horizon for three to six months. These funds primarily invest in short term papers like Certificate of Deposits (CDs) and Commercial Papers (CPs). Some portion of the corpus is also invested in corporate debentures.
    • • Liquid Funds: Also known as Money Market Schemes, These funds provides easy liquidity and preservation of capital. These schemes invest in short-term instruments like Treasury Bills, inter-bank call money market, CPs and CDs. These funds are meant for short-term cash management of corporate houses and are meant for an investment horizon of 1day to 3 months. These schemes rank low on risk-return matrix and are considered to be the safest amongst all categories of mutual funds.3. Balanced funds: As the name suggest they, are a mix of both equity and debt funds. They investin both equities and fixed income securities, which are in line with pre-defined investment objectiveof the scheme. These schemes aim to provide investors with the best of both the worlds. Equity partprovides growth and the debt part provides stability in returns.Further the mutual funds can be broadly classified on the basis of investment parameter viz,Each category of funds is backed by an investment philosophy, which is pre-defined in the objectivesof the fund. The investor can align his own investment needs with the funds objective and investaccordingly.
    • BY INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE • Growth Schemes: Growth Schemes are also known as equity schemes. The aim of these schemes is to provide capital appreciation over medium to long term. These schemes normally invest a major part of their fund in equities and are willing to bear short-term decline in value for possible future appreciation. • Income Schemes: Income Schemes are also known as debt schemes. The aim of these schemes is to provide regular and steady income to investors. These schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds and corporate debentures. Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited. • Balanced Schemes: Balanced Schemes aim to provide both growth and income by periodically distributing a part of the income and capital gains they earn. These schemes invest in both shares and fixed income securities, in the proportion indicated in their offer documents (normally 50:50). • Money Market Schemes: Money Market Schemes aim to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. These schemes generally invest in safer, short-term instruments, such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter-bank call money.OTHER SCHEMES • Tax Saving Schemes: Tax-saving schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under tax laws prescribed from time to time. Under Sec.88 of the Income Tax Act, contributions made to any Equity Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) are eligible for rebate. • Index Schemes: Index schemes attempt to replicate the performance of a particular index such as the BSE Sensex or the NSE 50. The portfolio of these schemes will consist of only those stocks that constitute the index. The percentage of each stock to the total holding will be identical to the stocks index weightage. And hence, the returns from such schemes would be more or less equivalent to those of the Index.
    • • Sector Specific Schemes: These are the funds/schemes which invest in the securities of only those sectors or industries as specified in the offer documents. e.g. Pharmaceuticals, Software, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Petroleum stocks, etc. The returns in these funds are dependent on the performance of the respective sectors/industries. While these funds may give higher returns, they are more risky compared to diversified funds. Investors need to keep a watch on the performance of those sectors/industries and must exit at an appropriate time.Types of returns:There are three ways, where the total returns provided by mutual funds can be enjoyed by investors: • Income is earned from dividends on stocks and interest on bonds. A fund pays out nearly all income it receives over the year to fund owners in the form of a distribution. • If the fund sells securities that have increased in price, the fund has a capital gain. Most funds also pass on these gains to investors in a distribution. • If fund holdings increase in price but are not sold by the fund manager, the funds shares increase in price. You can then sell your mutual fund shares for a profit. Funds will also usually give you a choice either to receive a check for distributions or to reinvest the earnings and get more shares.
    • Pros & cons of investing in mutual funds: For investments in mutual fund, one must keep in mind about the Pros and cons ofinvestments in mutual fund.Advantages of Investing Mutual Funds:1. Professional Management - The basic advantage of funds is that, they are professional managed,by well qualified professional. Investors purchase funds because they do not have the time or theexpertise to manage their own portfolio. A mutual fund is considered to be relatively less expensiveway to make and monitor their investments.2. Diversification - Purchasing units in a mutual fund instead of buying individual stocks or bonds,the investors risk is spread out and minimized up to certain extent. The idea behind diversification isto invest in a large number of assets so that a loss in any particular investment is minimized by gainsin others.3. Economies of Scale - Mutual fund buy and sell large amounts of securities at a time, thus help toreducing transaction costs, and help to bring down the average cost of the unit for their investors.4. Liquidity - Just like an individual stock, mutual fund also allows investors to liquidate theirholdings as and when they want.5. Simplicity - Investments in mutual fund is considered to be easy, compare to other availableinstruments in the market, and the minimum investment is small. Most AMC also have automaticpurchase plans whereby as little as Rs. 2000, where SIP start with just Rs.50 per month basis.
    • Disadvantages of Investing Mutual Funds:1. Professional Management- Some funds doesn’t perform in neither the market, as theirmanagement is not dynamic enough to explore the available opportunity in the market, thus manyinvestors debate over whether or not the so-called professionals are any better than mutual fund orinvestor himself, for picking up stocks.2. Costs – The biggest source of AMC income, is generally from the entry & exit load which theycharge from an investors, at the time of purchase. The mutual fund industries are thus charging extracost under layers of jargon.3. Dilution - Because funds have small holdings across different companies, high returns from a fewinvestments often dont make much difference on the overall return. Dilution is also the result of asuccessful fund getting too big. When money pours into funds that have had strong success, themanager often has trouble finding a good investment for all the new money.4. Taxes - when making decisions about your money, fund managers dont consider your personal taxsituation. For example, when a fund manager sells a security, a capital-gain tax is triggered, whichaffects how profitable the individual is from the sale. It might have been more advantageous for theindividual to defer the capital gains liability.
    • Guidelines of the SEBI for Mutual Fund Companies :To protect the interest of the investors, SEBI formulates policies and regulates the mutualfunds. It notified regulations in 1993 (fully revised in 1996) and issues guidelines from time totime.SEBI approved Asset Management Company (AMC) manages the funds by makinginvestments in various types of securities. Custodian, registered with SEBI, holds the securitiesof various schemes of the fund in its custody.According to SEBI Regulations, two thirds of the directors of Trustee Company or board oftrustees must be independent.The Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) reassures the investors in units of mutualfunds that the mutual funds function within the strict regulatory framework. Its objective is toincrease public awareness of the mutual fund industry. AMFI also is engaged in upgradingprofessional standards and in promoting best industry practices in diverse areas such asvaluation, disclosure, transparency etc.Documents required (PAN mandatory):Proof of identity :1. Photo PAN card2. In case of non-photo PAN card in addition to copy of PAN card any one of the following:driving license/passport copy/ voter id/ bank photo pass book.Proof of address (any of the following ) :latest telephone bill, latest electricity bill, Passport,latest bank passbook/bank account statement, latest Demat account statement, voter id, drivinglicense, ration card, rent agreement.
    • Offer document: An offer document is issued when the AMCs make New Fund Offer(NFO).Its advisable to every investor to ask for the offer document and read it before investing. Anoffer document consists of the following:Standard Offer Document for Mutual Funds (SEBI Format)  Summary Information  Glossary of Defined Terms  Risk Disclosures  Legal and Regulatory Compliance  Expenses  Condensed Financial Information of Schemes  Constitution of the Mutual Fund  Investment Objectives and Policies  Management of the Fund  Offer Related Information.Key Information Memorandum: a key information memorandum, popularly known as KIM,is attached along with the mutual fund form. And thus every investor get to read it. Its contentsare:1 Name of the fund.2. Iestment objective3. Aset allocation pattern of the scheme.4. Risk profile of the scheme5. Plans & options6. Minimum application amount/ no. of units7. Benchmark index8. Dividend policy9. Name of the fund manager(s)10 . Expenses of the scheme: load structure, recurring expenses11. Performance of the scheme (scheme return v/s. benchmark return)12. Year- wise return for the last 5 financial year.
    • Distribution channels:Mutual funds posses a very strong distribution channel so that the ultimate customers doesn’tface any difficulty in the final procurement. The various parties involved in distribution ofmutual funds are:1. Direct marketing by the AMCs: the forms could be obtained from the AMCs directly. Theinvestors can approach to the AMCs for the forms. some of the top AMCs of India are;Reliance ,Birla Sunlife, Tata, SBI magnum, Kotak Mahindra, HDFC, Sundaram, ICICI, MiraeAssets, Canara Robeco, Lotus India, LIC, UTI etc. whereas foreign AMCs include: StandardChartered, Franklin Templeton, Fidelity, JP Morgan, HSBC, DSP Merill Lynch, etc.2 .Broker/ sub broker arrangements: the AMCs can simultaneously go for broker/sub-broker topopularize their funds. AMCs can enjoy the advantage of large network of these brokers andsub brokers.eg: SBI being the top financial intermediary of India has the greatest network. Sothe AMCs dealing through SBI has access to most of the investors.3. Individual agents, Banks, NBFC: investors can procure the funds through individual agents,independent brokers, banks and several non- banking financial corporations too, whichever hefinds convenient for him.Costs associated:Expenses:AMCs charge an annual fee, or expense ratio that covers administrative expenses, salaries,advertising expenses, brokerage fee, etc. A 1.5% expense ratio means the AMC charges Rs1.50for every Rs100 in assets under management. A funds expense ratio is typically to the size ofthe funds under management and not to the returns earned. Normally, the costs of running afund grow slower than the growth in the fund size - so, the more assets in the fund, the lowershould be its expense ratio
    • Loads:Entry Load/Front-End Load (0-2.25%)- its the commission charged at the time of buyingthe fund to cover the cost of selling, processing etc.Exit Load/Back- End Load (0.25-2.25%)- it is the commission or charged paid when aninvestor exits from a mutual fund, it is imposed to discourage withdrawals. It may reduce tozero with increase in holding period.Measuring and evaluating mutual funds performance:Every investor investing in the mutual funds is driven by the motto of either wealth creation orwealth increment or both. Therefore it’s very necessary to continuously evaluate the funds’performance with the help of factsheets and newsletters, websites, newspapers andprofessional advisors like SBI mutual fund services. If the investors ignore the evaluation offunds’ performance then he can loose hold of it any time. In this ever-changing industry, he canface any of the following problems:1. Variation in the funds’ performance due to change in its management/ objective.2. The funds’ performance can slip in comparison to similar funds.3. There may be an increase in the various costs associated with the fund.4 .Beta, a technical measure of the risk associated may also surge.5. The funds’ ratings may go down in the various lists published by independent rating agencies.6 .It can merge into another fund or could be acquired by another fund house.
    • Performance measures:Equity funds: the performance of equity funds can be measured on the basis of: NAVGrowth, Total Return; Total Return with Reinvestment at NAV, Annualized Returns andDistributions, Computing Total Return (Per Share Income and Expenses, Per Share CapitalChanges, Ratios, Shares Outstanding), the Expense Ratio, Portfolio Turnover Rate, Fund Size,Transaction Costs, Cash Flow, Leverage.Debt fund: likewise the performance of debt funds can be measured on the basis of: PeerGroup Comparisons, The Income Ratio, Industry Exposures and Concentrations, NPAs,besides NAV Growth, Total Return and Expense Ratio.Liquid funds: the performance of the highly volatile liquid funds can be measured on thebasis of: Fund Yield, besides NAV Growth, Total Return and Expense Ratio.Concept of benchmarking for performance evaluation:Every fund sets its benchmark according to its investment objective. The funds performance ismeasured in comparison with the benchmark. If the fund generates a greater return than thebenchmark then it is said that the fund has outperformed benchmark , if it is equal tobenchmark then the correlation between them is exactly 1. And if in case the return is lowerthan the benchmark then the fund is said to be underperformed.Some of the benchmarks are :1. Equity funds: market indices such as S&P CNX nifty, BSE100, BSE200, BSE-PSU, BSE500 index, BSE bankex, and other sectoral indices.2. Debt funds: Interest Rates on Alternative Investments as Benchmarks, I-Bex Total Return Index, JPM T-Bill Index Post-Tax Returns on Bank Deposits versus Debt Funds.3. Liquid funds: Short Term Government Instruments’ Interest Rates as Benchmarks, JPM T- Bill Index
    • To measure the fund’s performance, the comparisons are usually done with:I)with a market index.ii) Funds from the same peer group.iii) Other similar products in which investors invest their funds.Financial planning for investors( ref. to mutual funds):Investors are required to go for financial planning before making investments in any mutualfund. The objective of financial planning is to ensure that the right amount of money isavailable at the right time to the investor to be able to meet his financial goals. It is more thanmere tax planning. Steps in financial planning are: Asset allocation. Selection of fund. Studying the features of a scheme.In case of mutual funds, financial planning is concerned only with broad asset allocation,leaving the actual allocation of securities and their management to fund managers. A fundmanager has to closely follow the objectives stated in the offer document, because financialplans of users are chosen using these objectives.Why has it become one of the largest financial instruments?If we take a look at the recent scenario in the Indian financial market then we can find themarket flooded with a variety of investment options which includes mutual funds, equities,fixed income bonds, corporate debentures, company fixed deposits, bank deposits, PPF, lifeinsurance, gold, real estate etc. all these investment options could be judged on the basis ofvarious parameters such as- return, safety convenience, volatility and liquidity. measuringthese investment options on the basis of the mentioned parameters, we get this in a tabularform
    • Return Safety Volatility Liquidity Convenienc e Equity High Low High High Moderate Bonds Moderate High Moderate Moderate High Co. Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Debentures Co. FDs Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Bank Low High Low High High Deposits PPF Moderate High Low Moderate High Life Low High Low Low Moderate Insurance Gold Moderate High Moderate Moderate Gold Real Estate High Moderate High Low Low Mutual High High Moderate High High FundsWe can very well see that mutual funds outperform every other investment option. On threeparameters it scores high whereas it’s moderate at one. comparing it with the other options, wefind that equities gives us high returns with high liquidity but its volatility too is high with lowsafety which doesn’t makes it favourite among persons who have low risk- appetite. Even the
    • convenience involved with investing in equities is just moderate. Now looking at bank deposits, it scores better than equities at allfronts but lags badly in the parameter of utmost important ie; it scores low on return , so it’snot an happening option for person who can afford to take risks for higher return. The otheroption offering high return is real estate but that even comes with high volatility and moderatesafety level, even the liquidity and convenience involved are too low. Gold have always been afavourite among Indians but when we look at it as an investment option then it definitelydoesn’t gives a very bright picture. Although it ensures high safety but the returns generatedand liquidity are moderate. Similarly the other investment options are not at par with mutualfunds and serve the needs of only a specific customer group. Straightforward, we can say thatmutual fund emerges as a clear winner among all the options available.The reasons for this being:I)Mutual funds combine the advantage of each of the investment products: mutual fund isone such option which can invest in all other investment options. Its principle of diversificationallows the investors to taste all the fruits in one plate. just by investing in it, the investor canenjoy the best investment option as per the investment objective.II)dispense the shortcomings of the other options: every other investment option has moreor les some shortcomings. Such as if some are good at return then they are not safe, if some aresafe then either they have low liquidity or low safety or both….likewise, there exists no singleoption which can fit to the need of everybody. But mutual funds have definitely sorted out thisproblem. Now everybody can choose their fund according to their investment objectives.III) Returns get adjusted for the market movements: as the mutual funds are managed byexperts so they are ready to switch to the profitable option along with the market movement.Suppose they predict that market is going to fall then they can sell some of their shares andbook profit and can reinvest the amount again in money market instruments.
    • IV) Flexibility of invested amount: Other then the above mentioned reasons, there exists onemore reason which has established mutual funds as one of the largest financial intermediaryand that is the flexibility that mutual funds offer regarding the investment amount. One canstart investing in mutual funds with amount as low as Rs. 500 through SIPs and even Rs. 100in some cases.How do investors choose between funds?When the market is flooded with mutual funds, it’s a very tough job for the investors to choosethe best fund for them. Whenever an investor thinks of investing in mutual funds, he must lookat the investment objective of the fund. Then the investors sort out the funds whose investmentobjective matches with that of the investor’s. Now the tough task for investors start, they maycarry on the further process themselves or can go for advisors like SBI . Of course theinvestors can save their money by going the direct route i.e. through the AMCs directly but itwill only save 1-2.25% (entry load) but could cost the investors in terms of returns if theinvestor is not an expert. So it is always advisable to go for MF advisors. The mf advisors’thoughts go beyond just investment objectives and rate of return. Some of the basic toolswhich an investor may ignore but an mf advisor will always look for are as follow:1. Rupee cost averaging:The investors going for Systematic Investment Plans(SIP) and Systematic Transfer Plans(STP)may enjoy the benefits of RCA (Rupee Cost Averaging). Rupee cost averaging allows aninvestor to bring down the average cost of buying a scheme by making a fixed investment
    • periodically, like Rs 5,000 a month and nowadays even as low as Rs. 500 or Rs. 100. In thiscase, the investor is always at a profit, even if the market falls. In case if the NAV of fund falls,the investors can get more number of units and vice-versa. This results in the average cost perunit for the investor being lower than the average price per unit over time.The investor needs to decide on the investment amount and the frequency. More frequent theinvestment interval, greater the chances of benefiting from lower prices. Investors can alsobenefit by increasing the SIP amount during market downturns, which will result in reducingthe average cost and enhancing returns. Whereas STP allows investors who have lump sums topark the funds in a low-risk fund like liquid funds and make periodic transfers to another fundto take advantage of rupee cost averaging.2. Rebalancing:Rebalancing involves booking profit in the fund class that has gone up and investing in theasset class that is down. Trigger and switching are tools that can be used to rebalance aportfolio. Trigger facilities allow automatic redemption or switch if a specified event occurs.The trigger could be the value of the investment, the net asset value of the scheme, level ofcapital appreciation, level of the market indices or even a date. The funds redeemed can beswitched to other specified schemes within the same fund house. Some fund houses allow suchswitches without charging an entry load.To use the trigger and switch facility, the investor needs to specify the event, the amount or thenumber of units to be redeemed and the scheme into which the switch has to be made. Thisensures that the investor books some profits and maintains the asset allocation in the portfolio.3. Diversification:Diversification involves investing the amount into different options. In case of mutual funds,the investor may enjoy it afterwards also through dividend transfer option. Under this, thedividend is reinvested not into the same scheme but into another scheme of the investors
    • choice.For example, the dividends from debt funds may be transferred to equity schemes. This givesthe investor a small exposure to a new asset class without risk to the principal amount. Suchtransfers may be done with or without entry loads, depending on the MFs policy.4. Tax efficiency:Tax factor acts as the “x-factor” for mutual funds. Tax efficiency affects the final decision ofany investor before investing. The investors gain through either dividends or capitalappreciation but if they haven’t considered the tax factor then they may end loosing.Debt funds have to pay a dividend distribution tax of 12.50 per cent (plus surcharge andeducation cess) on dividends paid out. Investors who need a regular stream of income have tochoose between the dividend option and a systematic withdrawal plan that allows them toredeem units periodically. SWP implies capital gains for the investor.If it is short-term, then the SWP is suitable only for investors in the 10-per-cent-tax bracket.Investors in higher tax brackets will end up paying a higher rate as short-term capital gains andshould choose the dividend option.If the capital gain is long-term (where the investment has been held for more than one year),the growth option is more tax efficient for all investors. This is because investors can redeemunits using the SWP where they will have to pay 10 per cent as long-term capital gains taxagainst the 12.50 per cent DDT paid by the MF on dividends.All the tools discussed over here are used by all the advisors and have helped investors inreducing risk, simplicity and affordability. Even then an investor needs to examine costs, taximplications and minimum applicable investment amounts before committing to a service.Most popular stocks among fund managers (as on 30th April 2008)
    • Company Name no. of funds Reliance industries limited 244 Larsen & toubro limited 206 ICICI bank limited 202 State bank of India 188 Bharti airtel limited 184 Bharat heavy electricals limited 200 Reliance communication ventures ltd 169 Infosys technologies ltd 159 Oil& Natural gas corporation ltd. 153 ITC ltd. 143We can easily point out that reliance industries limited emerges as a true winner over hereattracting the attention of almost244 managers well followed by Larsen & toubro ltd ICICIbank ltd and Bharat heavy electricals ltd. The other companies succeeding in getting a place attop 10 are SBI, Bharti airtel limited, reliance communications, Infosys technologies limited,
    • ONGC and at last ITC ltd.What are the most lucrative sectors for mutual fund managers?This is a question of utmost interest for all the investors even for those who don’t invest inmutual funds. Because the investments done by the MFs acts as trendsetters. The investmentsmade by the fund managers are used for prediction. Huge investments assure liquidity andreflects appositive picture whereas tight investment policy reflects crunch and investors maylook forward for a gloomy picture.Their investments show that which sector is hot? And will set the market trends. The expertmanagement of the funds will always look for profitable and high paying sectors. So we canhave a look at most lucrative sectors to know about the recent trends:
    • Sector name No. of MFs betting on it automotive 255 banking & financial 196 services cement & 237 construction consumer durables 51 conglomerates 218 chemicals 259 consumer non 146 durables engineering & 317 capital goods food & beverages 175 information 284 technology media & 218 entertainment Manufacturing 259 metals& mining 275 Miscellaneous 250 oil & gas 290 Pharmaceuticals 250 Services 200 Telecom 264 Tobacco 150 Utility 225From the above data collected we can say that engineering & capital goods sector has emergedas the hottest as most of the funds are betting on it. We can say that this sector is on boom andpresents a bright picture. Other than it other sectors on height are oil & gas, telecom, metals &mining and information technology. Sectors performing average are automotive, cement &construction, chemicals, media & entertainment, manufacturing, miscellaneous,pharmaceuticals and utility. The sectors which are not so favourite are banking & financialservices, conglomerates, consumer non- durables, food & beverages, services and tobacco.And the sector which failed to attract the fund managers is consumer durables with just 51funds betting on it.Thus this analysis not only gives a picture of the mindset of fund managers rather it also
    • reflects the liquidity existing in each of the sectors. It is not only useful for investors of mutualfunds rather the investors of equity and debt too could take a hint from it. Asset allocation byfund managers are based on several researches carried on so, it is always advisable for otherinvestors too take a look on it. It can be further presented in the form of a graph as follow:Systematic investment plan (in details)
    • We have already mentioned about SIPs in brief in the previous pages but now going intodetails, we will see how the power of compounding could benefit us. In such case, every smallamounts invested regularly can grow substantially. SIP gives a clear picture of how an earlyand regular investment can help the investor in wealth creation. Due to its unlimitedadvantages SIP could be redefined as “a methodology of fund investing regularly to benefitregularly from the stock market volatility. In the later sections we will see how returnsgenerated from some of the SIPs have outperformed their benchmark. But before moving on tothat lets have a look at some of the top performing SIPs and their return for 1 year: Total Scheme Amount NAV NAV Date Amount Reliance diversified 30/5/200 power sector retail 1000 62.74 8 14524.07 Reliance regular savings 22.20 30/5/200 13584.94 equity 1000 8 8 4 principal global 30/5/200 14247.72 opportunities fund 1000 18.86 8 8 DWS investment 30/5/200 13791.15 opportunities fund 1000 35.31 8 7 30/5/200 13769.15 BOB growth fund 1000 42.14 8 2In the above chart, we can see how if we start investing Rs.1000 per month then what return we’ll getfor the total investment of Rs. 12000. There is reliance diversified power sector retail giving themaximum returns of Rs. 2524.07 per year which comes to 21% roughly. Next we can see if anybodywould have undertaken the SIP in Principal would have got returns of app. 18%. We can see relianceregular savings equity, DWS investment opportunities and BOB growth fund giving returns of 13.20%,
    • 14.92%, and 14.74% respectively which is greater than any other monthly investment options. Thus wecan easily make out how SIP is beneficial for us. Its hassle free, it forces the investors to save and getthem into the habit of saving. Also paying a small amount of Rs. 1000 is easy and convenient for them,thus putting no pressure on their pockets.Now we will analyze some of the equity fund SIP s of Birla Sunlife with BSE 200 and bank fixeddeposits In a tabular format as well as graphical. NO. OF Original Returns at BSE FUND Scheme Name INSTALMENTS inv 200 RETURNS Birla SL tax relief 96 144 144000 553190 1684008 Birla SL equity fund 114 114000 388701 669219 Birla frontline equity fund 66 66000 156269 181127
    • In the above case, we have taken three funds of Birla sunlife namely Birla sunlife tax relief ’96, Birlasunlife equity fund and Birla sunlife frontline equity fund. All these three funds follow the samebenchmark ie; BSE 200. Here, we have shown how one would have benefitted if he would have put hismoney into these schemes since their inception. And the amount even is a meager Rs. 1000 per month.Starting from Birla frontline equity fund, we could spot that if someone would have invested Rs. 1000per month resulting into total investment of Rs. 66000 then it would have amounted to rs.156269 ifinvested in BSE 200 whereas the fund would have given a total return of Rs 181127. Now moving nextto Birla sunlife equity fund, a total investment of 114000 for a total of 114 months at BSE 200 wouldhave given a total return of Rs. 388701 whereas the fund gave a total return of Rs. 669219, nearlydouble the return generated at BSE 200. And now the cream of all the investments, Birla sunlife taxrelief ’96. A total investment of Rs. 144000 for a period of 12 years at BSE 200 would have given totalreturns of just Rs. 553190 but the Birla sunlife tax relief ’96 gave an unbelievable total return of Rs1684008.Thus the above case very well explains the power of compounding and early investment. We have seenhow a meager amount of Rs. 144000 turned into Rs. 1684008. It may appear unbelievable for many butSIPs have turned this into reality and the power of compounding is speaking loud, attracting more andmore investors to create wealth through SIPs.Does fund performance and ranking persist?This project has been a great learning experience for me. But the analyses that are carriedonward these pages are really close to my heart. After taking a look at the data presentedbelow, an expert might underestimate my efforts. One might think it as a boring task and cango for recording historic NAVs since last 1 month instead of recording it daily.But frankly speaking, while tracking the NAVs, I really developed some sentiments with thesefunds. Really the ups and downs in the NAVs affected me as if I m tracking my own portfolio.The portfolio consists of different types of funds. We can see some funds are 5- star rated but
    • their performances are below the unrated funds. We can also find some funds which performedvery well initially but gradually declined either in short- run or long run. Some funds have highNAVS but the returns offered are low. We can also see some funds following same benchmarkand reflecting diverse NAV and returns. Even it can be seen that the expense ratios for variousfunds varies which may affect the ultimate return.Now before going into details, lets have a look at those funds: in this downgrading equitymarket, we can easily make out that the 1 year return of the fund that was on 17 th of april couldnot be sustained till 1 month. One can sort out that the present return of funds has decreased alot and subsequently its NAV too has come down. All the funds are showing negative returnsfor the last 1 month. Even the two hybrid funds are showing negative monthly returns. Thatmeans all those who bought these funds a month back must be experiencing a negative return.Although the annual return of the funds have gone down in comparison to what it was offeringa month back. Still the total return is positive. On an average the equity funds are offering areturn of 30% annually, inspite of a week equity market.Now checking the validity of funds’ ratings, we can see that some of the funds are 5 star or 4star rated but their returns lag behind the unrated funds. Although, since the ratings includeboth risk and return so it will not be a total justice to judge the funds purely on a return basisbut still we can go for it just to judge them on the basis of returns generated.Looking at the funds, we have three 5 star rated funds, one 4star rated and six unrated funds. Inother way, we have seven equity diversified funds, one equity specialty, one hybrid: dynamicasset allocation and one hybrid: debt oriented fund. It is not possible to compare each andevery fund in details. So I have compared 2 funds out of this list on the basis of their returnsand expenses.
    • Here DBS Chola opportunities and ICICI Pru infrastructure follows the same benchmark S&PCNX NIFTY. In this case, DBS Chola opportunities is a 4 star rated fund whereas ICICI Pruinfrastructure is an unrated fund. The star rating definitely gives DBS a competitive advantagebut now lets have a look at other factors, we can see that ICICI Pru has really performed worsein the last month. Its 1 month return is -5.8% whereas DBS gave a return of -3.07%. Even ifwe consider 6 months return or yearly returns, definitely DBS is a winner. We can easily spotthe difference by change in their rankings even. Considering 1 yr return, we can spot DBS atno.5 whereas ICICI at no.6 but when we look at the monthly ratings, to our ultimate shock,DBS is at 52 and ICICI far behind at 172. But if we look at the yearly returns, then there is notmuch difference between them, DBS offering returns of 35.17% whereas ICICI offering 34.27.But looking at the expenses, the expenses charged by ICICI is lower to that of DBS, whichmay act as the ultimate factor in choosing the fund in a long run.Thus at last we can conclude that ratings are totally irrelevant for investors. Here is whythey are totally irrelevant to investor: 1. Mutual fund ratings are based on the returns generated, that is, appreciation of net asset value, based on the historical performance. So they rely more on the past, rather than the current scenario. 2. As returns play a key role in deciding the ratings, any change in returns will lead to re- rating of the mutual fund. If you choose your mutual fund only on the basis of rating, it will be a nuisance to keep realigning your investment in line with the revision of the ratings. 3. The ratings don’t value the investment processes followed by the mutual fund. As a result, a fund following a certain process may lose out to a fund that has given superior returns only because it has a star fund manager. But there is a higher risk associated with a star fund manager that the ratings don’t reflect. If the star fund manager quits, it can throw the working of a mutual fund out of gear and thus affect its performance. 4. The ratings don’t show the level of ethics followed by the fund. A fund or fund manager that is involved in a scam or financial irregularities won’t get poor ratings on the basis of ethics. As the star ratings look at just returns, any wrongdoing carried out by the fund or fund manager will be completely ignored.
    • 5. Ratings also don’t consider two very important factors: transparency and keeping investors informed. There are no negative ratings awarded to the fund for being investor-unfriendly. 6. Ratings don’t match the investor’s risk-appetite with their portfolio. As a matter of fact, investments should be done only after considering the risk appetite of the investor. For example, equities may not be the best investment vehicle for a very conservative investor. However ratings fail to take that into account.Ratings should be the starting point for making an investment decision. They are not the be alland end all of mutual fund investments. There are other important factors like portfoliomanagement, age of funds and more, which should be taken into account before making aninvestment.Portfolio analysis tools:With the increasing number of mutual fund schemes, it becomes very difficult for an investorto choose the type of funds for investment. By using some of the portfolio analysis tools, hecan become more equipped to make a well informed choice. There are many financial tools toanalyze mutual funds. Each has their unique strengths and limitations as well. Therefore, oneneeds to use a combination of these tools to make a thorough analysis of the funds.The present market has become very volatile and buoyant, so it is getting difficult for the
    • investors to take right investing decision. so the easiest available option for investors is tochoose the best performing funds in terms of “returns” which have yielded maximum returns.But if we look deeply to it, we can find that the returns are important but it is also important tolook at the ‘quality’ of the returns. ‘Quality’ determines how much risk a fund is taking togenerate those returns. One can make a judgment on the quality of a fund from various ratiossuch as standard deviation, sharpe ratio, beta, treynor measure, R-squared, alpha, portfolioturnover ratio, total expense ratio etc.Now I have compared two funds of SBI on the basis of standard deviation, beta, R-squared,sharpe ratio, portfolio turnover ratio and total expense ratio. So before going into details, letshave a look at these ratios:Standard deviation: in simple terms standard deviation is one of the commonly used statistical parameter tomeasure risk, which determines the volatility of a fund. Deviation is defined as any variationfrom a mean value (upward & downward). Since the markets are volatile, the returns fluctuateeveryday. High standard deviation of a fund implies high volatility and a low standarddeviation implies low volatility.Beta analysis:beta is used to measure the risk. It basically indicates the level of volatility associated with thefund as compared to the market. In case of funds, as compared to the market. In case of funds,beta would indicate the volatility against the benchmark index. It is used as a short termdecision making tool. A beta that is greater than 1 means that the fund is more volatile than thebenchmark index, while a beta of less than 1 means that the fund is more volatile than thebenchmark index. A fund with a beta very close to 1 means the fund’s performance closelymatches the index or benchmark.
    • The success of beta is heavily dependent on the correlation between correlation between a fundand its benchmark. Thus, if the fund’s portfolio doesn’t have a relevant benchmark index thena beta would be grossly inappropriate. For example if we are considering a banking fund, weshould look at the beta against a bank index.R-Squared (R2): R squared is the square of ‘R’ (i.e.; coefficient of correlation). It describes the level ofassociation between the fun’s market volatility and market risk. The value of R- squared rangesfrom0 to1. A high R- squared (more than 0.80) indicates that beta can be used as a reliablemeasure to analyze the performance of a fund. Beta should be ignored when the r-squared islow as it indicates that the fund performance is affected by factors other than the markets.For example: Case 1 Case 2 R2 0.65 0.88 B 1.2 0.9In the above tableR2 is less than 0.80 in case 1, implies that it would be wrong to mention thatthe fund is aggressive on account of high beta. In case 2, the r- squared is more than 0.85 andbeta value is 0.9. it means that this fund is less aggressive than the market.Sharpe ratio: sharpe ratio is a risk to reward ratio, which helps in comparing the returns givenby a fund with the risk that the fund has taken. A fund with a higher sharpe ratio means thatthese returns have been generated taking lesser risk. In other words, the fund is less volatileand yet generating good returns. Thus, given similar returns, the fund with a higher sharperatio offers a better avenue for investing. The ratio is calculated as:
    • Sharpe ratio = (Average return- risk free rate) / standard deviationPortfolio turnover ratio: Portfolio turnover is a measure of a funds trading activity and iscalculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales (excluding securities with maturities ofless than one year) by the average monthly net assets of the fund. Turnover is simply a measureof the percentage of portfolio value that has been transacted, not an indication of thepercentage of a funds holdings that have been changed. Portfolio turnover is the purchase andsale of securities in a funds portfolio. A ratio of 100%, then, means the fund has bought andsold all its positions within the last year. Turnover is important when investing in any mutualfund, since the amount of turnover affects the fees and costs within the mutual fund.Total expenses ratio: A measure of the total costs associated with managing and operating aninvestment fund such as a mutual fund. These costs consist primarily of management fees andadditional expenses such as trading fees, legal fees, auditor fees and other operationalexpenses. The total cost of the fund is divided by the funds total assets to arrive at a percentageamount, which represents the TER:Total expense ratio = (Total fund Costs/ Total fund Assets)Performance report and portfolio analysis of magnum equity fund and magnummultiplier plus against their benchmark BSE100:
    • YTD 1M 3M 6M 1Y 3Y 5Y Magnu -23.73% 9.02% -7.71% -15.18% 26.61% 45.07% 48.96% m equity fund Magnu -26.16% 5.57% -11.26% -18.00% 21.44% 45.28% 59.31% m multipli er plus Bench -17.53% 11.74% -2.56% 11.47% 30.71% 40.46% 44.24% mark BSE100Now in the above table, we have two funds from SBI ie; magnum equity fund and magnummultiplier plus following the same benchmark i.e; BSE 100. In this case, we have comparedtheir returns during various time periods. We have their returns YTD, during last 1 month,3month, 6 months, 1 year, 3 year and 5 year. If we look at a long term perspective, thenmagnum multiplier plus totally outperformed both magnum equity fund as well as bse 100. Incase of 5 year returns, neither the benchmark nor the magnum equity fund stands anywherenear multiplier plus. It is greater than equity fund by 10.35% and from benchmark by 15.07%.but in case of 3 year returns, surely multiplier plus gave the maximum return but it fell sharplyin comparison to its 5 yr return. A 45.28% return scored over equity fund just by a margin of0.21% and benchmark by a mere 4.28%. now moving down to 1 yr return, we can clearly seethat bse 100 emerges as a true winner. The benchmark gave a return of 30.71% but both thefunds failed to match it even.But the ultimate surprise comes when we look at the datas of last 6 months. Here not only thefund mangers failed to beat or match the market. Rather they also performed as laggards,giving negative returns. When the bse 100 gave returns of 11.47%, these funds were trailing by29.47% and 26.65% which is a huge figure. In th last 3 months too, both the funds were behindbse100 but all the three gave negative returns and the difference between them and benchmarkwas narrowed down. Again, during last 1 month return of all three got positive but the fundsalways remained behind the benchmark. The bse 100 outscored multiplier plus and equity fund
    • by 6.17% and 2.72% respectively. Similarly, the YTD return of all 3 is negative even then thebenchmark is at a better position than the funds.From the following analysis we can infer that inspite of all the steps taken; it is not alwayspossible for the fund managers to always beat the market. Also, the past performance just tellsthe background and history of the fund, by looking at it we cannot interpret that the fund willperform in the same way in the future too. The datas can be presented in the form of agraph as follow:Quantitative data:
    • Ratios Magnum equity fund Magnum multiplier plus Standard deviation 26.00% 26.90% Beta 0.96% 0.95% r-squared 0.84% Sharpe ratio 1.46% 1.42% Portfolio turnover 31% 25% Total expense ratio 2.5% 2.5%Analysis:  We can see that the standard deviation of both the funds are more or less same even then the S.D of multiplier plus is greater than that of equity fund by 0.90%. Generally higher the SD higher is the risk and vice-versa. Therefore, magnum multiplier plus is riskier than magnum equity fund.  The beta of magnum equity fund is higher than that of magnum multiplier plus. Therefore, equity fund is more volatile than multiplier plus. But beta of both the funds is smaller than 1 that means both the funds are less volatile than the market index. As r- squared values are more than 0.80 in both the cases, we can rely on the usage of beta for the analysis of these funds.  A look at the Sharpe ratio indicates that magnum equity has outperformed multiplier plus. A higher Sharpe ratio of equity fund depicts that these return have been generated taking lesser risk than the multiplier plus. It Is less volatile than the other.  R-squared of both the funds are greater than 0.80. it indicates that beta can be used as a reliable measure to analyze the performance of these funds. Magnum equity fund’s R- squared is higher. So its beta is more reliable.  Portfolio turnover ratio of magnum equity fund is higher than multiplier plus. It mean the manager is frequently churning the portfolio of equity fund than of multiplier plus. It may lead to an increase in expenses but could be ignored if could generate higher return by changing the composition of portfolio.  Total expense ratio of both the funds are same i.e.; 2.5%In the form of a chart:
    • Research reportObjective of research;
    •  The main objective of this project is concerned with getting the opinion of people regarding mutual funds and what they feel about availing the services of financial advisors.  I have tried to explore the general opinion about mutual funds. It also covers why/ why not investors are availing the services of financial advisors.  Along with it a brief introduction to India’s largest financial intermediary, SBI has been given and it is shown that how they operate in mutual fund depttScope of the study:The research was carried on in the Northern Region of India. It is restricted to Dehradoon. Ihave visited people randomly nearby my locality, different shopping malls, small retailers etc.Data sources:Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can be used only for the reference.Research has been done by primary data collection, and primary data has been collected byinteracting with various people. The secondary data has been collected through variousjournals and websites and some special publications of SBI .Sampling:  Sampling procedure: The sample is selected in a random way, irrespective of them being investor or not or availing the services or not. It was collected through mails and personal visits to the known persons, by formal and informal talks and through filling up the questionnaire prepared. The data has been analyzed by using the measures of central tendencies like mean, median, mode. The group has been selected and the analysis has been done on the basis statistical tools available.
    •  Sample size: The sample size of my project is limited to 200 only. Out of which only 135 people attempted all the questions. Other 65 not investing in MFs attempted only 2 questions. Sample design: Data has been presented with the help of bar graph, pie charts, line graphs etc. Limitation:  Time limitation.  Research has been done only at Dehradoon.  Some of the persons were not so responsive.  Possibility of error in data collection.  Possibility of error in analysis of data due to small sample size.
    • Data analysis:  Have you ever invested/ interested to invest in mutual funds? YES 135 NO 65  .what is the most important reason for not investing in mutual funds? (only for above 65 participants) Lack of knowledge about mutual funds 25 Enjoys investing in other options 10 Its benefits are not enough to drive you 18 for investment No trust over the fund managers 12
    •  .where do you find yourself as a mutual fund investor?Totally ignorant 28Partial knowledge of MFs 37Aware of only scheme in which invested 46Good knowledge of MFs 24
    •  .where from you purchases mutual funds?Directly from the AMCs 33Brokers only ( large intermediaries) 28Broker/ sub-brokers 59Other sources 15
    • QUESTIONNAIRE
    • A study of preferences of the investors for investment in mutual funds.1. Personal Details: (a). Name:- (b). Add: - Phone:- (c). Age:-(d). Qualification:- Graduation/PG Under Graduate Others (e). Occupation. Pl tick (√) Govt. Ser Pvt. Ser Business Agriculture Others(g). What is your monthly family income approximately? Pl tick (√). Up to Rs. 10,001 to Rs. 15,001 to Rs. 20,001 to Rs. 30,001 and Rs.10,000 15000 20,000 30,000 above2. What kind of investments you have made so far? Pl tick (√). All applicable. a. Saving account b. Fixed deposits c. Insurance d. Mutual Fund e. Post Office-NSC, etc f. Shares/Debentures g. Gold/ Silver h. Real Estate 3. While investing your money, which factor will you prefer?. (a) Liquidity (b) Low Risk (c) High Return (d) Trust4. Are you aware about Mutual Funds and their operations? Pl tick (√). Yes No 5. If yes, how did you know about Mutual Fund? a. Advertisement b. Peer Group c. Banks d. Financial Advisors 6. Have you ever invested in Mutual Fund? Pl tick (√). Yes No
    • 7. If not invested in Mutual Fund then why? (a) Not aware of MF (b) Higher risk (c) Not any specific reason 8. If yes, in which Mutual Fund you have invested? Pl. tick (√). All applicable. a. SBIMF b. UTI c. HDFC d. Reliance e. Kotak f. Other. specify 9. If invested in SBIMF, you do so because (Pl. tick (√), all applicable). a. SBIMF is associated with State Bank of India. b. They have a record of giving good returns year after year. c. Agent’ Advice10. If NOT invested in SBIMF, you do so because (Pl. tick (√) all applicable). a. You are not aware of SBIMF. b. SBIMF gives less return compared to the others. c. Agent’ Advice11. When you plan to invest your money in asset management co. which AMC will you prefer? Assets Management Co. a. SBIMF b. UTI c. Reliance d. HDFC e. Kotak f. ICICI12. Which Channel will you prefer while investing in Mutual Fund? (a) Financial Advisor (b) Bank (c) AMC13. When you invest in Mutual Funds which mode of investment will you prefer? Pl. tick (√). a. One Time Investment b. Systematic Investment Plan (SIP)
    • 14. When you want to invest which type of funds would you choose? a. Having only debt b. Having debt & equity c. Only equity portfolio. portfolio portfolio.15. How would you like to receive the returns every year? Pl. tick (√). a. Dividend payout b. Dividend re-investment c. Growth in NAV16. Instead of general Mutual Funds, would you like to invest in sectorial funds? Please tick (√). Yes No