Predicting Trends in Preventive Care Service Utilization Impacting Cardiovascular Outcomes in a United States Population<b...
Background<br />2<br />Preventive Care refers to any intervention designed to avert disease or injury1<br />Includes immun...
Background<br />3<br />Hypertension (HTN)<br />Currently affects 29% of the U.S. population, <br />28% are considered pre-...
Background<br />4<br />Trends over time in cardiovascular preventive care utilization using population-based monitoring<br...
Need for Study<br />5<br />Existing literature mainly focuses on preventive care utilization among population groups alrea...
Study Objectives<br />6<br />To characterize the utilization pattern of preventive care services impacting cardiovascular ...
Methods<br />7<br />Study Design: Retrospective Cross-Sectional<br />Data Source: Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS)...
Methods<br />8<br />Variables collected:<br />Dependent: Utilization of preventive care services ,blood pressure and chole...
Results <br />9<br /> Demographics<br />Total number of MEPS 2007 data respondents, n= 30,964<br />20,523 responded for bl...
Results-Blood Pressure Screening<br />10<br />Table 1: Utilization Patterns, Chi-Square Analysis<br />
Results-Cholesterol Screening<br />11<br />Table 2: Utilization Patterns, Chi-Square Analysis<br />
Results-Blood Pressure & Cholesterol Screening<br />12<br />Table 3: Predicting Trends, Logistic Regression<br />
Discussion and Implication<br />13<br />Objective 1-Chi-Square Analysis<br /> High utilization patterns for both blood pre...
Discussion and Implication<br />14<br />Objective 2-Logistic Regression<br />Women were less likely than men to obtain car...
Discussion and Implication<br />15<br />Future research should:<br />further distinguish populations with more characteris...
References<br />16<br />Cohen, Joshua T., Neumann, Peter J., Weinstein, Milton C. Does Preventive Care Save Money? Health ...
References, cont.<br />17<br />Hyperlipidemia. Pharmasave Statistics. http://content.nhiondemand.com/psv/HC2.asp?objID=100...
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Predicting Trends in Preventive Care Service Utilization Impacting Cardiovascular Outcomes in a United States Population

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National reports point towards disparities in the utilization of preventive care services but sparse literature exists regarding predicting utilization pattern of preventive care services.
METHODS: The 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a national probability sample survey of the ambulatory civilian US population, was analyzed to determine demographic patterns of utilization. Recommendations by JNC-VII and NCEP were used to determine guideline adherence to blood pressure and cholesterol checkup respectively. Utilization of blood pressure screening and cholesterol checkup services were used as the dependent variable while age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance status, perceived health status were used as independent variables. Since guidelines differ for people with elevated blood pressure, respondents with elevated blood pressure were identified in the MEPS database by self-reported diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population, chi-square analysis was used to determine the group differences for the categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict odds of utilizing appropriate preventive se!
rvices. All analysis was carried out using SAS v9.1.
RESULTS: Total number of adult respondents was 20,434 of which data was available for blood pressure checkup for 20,187 respondents and 15,784 respondents for cholesterol checkup. Overall, respondents were found to adhere to guideline recommendations for getting the blood pressure (n=17,959, 89.0%) and cholesterol (n=14,956, 94.7%) check-up done. A univariate chi-square analysis showed statistically significant differences across all independent variables between people who utilized the preventive care service and those who didn t for blood pressure checkup (p<0><0>65) had much higher odds of using the blood pressure (OR=2.815, CI=2.317-3.420 ) and cholesterol (OR=3.190, CI=2.396-4.!
249 ) preventive services. Males had much lower odds of getting blood pressure (OR=0.350, CI=0.318-0.384) and cholesterol (OR=0.597, CI=0.516-0.692) checks done compared to females. Odds of utilization were nearly similar for all races. Uninsured had lower odds for blood pressure (OR=0.282, CI=0.253-0.315) and cholesterol (OR=0.314, CI=0.262-0.376) use compared to privately insured people.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall MEPS respondents adhered to blood pressure and cholesterol check up guidelines. The study was however successful in identifying existing age, race, income, insurance status related disparities in US population.

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  • The USPSTF recommends all individuals over the age of 18 should have their blood pressure checked annually.BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
  • The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood PressureNational Cholesterol Education Program
  • Poor health status and higher income =higher utilizationHigher utilization was seen with greater income since they have the ability to pay for services and also adequate health coverage
  • Questions: What about other types of p.c. i.e. smoking cessation, diet and exercise…were these factors used by MEPS?If people are more motivated to obtain screenings, how can that lead to improved health, some times its hard to quit bad habits, even when obtaining regular screenings.
  • Predicting Trends in Preventive Care Service Utilization Impacting Cardiovascular Outcomes in a United States Population

    1. 1. Predicting Trends in Preventive Care Service Utilization Impacting Cardiovascular Outcomes in a United States Population<br />Gautam Partha, B. Pharm.1,4<br />Varun Vaidya, B. Pharm., PhD.2,4<br />Jennifer Howe, B.S.P.S.3,4<br />Research Associate<br />Assistant Professor<br />Research Assistant<br />The University of Toledo College of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Health Care Administration, Toledo, Ohio;<br />
    2. 2. Background<br />2<br />Preventive Care refers to any intervention designed to avert disease or injury1<br />Includes immunizations, disease screenings and behavioral counseling2<br />These types of interventions are likely to have a significant impact on increasing quality of life while reducing premature mortality3,4<br />Approximately 40% of all deaths in the U.S, including heart disease and stroke, have been attributed to controllable risk factors, i.e. tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse1,5,6<br />Diseases such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia, especially if untreated, put individuals at an increased risk for heart disease and stroke7,8<br />
    3. 3. Background<br />3<br />Hypertension (HTN)<br />Currently affects 29% of the U.S. population, <br />28% are considered pre-hypertensive9<br />22% of hypertensives are unaware of their condition9<br />23,965 or 7.9 per 100,000 deaths in U.S. in 200710<br />Hyperlipidemia (HL)11<br />Currently affects 105 million Americans<br />Nearly 17% of population<br />4.4 million deaths worldwide<br />If not treated, heart disease could develop, known as the “Silent Killer” because there are no noticeable symptoms12<br />Regular screening is necessary to diagnose and monitor HTN, HL. The maximum benefit of blood pressure and cholesterol screening is achieved through long-term use of drug therapy2<br />
    4. 4. Background<br />4<br />Trends over time in cardiovascular preventive care utilization using population-based monitoring<br />Blood Pressure Screening<br />22.2% in1991 report being told they have high blood pressure by a health care provider, 24.9% in 1999 (BRFSS)8<br />86.5% among all adults 18 years and older in 20032<br />Cholesterol Screening<br />79.4% among men over 35 and women over 45 in 20032<br />1 in 5 at risk adults have not been screened within the last five years2<br />
    5. 5. Need for Study<br />5<br />Existing literature mainly focuses on preventive care utilization among population groups already inflicted with disease or disability13-16<br />Research has not yet characterized specific populations more likely to utilize preventive care services<br />Although there is existing evidence indicating disparities, few studies using predictions have been conducted2<br />Blood pressure and cholesterol screenings are deemed as priorities among clinical preventive service utilization and have continuously proven to be cost-effective17<br />A global perspective on cardiovascular preventive care utilization should be conducted and include all eligible individuals <br />Findings from this study will draw the attention of policymakers towards individuals less likely to use prevention services, thus enabling strict reinforcement of certain health care recommendations to all individuals <br />
    6. 6. Study Objectives<br />6<br />To characterize the utilization pattern of preventive care services impacting cardiovascular outcomes in a U.S population using a national database<br />To predict the trends in cardiovascular preventive care services in a U.S. population<br />
    7. 7. Methods<br />7<br />Study Design: Retrospective Cross-Sectional<br />Data Source: Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS)<br />A nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalized, civilian U.S. population in which individuals are interviewed five times over a 2-year period. This study used the most recent available dataset from 2007. <br />Inclusion Criteria: Based on guideline recommendations of JNC-VII and NCEP:<br />Blood Pressure-restricted to individuals over the age of 18<br />Cholesterol-restricted to individuals over the age of 20<br />
    8. 8. Methods<br />8<br />Variables collected:<br />Dependent: Utilization of preventive care services ,blood pressure and cholesterol screening (Dichotomous)<br />Independent: Age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance status, annual income and perceived health status (Categorical)<br />Data Analysis<br />SAS version 9.1 <br />Objective 1:Descriptive Statistics and Chi-Square Analysis<br />Objective 2: Multivariate Logistic Regression<br />
    9. 9. Results <br />9<br /> Demographics<br />Total number of MEPS 2007 data respondents, n= 30,964<br />20,523 responded for blood pressure screening utilization<br />15,784 responded for cholesterol screening utilization<br />
    10. 10. Results-Blood Pressure Screening<br />10<br />Table 1: Utilization Patterns, Chi-Square Analysis<br />
    11. 11. Results-Cholesterol Screening<br />11<br />Table 2: Utilization Patterns, Chi-Square Analysis<br />
    12. 12. Results-Blood Pressure & Cholesterol Screening<br />12<br />Table 3: Predicting Trends, Logistic Regression<br />
    13. 13. Discussion and Implication<br />13<br />Objective 1-Chi-Square Analysis<br /> High utilization patterns for both blood pressure and cholesterol screening were recognized among all populations categories<br />
    14. 14. Discussion and Implication<br />14<br />Objective 2-Logistic Regression<br />Women were less likely than men to obtain cardiovascular screenings, although women are at greater risk for heart disease<br />Western medicine practices often not utilized in individuals of Asian descent which would explain the low utilization of blood pressure screenings compared with other races<br />Older individuals more likely to seek preventive care services since age is a key risk factor for cardiovascular complications<br />Individuals with poor health status utilized more, <br />
    15. 15. Discussion and Implication<br />15<br />Future research should:<br />further distinguish populations with more characteristics and explore utilizations patterns <br />suggest inferences regarding the causes of varying utilization patterns among populations<br />Awareness of these differences in utilization will help guide policymakers to reinforce the recommended guidelines for blood pressure and cholesterol screenings, especially to those groups in which utilization is lower. <br />
    16. 16. References<br />16<br />Cohen, Joshua T., Neumann, Peter J., Weinstein, Milton C. Does Preventive Care Save Money? Health Economics and the Presidential Candidates. N Engl. J. Med. 358;7:661-663.<br />Preventive Care: A National Profile on Use, Disparities, and Health Benefits: Partnership for Prevention, 2007. 1-46 p.<br />Marin MG, Zitter JN. Expenditures associated with preventive healthcare. Preventive Medicine. 2004(39):856-62.<br />Nelson DE, Bland S, Powell-Griner E, et al. State Trends in Health Risk Factors and Receipt of Clinical Preventive Services Among U.S. Adults During the 1990s. JAMA. 2002;287(20):2659-67.<br />Leading Causes of Death. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm<br />Modkad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, al. e. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238-45.<br />Hypertensive Heart Disease. Health Line. http://www.healthline.com/adamcontent/hypertensive-heart-disease. <br />State-Specific Trends in Self-Reported Blood Pressure Screening and High Blood Pressure—United States, 1991-1999.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5121a2.htm. <br />Hypertension Awareness, Treatment and Control-Continued Disparities in Adults: U.S. 2005-2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db03.pdf<br />Hypertension. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.fastasts/hypertens.htm.<br />
    17. 17. References, cont.<br />17<br />Hyperlipidemia. Pharmasave Statistics. http://content.nhiondemand.com/psv/HC2.asp?objID=100227&cType=hc. <br />Blood Pressure. The American Heart Association. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4473. <br />Wei W, Findley P, Sambamoorthi U. Disability and Receipt of Clinical Preventive Services Among Women. Womens Health Issues. 2006;16(6):286-96.<br />Gold R, DeVoe J, Shah A, Chauvie S. Insurance Continuity and Receipt of Diabetes Preventive Care in a Network of Federally Qualified Health Centers. Medical Care. 2009;47(4):431-9<br />Witt WP, Kahn R, Fortuna L, et al. Psychological Distress as a Barrier to Preventive Healthcare Among U.S. Women. Journal of Primary Prevention. 2009(30):531-47.<br />Wang, Jean, Carson, Elise, Lapane Kate, Eaton, Charles, Gans Kim, Lasater, Thomas. The Effect of Physician Offics Visits on CHD Risk Factor Modification as Part of a Worksite Cholesterol Screening Program. Preventive Medicine. 1999 (28): 221-228. <br />Maciosek et al. Priorities Among Effective Clinical Preventive Services Results of a Systematic Review and Analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 31(1):52-61.<br />

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