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State of the World´s Volunteerism Report , launched on Dec 5th 2011 by UNVolunteers, UN. I participated the regional consultation in Buenos Ayres, Feb 2011.

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  1. 1. 2011 State of the World’s olunteerism Report Universal Values for Global Well-being
  2. 2. The United Nations Volunteers (UNV) programme is the UnitedNations organization that contributes to peace and developmentthrough volunteerism worldwide. Volunteerism is a powerful means ofengaging people in tackling development challenges, and it cantransform the pace and nature of development. Volunteerism benefitsboth society at large and the individual volunteer by strengtheningtrust, solidarity and reciprocity among citizens, and by purposefullycreating opportunities for participation. UNV contributes to peace anddevelopment by advocating for recognition of volunteers, working withpartners to integrate volunteerism into development programming, andmobilizing an increasing number and diversity of volunteers, includingexperienced United Nations Volunteers, throughout the world. UNVembraces volunteerism as universal and inclusive, and recognizesvolunteerism in its diversity as well as the values that sustain it: free will,commitment, engagement and solidarity. UNV is administered by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  3. 3. State of the World’s2011 olunteerism Report Universal Values for Global Well-being
  4. 4. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 © United Nations Volunteers, 2011 Published by: United Nations Volunteers (UNV) Translated by: Prime Production, United Kingdom Designed by: Baseline Arts, United Kingdom; Shubh Chakraborty (cover idea) Printed by: Phoenix Design Aid, Denmark This report is available in Arabic, English, French and Spanish To order a copy, please visit: https://unp.un.org/ Permission is required to reproduce any part of this publication. ISBN-13: 978-92-1-101246-0 e-ISBN-13: 978-92-1-054828-1 Sales No.: E.11.I.12ii
  5. 5. SWVR REPORT TEAMState of the World’s Volunteerism Report TeamSenior Writer Project ManagerRobert Leigh Aygen AytacResearch and Writing Team Communications SpecialistDavid Horton Smith (Senior Researcher), Lothar MikullaCornelia Giesing, María José León, DebbieHaski-Leventhal, Benjamin J. Lough, Jacob Administrative Support TeamMwathi Mati, Sabine Strassburg Vera Chrobok, Johannes BullmannEditorPaul HockenosThe analysis and policy recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the viewsof the United Nations Development Programme. The research and writing of the report wasa collaborative effort by the State of the World’s Volunteerism Report team and a group ofeminent advisers led by Flavia Pansieri, Executive Coordinator, United Nations Volunteers.Citing of trade names or commercial processes does not constitute endorsement. iii
  6. 6. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 Foreword Volunteering occurs in every society in the a decent standard of living. As the Human De- world. The terms which define it and the velopment Reports have shown, development forms of its expression may vary in different lan- effectiveness needs to be measured not only guages and cultures, but the values which drive by GDP per capita, but also by the extent to it are common and universal: a desire to con- which people’s choices have expanded and im- tribute to the common good, out of free will proved their quality of life. and in a spirit of solidarity, without expectation The human development concept puts of material reward. people at the very centre of development. Volunteers are motivated by values like UNV’s report embraces that too, recognizing the those of justice, equality and freedom as ex- importance of non-material attainments to the pressed in the United Nations Charter. A soci- well-being of individuals and the entire socie- ety which supports and encourages different ty. Material improvements – health, education forms of volunteering is likely to be a society and decent work – remain essential; but also which also promotes the well-being of its cit- vital are participation, empowerment and ac- izens. A society which fails to recognize and fa- tive citizenship of which volunteering is such cilitate the contributions of volunteers deprives a powerful expression. itself of contributions to public well-being The Global Human Development Report which could be made. 2010 stated: “Putting people at the centre of de- In proclaiming the International Year of Vol- velopment means making progress equitable and unteers ten years ago, the international com- broad-based, enabling people to be active par- munity recognized the essential contributions ticipants in change.” UNV’s report shows vol- which volunteers make to the progress, cohe- unteering to be a highly effective way of sion and resilience of communities and nations. building on people’s capabilities in all societies Yet, as we strive to accelerate progress to and at all levels. reach the Millennium Development Goals by At UNDP, we believe in supporting countries 2015, the contributions of volunteers are not to build the institutions, capacities and policies always factored into development strategies which will drive transformational change. To be and often remain at the margins of develop- effective, policies need to bring about change ment debate. at the grassroots level. Strategies nurtured by The United Nations Volunteers programme community-level action can help achieve that. took the initiative to commission this first-ever This report should trigger a discussion on, United Nations report on volunteering as a way and promote a better understanding of, the of marking the tenth anniversary of the Inter- contributions of volunteering to peace and de- national Year of Volunteers. By emphasising the velopment. untapped potential of volunteering, the report shows that the current development archi- tecture is incomplete where it omits to include the contributions volunteers can make. Over the past two decades, the United Na- Helen Clark tions Development Programme (UNDP) has ad- Administrator, United Nations Development vanced the concept of human development, Programme calling for expanding people’s choices and free- doms and increasing their ability to live long and healthy lives, to be educated, and to enjoyiv
  7. 7. FOREWORD AND PREFACEPrefaceThe focus of this report is on the universal any strategy that recognizes that progressvalues that motivate people the world over to cannot be measured solely in terms of eco-volunteer for the common good and on the im- nomic return and that individuals are not mo-pact of volunteer action on societies and indi- tivated by self-interest alone but also by theirviduals. We believe in the power of volunteering deeply held values and beliefs.to promote cooperation, encourage participa- In the chapters that follow, we provide nu-tion and contribute to the well-being of indi- merous examples of the transformationalviduals and of society as a whole. changes that volunteers experience and pro- Volunteerism was recognized as an im- duce. We show why volunteerism is crucial toportant factor in development ten years ago in human development. More importantly, we ar-2001 when 126 Member States co-sponsored gue that a truly human society needs to be driv-a General Assembly resolution at the end of the en by the values of trust, solidarity and mutualInternational Year of Volunteers (IYV). This res- respect which inspire all volunteers.olution provided numerous policy recom- In preparing this first United Nations reportmendations to governments, United Nations on volunteerism, we address numerous defi-bodies, non-governmental organizations and nitional and methodological issues. We are wellothers on ways to promote and support vol- aware that further study and research areunteerism. needed to refine our understanding of the na- Since then, encouraging progress has been ture and extent of this expression of human en-made in implementing some of these recom- deavour. This report represents the startingmendations. At the same time, as we mark the point for a broader debate, not a definitive an-tenth anniversary of IYV, the contribution of vol- swer. In future years, we intend to deepen ourunteerism is still only partially recognized. It is understanding of the motivations, scope, val-an afterthought rather than an organic com- ue and impact of volunteerism worldwide.ponent of programmes designed to promotecitizen participation and societal well-being. With this report, we hope to make the casefor the recognition of volunteerism as an es-sential component for the sustainable, equi- Flavia Pansieritable progress of communities and nations. In Executive Coordinator, United Nationsa rapidly changing environment, volunteerism Volunteersis a constant. Its forms of expression may varybut the central values of solidarity and com-mitment that lie at its core remain strong anduniversal. They are found in all cultures and so-cieties and are a true expression of our commonhumanity. There is growing recognition of the need tomodify our unsustainable production andconsumption patterns. This will require polit-ical will. Equally, it will require the buy-in andactive participation of citizens. Volunteerism isnot a panacea to the problems of the world to-day. It is, however, an essential component of v
  8. 8. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 Acknowledgements This report is the result of a truly partici- An internal UNV Readers Group compris- patory effort. The sincere thanks of UNV go ing UNV management and technical staff was to all who contributed their time, knowledge established to provide feedback on the draft and experience. As befits a report on volun- SWVR. The report benefited greatly from their teerism, most of the contributions took the advice and suggestions. Thus we would like to form of voluntary engagement. The report was thank: Kwabena Asante-Ntiamoah, Mahamane prepared by a core team, coordinated by Baby, Manon Bernier, Elise Bouvet, Mae Chao, Project Manager Aygen Aytac, under the gen- Simona Costanzo-Sow, Peter Devereux, Olga eral guidance and supervision of Flavia Pansieri, Devyatkin, Francesco Galtieri, Kevin Gilroy, Executive Coordinator of the United Nations Naheed Haque, Moraig Henderson, Ibrahim Volunteers (UNV) programme. The research Hussein, Ghulam Isaczai, Allen Jennings, Tapi- and writing team, led by Senior Writer Robert wa Kamuruko, Donna Keher, Svend Amdi Leigh, comprised the founder of ARNOVA, Madsen, Yvonne Maharoof, Robert Palmer, David Horton Smith from the Boston Col- Jan Snoeks, Robert Toe, Marco van der Ree, lege, Benjamin J. Lough from the University of Oliver Wittershagen, Kawtar Zerouali and Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Jacob Mwathi Veronique Zidi-Aporeigah. An internal refer- Mati from the University of Witwatersrand, ence group also assisted. Thanks go to Alba Debbie Haski-Leventhal from Macquarie Uni- Candel Pau, Fabienne Copin, Romain De- versity, and Independent Consultants María sclous, Rafael Martínez, Marguerite Minani José León, Cornelia Giesing and Sabine Strass- and Amina Said. burg. Project and administrative support was UNV commissioned 19 background papers provided by Vera Chrobok and Johannes Bull- on a range of thematic issues related to vol- mann. Lothar Mikulla led the communica- unteerism and seven regional papers. We tion and advocacy activities and Paul Hockenos would like to thank the authors for providing edited the report. Thanks also go to Shubh us with rich information and data: Jody Aked, Chakraborty for suggestion of the cover page Emmanuel Asomba, Denise Bortree, Carol design. Carter, Kathryn Dinh, Christopher Einolf, Sharon A Technical Advisory Board was actively in- Eng, Snezana Green, Jürgen Grotz, Celayne volved in identifying the issues addressed in Healon-Shrestha, Nicole A. Hofmann, Benedict the report and in outlining its content. We Iheme, Osama Kadi, Alina Meyer, Kimberly thank the Technical Advisory Board mem- Ochs, René Olate, John Robinson, Sigfrido bers: Jeffrey Brudney, Anabel Cruz, Lev Jakob- Romeo, Lester Salamon, David H. Smith, Lars son, Amany Kandil, Thierno Kane, Jeni Svedberg, Rajesh Tandon, Rebecca Tiessen Klugman, Lucas Meijs, Maureen Nakirunda, and Ying Xu (see Bibliography for a full list of Justin Davis Smith and Rajesh Tandon. commissioned papers). The High-Level Advisory Board contributed In preparation for the SWVR, nine consul- its broader vision and helped to contextualize tative meetings were held between October the report. We thank the High-Level Advisory 2010 and February 2011 to draw on the ex- Board members for providing invaluable in- pertise of volunteerism researchers, academ- sights and suggestions. They are: Soukeyna ics, civil society leaders and development Ndiaye Ba, Liz Burns, Marian Harkin, Bruce practitioners from around the globe and to dis- Jenks, Rima Khalaf, Bernardo Kliksberg, Justin cuss issues related to volunteerism. These Koutaba, Miria Matembe, Taimalieutu Kiwi consultation meetings included a civil socie- Tamasese and Erna Witoelar. ty consultation meeting in Germany and sev-vi
  9. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSeral regional consultation meetings covering ganizations to which we were allowed gen-Latin America, North America, Western Europe, erous access. In this context we would like toEastern Europe/CIS, Middle East and Northern thank Richard Harrison, Research Director ofAfrica, Francophone Africa, Anglophone Africa the Charities Aid Foundation in London, andand the Asia-Pacific region. We thank all par- Andrew Rzepa of GALLUP for giving us this ac-ticipants for sharing valuable insights, sug- cess.gestions, case studies and their own research Over the course of the project, a numberfindings. We would also like to thank associated of dedicated interns supported the SWVRuniversities and organizations for supporting team: Collins Fomukong Abie, Abdalhadi Ali-the participation of their staff in our consul- jla, Bárbara Bécares Castaño, Bowen Cao,tation meetings (see the full list of consultation Piyush Dhawan, Geline Alfred Fuko, Carlymeetings and participants on the following Garonne, Miles Hookey, Ika RiniIndrawati, Au-pages). rora Gomez Jimenez, Aivis Klavinskis, Parul Lih- UNDP Country Offices in Turkey, Senegal, la, Amrita Manocha, Evgenia Mitroliou, HiromiKenya, Thailand and Argentina, and the UNV Morikawa, Victor Bakhoya Nyange, ValentinaOffice in New York supported the organization Primo, Liam Puzzi and Rafael Tahan.of regional consultation meetings. The The report also benefited from the supportComisión Cascos Blancos (White Helmets of several online volunteers from around theCommission) from Argentina and research globe: Frank Brockmeier, Jorge Carvajal, Audreyinstitute TUSSIDE from Turkey gave support to Desmet, Arit Eminue, Camilla Eriksson, Moni-the organization of meetings in Buenos Aires ca Figueroa, Sophie Guo, Carolina Henriques,and in Istanbul respectively. The multi-re- Ali Hentati, Jae Hyeon Park, Ahsan Ijaz, Syedgional consultation meeting in Turkey was Ijaz, Hussain Shah, Marina Jousse, Wenni Lee,funded by the European Commission. We are Natalia Markitan, Leire Martinez Arribas, Luciagrateful for the financial support. Martinkova, Luana Mulugheta, Saki Naga- The UNDP Network Groups generated a mone, Joanna Pilch, Montasir Rahman, Mararange of useful ideas and examples through Romiti, Britta Sadoun, Christopher Sam, Divyaonline discussions on various topics related to Sharma, Feiru Tang, Aneliya Valkova and Jen-volunteerism. The UNDP Network Groups on nifer Walsh.Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, HIV/AIDS, En- APA Journals gave us continuous supportvironment, and Conflict Prevention and Re- with information on the APA style used in thecovery deserve special mention. references of the SWVR. The data and statistics used in this reportdraw significantly on the databases of other or- UNV wishes to thank all contributors. vii
  10. 10. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 Contributions HIGHLEVEL ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS (in alphabetical order) (in alphabetical order) Soukeyna Ndiaye Ba – Executive Director, Jeffrey Brudney – Albert A. Levin Chair of International Network of Alternative Financial Urban Studies and Public Service, Levin College Institutions, Dakar, Senegal of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University, United States Elizabeth Burns – Former World President, International Association for Volunteer Effort Anabel Cruz – Director, Communication and (IAVE), United Kingdom Development Institute, Montevideo, Uruguay Marian Harkin – Independent Member of the Lev Jakobson – First Vice Rector, Higher School European Parliament, Ireland of Economics, State University, Moscow, Russia Bruce Jenks – Senior Non-Resident Fellow, Amany Kandil – Executive Director, The Arab Harvard University, United States Network for NGOs, Cairo, Egypt Rima Khalaf – Executive Secretary, United Thierno Kane – Former Director, UNDP Civil Nations Economic and Social Commission for Society Organizations Division, Dakar, Senegal Western Asia, Beirut, Lebanon Jeni Klugmann – Former Director, UNDP Bernardo Kliksberg – Senior Consultant for Human Development Reports Office, New York, the Director of the Bureau for Development United States Policy, UNDP, Argentina Lucas Meijs – Professor, Rotterdam School of Justin Koutaba – Professor of Philosophy, Management at Erasmus University, Rotterdam, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso the Netherlands Miriam Matembe – Founder and Board Maureen Nakirunda – Research Fellow, Member, Centre for Women in Governance, Centre for Basic Research, Kampala, Uganda Kampala, Uganda Justin Davis Smith – Chief Executive, Taimalieutu Kiwi Tamasese – Coordinator of Volunteering England, London, United Kingdom the Pacific Section, The Family Centre, New Zealand Rajesh Tandon – President, Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi, India Erna Witoelar – Chair, Asia Pacific Philantrophy Consortium, Indonesiaviii
  11. 11. CONTRIBUTIONSCONSULTATION MEETINGS Eastern Europe/CIS Indrė Balčaitė (Analyst, Public Policy andMulti-Regional Consultation Meeting Management Institute, Lithuania); Galina(Western Europe, Eastern Europe/CIS, Bodrenkova (Founder and President ofMiddle East and Northern Africa), Turkey Moscow Charity House / National29-30 October 2010 Representative of IAVE in Russia); Astrit Istrefi (Project Coordinator, Saferworld, KosovoWestern Europe (Serbia)); Nikica Kusinikova (Executive Director,Cliff Allum (Chief Executive Officer, Skillshare Konekt, the former Yugoslav Republic ofInternational, United Kingdom); Aurélie Macedonia); Anna Mazgal (InternationalBeaujolais (Coordinator, Comité de Liaison des Officer, National Federation of Polish NGOs,ONG de Volontariat, France); Rene Bekkers Poland); Ferdinand Nikolla (Executive Director,(Associate Professor, Department of The Forum for Civic Initiatives, KosovoPhilanthropic Studies, VU University (Serbia)); Miroslav Pospisil (Director, Centre forAmsterdam, NL); Steffen Bethmann Nonprofit Sector Research, Czech Republic);(Researcher, Centre for Philanthropy Studies, Steve Powell (President and Senior Researcher,University of Basel, Switzerland); Thilo Boeck proMente, Bosnia and Herzegovina); Lejla(Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Social Sehic Relic (Center Manager, VolonterskiAction, De Montfort University, School of Centar Osijek, Croatia); Kuba WygnanskiApplied Social Sciences, United Kingdom); (Expert, KLON/JAWOR Association, Unit forAngeliki Boura (Special Advisor to the Social Research and Innovation SHIPYARD,Secretary General for Youth, General Secretariat Poland); Igor Germanovich Zakharovfor Youth, Greece); Matthew Hill (Research (Webmaster Consultant, SozidanieOfficer, Institute for Volunteering Research, Foundation, Russian Federation); ElenaUnited Kingdom); Lesley Hustinx (Assistant Zakharova (Executive Director, SozidanieProfessor, Department of Sociology, Ghent Foundation, Russian Federation).University, Belgium); Liz Lipscomb (Head ofResearch, Charities Aid Foundation, United Middle East and Northern AfricaKingdom); Deirdre Murray (Director, Hadeel Al-Ali (Director, Syria Youth CommissionComhlámh, attending on behalf of FORUM, for Volunteerism, Syria); Khalid S. Al-GhamdiIreland); Colin Rochester (Senior Research (NPO Technology Consultant and Researcher,Fellow, Centre for the Study of Voluntary and MEDAD Center, International Center forCommunity Activity, Roehampton University, Researches & Studies, Saudi Arabia); Rana AlUnited Kingdom); Boguslawa Sardinha Hariri (Program Assistant, International(Associate Professor, Escola Superior de Federation of Red Cross and Red CrescentCiências Empresariais, Instituto Politechnico de Societies, Lebanon); Abdel Rahim BelalSetubal, Portugal); Lars Svedberg (Director, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Sudan);(Professor/Research Director, Institute for Civil Farah Cherif D’Ouezzan (Founder of ThaqafatSociety Studies, Ersta Sköndal University Association, Founder and Director of theCollege, Sweden); Agnes Uhereczky (Director, Center for Cross Cultural Learning, Morocco);Association of Voluntary Service Organizations, Hür Güldü (Coordinator, T.R. Prime MinistryBelgium); Annette Zimmer (Director of Political State Planning Organization, Centre for EUScience Institute, University of Münster, Education and Youth Programmes, NationalGermany). Agency, Turkey; Osama Kadi (Co-founder and ix
  12. 12. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 President, Syrian Centre for Political and (Coordinator of the Pacific Section, The Family Strategic Studies, United States); Salma Kahale Centre, New Zealand); Francesco Volpini (Senior Executive Aide, Projects and Initiatives (Director, Coordinating Committee for Office of the First Lady, Syria); Najwa Kallas International Voluntary Service, France); Saâd (Program Associate on the Youth Agenda Zian (Volunteer Development Director, World Project Office of the First Lady, Syria); Hagai Katz Organization of the Scout Movement, (Director, Israeli Center for Third Sector Research, Switzerland). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel). North America Regional Consultation Civil Society Consultation Meeting, Meeting, United States Germany 20-21 November 2010 8-9 November 2010 Douglas Baer (Professor, Department of Stefan Agerhem (Senior Officer, International Sociology, University of Victoria, Canada); Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Thomasina Borkman (Professor of Sociology Societies/Swedish Red Cross); Ibrahim Betil Emerita, George Mason University, United (Chairperson, TOG-Community Volunteers, States); Jeffrey Brudney (Albert A. Levin Chair of Turkey); Elizabeth Burns (Former World Urban Studies and Public Service, Levin College President, International Association for of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University, Volunteer Effort, United Kingdom); Jacqueline United States); Carol Carter (Principal Butcher-Rivas (Chairperson, CEMEFI, Mexican Consultant, IVA Consulting, United States); Lilian Center for Philanthropy, Mexico); Mei Cobb Chatterjee (Director General, Consultations and (Vice President, Volunteer & Employee Outreach, Strategic Policy and Performance Engagement, United Way Worldwide, United Branch, Canadian International Development States); Kate Cotton (National Volunteering Agency, Canada); Ernest Gilmer Clary (Professor, Team Manager, Voluntary Service Overseas, Department of Psychology, College of St. UK); Philippe Fragnier (Knowledge Catherine, United States); Ram A. Cnaan Management Unit of the Uniterra Volunteer (President ARNOVA, Professor and Senior Program, CECI and WUSC, Canada); Tuesday Associate Dean, University of Pennsylvania, Gichuki (Executive Director, NAVNET, Kenya); United States); Kathleen Dennis (Executive Rosemary Hindle (Development Executive - Director, International Association for Volunteer External Relations, World Association of Girl Effort, United States); Christopher J. Einolf Guides and Girl Scouts, Belgium); Jeffery (Assistant Professor, School of Public Service, Huffines (United Nations Representative, DePaul University, United States); Susan J. Ellis CIVICUS, United States); Viola Krebs (Founder & (President, Energize, Inc., United States); Barney Executive Director, ICVolunteers, Switzerland); Ellis-Perry (Strategic Advisor, Volunteer Eva Mysliwiec (Founder & Executive Director, Vancouver / Strategic External Relations Officer, Youth Star Cambodia); Mike Naftali (Founder University of British Columbia, Canada); Megan and Chairperson, Brit Olam (International Haddock (International Research Projects Volunteering and Development / National Coordinator, Center for Civil Society Studies, Council for Voluntarism, Israel); Kumi Naidoo Johns Hopkins University, United States); (Executive Director, Greenpeace International, Michael H. Hall (Principal, Social Impact the Netherlands); Cary Pedicini (Chief Strategies, Canada); Femida Handy (Professor, Executive Officer, Volunteering Australia, School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Australia); Taimalieutu Kiwi Tamasese Pennsylvania, United States); David Lasbyx
  13. 13. CONTRIBUTIONS(Senior Research Associate, Imagine Canada, Africa, Project OSC/PNUD, Benin); Kossi AyehCanada); Nancy Macduff (Trainer and (Secretary-General, Frères Agriculteurs etConsultant, Macduff/Bunt Associates, Faculty, Artisans pour le Développement, Togo); ThiernoPortland State University, United States); Julie Kane, former Director, UNDP Division CivilFisher Melton (Associate, Retired Program Society, and Member, Technical Advisory BoardOfficer, Kettering Foundation, United States); UNV/SWVR, Senegal); Flavien Munzuluba KinierBrandee Menoher (Director (National Volunteering Secretariat, Ministry ofEvaluation/Performance Measurement, Points of Planning, Democratic Republic of the Congo);Light Institute, United States); Rick Montpelier Zélia Leite Rodrigues (Director, National(Operations and Program Specialist, Peace Programme of Volunteering, Cape Verde);Corps, United States); Danny Pelletier (Programs Ibrahim Patingde Alassane Ouedraogo,and Partnership Director, CUSO-VSO, Canada); Directeur-General, National VolunteeringVictor Pestoff (Guest Professor, Institute for Civil Programme, Burkina Faso); Benoit OuobaSociety Studies, Ersta Skondal University (Executive Secretary, Tin Tua, Burkina Faso);College, Sweden); Jack Quarter (Professor and Rodolphe Soh (Director of Social Protection forDirector, Social Economy Centre, University of Persons with Handicaps and Older People,Toronto, Canada); David Ray (Chief Strategy and Ministry of Social Affairs, Cameroon); SaadéPublic Policy Officer, Points of Light Institute, Souleye (former Minister for RegionalUnited States); Sarah Jane Rehnborg (Associate Development Planning and CommunityDirector for Planning and Development, RGK Development, Niger); Papa Birama Thiam,Center for Philanthropy and Community Service, Director, L’Assistance Technique, Senegal).LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas,United States); Lester Salamon (Director, Center Anglophone Africa Regional Consultationfor Civil Society Studies, The Johns Hopkins Meeting, KenyaUniversity, United States); Sarah Saso (Director, 17-18 January 2011Community Relations, Manulife Financial Raymonde Agossou (Head of Division of HR &Corporation, Canada); Elizabeth Specht Youth Development, African Union Commission,(Executive Director, Volunteer Richmond, Ethiopia); Fatma Alloo (Founder, Tanzania MediaCanada); Robert A. Stebbins (Faculty Professor, Women’s Association, Tanzania); Salmina E. JobeDepartment of Sociology, University of Calgary, (National Coordinator, National VolunteerCanada); Richard A. Sundeen (Emeritus Service Centre Project, the Gambia); EveProfessor, School of Policy, Planning and Lwembe-Mungai (Volunteering DevelopmentDevelopment, University of Southern California, Advisor, VSO Jitolee, Kenya); Winnie MitullahUnited States); John Wilson (Emeritus Professor, (Associate Research Professor, University ofDepartment of Sociology, Duke University, Nairobi, Kenya); Esther Mwaura-Muiru (NationalUnited States). Coordinator, GROOTS Kenya, Kenya); Dieudonné Nikiema (Capacity Building Specialist, ECOWASFrancophone Africa Regional Consultation Commission, Nigeria); Frances Birungi OdongMeeting, Senegal (Director of Programs, UCOBAC, Uganda);7-8 January 2011 Morena J. Rankopo (Lecturer, MSW Coordinator,Ibrahim Ag Nock (National Coordinator, University of Botswana, Botswana); MurindwaNational Centre for the Promotion of National Rutanga (Professor, Makerere University /Volunteering for Peace and Development, Mali); CODESRIA Representative, Uganda); JoyceGustave Assah (President, Civic Commission for Shaidi (Director, Department of Youth xi
  14. 14. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 Development, Ministry of Information, Youth, Latin America Regional Consultation Culture and Sports, Tanzania); Benon Webare Meeting, Argentina (Consultant, Professional Development 8-9 February 2011 Consultants International, Uganda); Susan Bruno Ayres (Director, Redes V2V, Brazil); Wilkinson-Maposa (Consultant, South Africa). Analía Bettoni Schafer (Project Area Coordinator, Institute of Communication and Asia-Pacific Regional Consultation Meeting, Development, Uruguay); Fernanda Thailand Bornhausen Sá (President, Action 31 January – 1 February 2011 Volunteerism Institute, Brazil); Jacqueline Vinya Ariyaratne (General Secretary, Butcher-Rivas (Board Member, CEMEFI, Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement, Sri Mexico); Laura Carizzoni (Assistant, White Lanka); Tim Burns (Executive Director, Helmets Commission, Argentina); Geovanna Volunteering New Zealand, New Zealand); Collaguazo (Volunteerism and Youth National Kin-Man Chan (Director of Centre for Civil Coordinator, Red Cross Ecuador); Gabriel Society Studies / Associate Professor of Marcelo Fuks (President, White Helmets Sociology, The Chinese University of Hong Commission, Argentina); Marcela Jiménez de Kong, China); Kathryn Dinh (International la Jara (Senior Fellow, Center for Civil Society Development Consultant, Australia); Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, United Yashavantha Dongre (Professor, Coordinator States); Mariana Lomé (Coordinator, Graduate Project on Nonprofit Sector, University of Program on Nonprofit Organizations, Mysore, India); Debbie Haski-Leventhal University of San Andrés, CEDES, Argentina); (Senior Lecturer, Macquarie Graduate School Raúl Edgardo Martínez Amador (Major, of Management, Macquarie University, Volunteer Fire Brigade, Central District Australia); Chulhee Kang (Professor, School of Comayaguela, Honduras); Carolina Munín Social Welfare, Yonsei University, Republic of (Assistant, White Helmets Commission, Korea); Kang-Hyun Lee (President, Argentina); Marta Muñoz Cárdenas (Deputy International Association for Volunteer Effort, Director, Christian Youth Association, Republic of Korea); Corazon Macaraig (Chief Colombian NGO Confederation, Colombia); Volunteer Service Officer, Philippine National Juan Carlos Nadalich (Technical Coordinator, Volunteer Service Coordinating Agency, National Council for the Coordination of Philippines); Phra Win Mektripop (Committee, Social Policies, Argentina); René Olate Volunteer Spirit Network, Thailand); Malanon (Researcher, College of Social Work, Ohio Nuntinee (Secretariat, Volunteer Center, State University, United States); Felipe Thammasat University, Thailand); Pooran Portocarrero (Chancellor, University of the Chandra Pandey (Director, Times Pacific, Peru); Mario Roitter (Researcher, State Foundation,Times Group, India); Rajesh and Society Research Centre, Argentina); Tandon (President, Society for Participatory Javiera Serani (Regional Director for Mexico Research in Asia, India); Erna Witoelar (Chair, and the Caribbean, A Roof for my Country Asia Pacific Philanthropy Consortium, Foundation, Chile); Cecilia Ugaz (Deputy Indonesia); Naoto Yamauchi (Professor of Resident Representative, United Nations Public Economics, Osaka School of Development Programme, Argentina); Carlos International Public Policy, Osaka University, Eduardo Zaballa (UNV Coordinator, White Japan); Zhibin Zhang (Assistant Professor, Helmets Commission, Argentina). Nanyang Technological University, Singapore).xii
  15. 15. ACRONYMSAcronymsBwB Bankers without Borders IFAD International Fund forCEPAL La Comisión Económica para Agricultural Development América Latina y el Caribe IFRC International Federation ofCHW Community Health Worker Red Cross and Red CrescentCIS Commonwealth of Societies Independent States IKS Indigenous KnowledgeCNP The Johns Hopkins System Comparative Nonprofit ILO International Labour Sector Project OrganizationCSI Civil Society Index IOM International OrganizationCSO Civil Society Organization for MigrationCSR Corporate Social ISO International Organization Responsibility for StandardizationCUSO Canadian University Service ITU International Overseas Telecommunication UnionDFID Department for International IVS International Volunteer Development (United Service Kingdom) IYV International Year ofDRR Disaster Risk Reduction VolunteersEAC-EA The Education, Audiovisual MARWOPNET Mano River Women’s Peace and Culture Executive Network Agency MDGs Millennium DevelopmentECOWAS Economic Community of Goals West African States MRU Mano River UnionEU European Union NGO Non-GovernmentalEVP Employee Volunteer Program OrganizationFBO Faith-Based Organization NSDP National StrategicFOCSIV Federazione Organismi Development Plan Cristiani Servizio NVM National Volunteer Internazionale Volontario MovementGDP Gross Domestic Product OECD Organization for EconomicGWP The Gallup World Poll Co-operation andHDR Human Development Report DevelopmentHIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency SADNET The Southern Africa Drought Virus/Acquired Immuno- Technology Network Deficiency Syndrome SIF Singapore InternationalIAVE International Association for Foundation Volunteer Effort SMS Short Message ServiceICNL International Center for Not- SWVR State of World’s Volunteerism for-Profit Law ReportICNPO International Classification of TICA Thailand’s International Nonprofit Organizations Development CooperationICT Information and Agency Communications Technology UN United Nations xiii
  16. 16. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 UNCCD United Nations Convention UN IANWGE United Nations Inter-Agency to Combat Desertification Network on Women and UNCDF United Nations Capital Gender Equality Development Fund UNICEF United Nations Children’s UNDESA United Nations Department Fund of Economic and Social UNISDR United Nations International Affairs Strategy for Disaster UNDP United Nations Development Reduction Programme UNSC United Nations Security UNEP United Nations Environment Council Programme UNV United Nations Volunteers UNESCO United Nations Educational, UPS United Parcel Service Scientific and Cultural USAID United States Agency for Organization International Development UNGC United Nations Global VSO Voluntary Services Overseas Compact WANEP West Africa Network for UNGA United Nations General Peacebuilding Assembly WHO World Health Organizationxiv
  17. 17. CONTENTSContentsSTATE OF THE WORLDS VOLUNTEERISM REPORT TEAM iiiFOREWORD by the Administrator, UNDP ivPREFACE by the Executive Coordinator, UNV vACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viCONTRIBUTIONS viiiACRONYMS xiiiCONTENTS xvOVERVIEW xix Volunteerism in the world today xxii New faces of volunteerism xxii Volunteerism and the development paradigm xxiiCHAPTER 1 . Volunteerism is universal 1 Volunteerism and traditional values 2 Volunteerism flying under the radar 3 What is volunteerism? 3 How is volunteerism expressed? 5 Common misperceptions about volunteerism 8 Conclusions and discussions 12CHAPTER 2 . Taking the measure of volunteering 13 Why take the measure of volunteerism? 14 Diverse measures of volunteering 15 National volunteer studies 17 Pursuing a global measure: highlighting international measuring initiatives 18 European Commission Study 18 The Gallup World Poll (GWP) 19 World Values Survey (WVS) 20 The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (CNP) 20 CIVICUS Civil Society Index (CSI) 20 The Manual on the Measurement of Volunteer Work 22 Conclusions and discussions 23 xv
  18. 18. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 CHAPTER 3 . Volunteerism in the twenty-first century 25 Introduction 26 Volunteerism and technology 26 Volunteerism and mobile communication technologies 26 Volunteerism and the Internet 27 International volunteerism 29 Volunteerism and the private sector 33 Conclusions and discussions 36 CHAPTER 4 . Sustainable livelihoods 39 Introduction 40 What are sustainable livelihoods? 40 Volunteerism and social capital 41 Volunteerism and human capital 42 Volunteerism and natural capital 45 Volunteerism and physical capital 46 Volunteerism and financial assets 47 Volunteerism and political assets 48 Conclusions and discussions 49 CHAPTER 5 . Volunteering as a force for social inclusion 51 What is social inclusion? 52 The levels of social inclusion 53 Social inclusion of groups through volunteerism 54 Women 54 Young people 56 Older persons 58 People with disabilities 58 Migrants 59 People living with HIV/AIDS 60 Conclusions and discussions 61 CHAPTER 6 . Volunteerism, cohesion and conflict management 63 Introduction 64 Social cohesion and violent conflict 64 Volunteerism in the prevention of conflict 65 Volunteerism during conflict 66 Volunteerism in the aftermath of conflict 67 Volunteerism and the promotion of peace 68 Women 68 Young people 69 Conclusions and discussions 71xvi
  19. 19. CONTENTSCHAPTER 7 . Volunteerism and disasters 73 Introduction 74 Disasters and development 74 Multiple roles of volunteerism in disasters 74 Before a disaster 74 Prevention and mitigation of disasters 74 Preparing for disasters 76 Responding to disasters 77 Volunteerism and recovery 80 Conclusions and discussions 81CHAPTER 8 . Volunteering and well-being 83 Introduction 84 Volunteering and individual well-being 86 Volunteering and community well-being 86 Well-being and policy 88 Conclusions and discussions 89CONCLUSION . The way forward 91 Introduction 92 The time is right 93NOTES 95REFERENCES 99BOXES O.1 Volunteerism as a valuable component of development plans xx O.2 Volunteerism as an anchor in the face of global changes xxi 1.1 Traditional forms of volunteerism 2 1.2 Volunteers in weather forecasts 3 1.3 Teaching the poor in India 5 1.4 Farmers’ cooperatives help Zambian farmers survive and thrive 6 1.5 Arab spring – Egypt in Colors 7 1.6 Public and community partnership against poverty and tuberculosis 9 1.7 African philanthropy – a strong tradition 9 1.8 From house building to active citizenship 10 1.9 Promoting laws and policies that support volunteerism 11 2.1 Volunteer values 14 2.2 Using community calendars to measure the value of volunteering 15 2.3 Beyond the economic value 16 2.4 African Union youth volunteers 16 2.5 First-ever volunteerism survey in Bangladesh 17 2.6 From house building to active citizenship 22 2.7 Best Practices in the measurement of volunteering 22 3.1 Election monitoring through SMS 27 3.2 Online volunteering 28 xvii
  20. 20. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 3.3 Open-source online volunteering 29 3.4 Kraft Foods Micro-Volunteering 29 3.5 Friends from Thailand in Bhutan 30 3.6 JICA Senior Volunteers 31 3.7 The Ethiopian Diaspora Volunteer Programme 32 3.8 Need for values and principles in business 34 3.9 Employee volunteering and the MDGs 34 3.10 Corporate volunteering 35 3.11 Bankers without Borders 36 3.12 Bringing together people and causes 37 4.1 Cambodian taxi drivers help fight malaria 43 4.2 Education for building human capital 44 4.3 The Tongan giant clam sanctuaries 45 4.4 Community volunteers taking the lead 47 4.5 Cross-border volunteering in Mexican Hometown Associations 48 4.6 Volunteering for gender equity in Latin America 49 5.1 Volunteerism is a social behaviour 52 5.2 Retired and engaged 53 5.3 Traditional help in Brazil – mutirão 54 5.4 Political participation of indigenous people 55 5.5 Maasai Pastoral Women’s Council 56 5.6 Increasing youth employability in Bosnia and Herzegovina 57 5.7 Have wheels – will volunteer 59 5.8 Immigrant volunteering: New Zealand 60 5.9 Talking Positive about HIV: China 60 6.1 Creating bridges across ethnic borders 66 6.2 Muslim Volunteering Organization in the Philippines 67 6.3 Community volunteering for peace 68 6.4 Women struggle to be heard 69 6.5 Youth promote post-conflict recovery in Liberia 70 7.1 Good practices for community resilience 74 7.2 Volunteer early warning to save lives 76 7.3 Christchurch earthquake: volunteers of all types 78 7.4 Early response in Haiti 80 7.5 Disaster recovery and the gotong royong spirit 81 8.1 Gross National Happiness in Bhutan 85 8.2 Volunteering and individual well-being 86 8.3 Well-being through volunteering in Brazil 87 8.4 Living well 88 C.1 Recognizing the contribution of volunteerism 93 FIGURES FIGURE 2.1 If volunteers were a nation 20 FIGURE 2.2 Value of volunteer work as share of GDP 21 FIGURE 2.3 CIVICUS Civil Society Diamond 21xviii
  21. 21. OVERVIEW OverviewPeople are the real wealth of a nation. UNDP Human Development Report (1990) xix
  22. 22. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 Volunteerism is a basic expression of human tional Year of Volunteers (IYV), the phenom- relationships. It is about people’s need to enon is still misconstrued and undervalued. All participate in their societies and to feel that too often, the strong links are overlooked they matter to others. We strongly believe between volunteer activity on the one hand that the social relationships intrinsic to volun- and peace and human development on the teer work are critical to individual and other. It is time for the contribution of volun- community well-being. The ethos of volun- teerism to the quality of life, and to well-being teerism is infused with values including soli- in a wider sense, to be understood as one of the darity, reciprocity, mutual trust, belonging missing components of a development para- and empowerment, all of which contribute digm that still has economic growth at its core. significantly to quality of life. However, as the first UNDP Human Develop- ment Report noted, people are the real wealth People the world over engage in volunteerism of a nation. Development is about expanding for a great variety of reasons: to help to elimi- the choices available to people so that they may nate poverty and to improve basic health and lead lives that they value. Economic growth is education, to provide a safe water supply and only one means of increasing people’s choices.1 adequate sanitation, to tackle environmental issues and climate change, to reduce the risk Alongside criteria such as health and educa- of disasters and to combat social exclusion tion, another element has been added to and violent conflict. In all of these fields, human development: the freedom of people volunteerism contributes to peace and devel- to use their knowledge and talents to shape opment by generating well-being for people their own destinies. This expanded definition and their communities. Volunteerism also of development has informed 20 years of forms the backbone of many national and global Human Development Reports (HDR) international non-governmental organiza- and over 600 national HDRs. This first United tions and other civil society organizations as Nations State of the World’s Volunteerism well as social and political movements. It is Report emphasizes how volunteerism is a present in the public sector and is increasingly means by which people can take control of a feature of the private sector. their lives and make a difference to them- selves and to those around them. While recognition of volunteerism has been growing in recent times, especially since the Volunteerism is a sphere of human endeavour United Nations proclaimed 2001 the Interna- of which the significance has not been fully understood and articulated in the develop- BOX O.1 : Volunteerism as a valuable component of ment debate, particularly in the context of the development plans Millennium Development Goals. This is not to deny that considerable progress has been Extend the notion of volunteerism as an additional valuable compo- achieved since IYV, especially in the developing nent of national development planning to development coopera- world, in responding to the four major themes tion policy. Recognizing and building strategically on rich, local identified for the year, namely greater recogni- traditions of voluntary self-help and mutual aid can open the way to tion, facilitation, networking and promotion of building up a new constituency in support of development efforts. volunteerism. Governments have developed Forging a link in the mind of the general public in countries an extensive list of recommendations for providing development assistance between domestic volunteering actions to support volunteerism. These are in those countries and volunteering in countries receiving assistance contained in United Nations General Assembly can also help enlist public support for development cooperation.4 Resolution 56/38 adopted in 2001 and have been supplemented by subsequent resolu- Source: UNGA. (2002b). tions from the United Nations Generalxx
  23. 23. OVERVIEWAssembly.2 These recommendations are also BOX O.2 :Volunteerism as an anchor in the face of global changesemphasized in successive reports of the UnitedNations Secretary-General.3 “People often feel powerless in the face of globalization; like flotsam and jetsam on the waves with no stable anchor. Volunteerism can beThe timing of this report, a decade after IYV, is an anchor for people as they effect change in their own community ofcrucial as it coincides with an intense debate place.”about the type of societies that we wish tosee, for ourselves and for future generations. Source: Maria Harkin, [Member of the European Parliament, UNV High-Level Advisory Board]. (2011).6Globalization is rapidly transforming culturaland social norms, bringing benefits to somebut exclusion and marginalization to others. This report does not intend to duplicate theMany people feel a loss of control over their existing body of scholarly work on volun-lives.5 Volunteerism is one way for people to teerism (see bibliography). Instead, we presentengage in the life of their communities and a vision of volunteerism and examine how itsocieties. In doing so, they acquire a sense of relates to some of the principal peace andbelonging and inclusion and they are able to development challenges of our times. Theinfluence the direction of their lives. examples cited are predominantly from devel- oping countries, thus correcting a pronouncedAt no point in history has the potential been imbalance in scholarship to date. However, thegreater for people to be primary actors, SWVR is intended to be global in application.rather than passive bystanders, in theircommunities, to affect the course of events The groundbreaking resolution 56/38 of thethat shape their destiny. In Latin America in United Nations General Assembly containsthe 1980s, in Eastern Europe in the 1990s and, explicit recommendations on ways in whichmost recently, in the Arab world, aided by the governments and the United Nations systemrapid expansion of digital communications, can support volunteering.7 Among the keypeople have articulated their desire for considerations were:participatory democratic processes throughvolunteer-based campaigning and activism. I Neglecting to factor volunteering into the design and implementation of policiesVolunteerism needs to be brought to the fore in could entail the risk of overlooking a valu-the development discourse at global, regional able asset and undermine traditions of co-and country levels. Interest in many aspects of operation that bind communities together.8volunteerism has grown considerably in recentyears. This is evident from the burgeoning I There is not one universal model of bestacademic work on the topic, the diverse forums practice, since what works well in onefor discussing volunteerism and the consider- country may not work in another with veryable media coverage, especially in connection different cultures and traditions.9with natural disasters and major sporting eventssuch as the Olympic Games and the football I Support for voluntary activities does notWorld Cup. There are also increasing signs of imply support for government downsizinggovernment support for volunteerism as a form or for replacing paid employment.10of civic engagement, not only to enhancedelivery of services but also to promote thevalues that underpin social cohesion andharmony. While this interest in volunteerism didnot begin with IYV in 2001, many new volun-teer-related initiatives can be traced back to it. xxi
  24. 24. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 VOLUNTEERISM IN THE WORLD TODAY service. Membership of virtual, Internet- based communities can also engender feel- An ethic of volunteerism exists in every ings of belonging and well-being. society in the world, albeit in different forms. Since 2001, wide-ranging research has added While international volunteering is not new, it greatly to our understanding of the phenom- has manifested itself in new forms and has enon. Nevertheless, fundamental mispercep- taken on new dimensions in an age of glob- tions remain widespread in the Western alization. “Voluntourism” or student “gap- world and beyond as to its nature and contri- year” volunteerism, often undertaken for butions. There is no agreed methodology for short periods, are new manifestations and measuring the extent of voluntary engage- their impact is open to question. Corpora- ment. However, most studies attest to the tions, NGOs, universities and faith-based universality of volunteerism, its universal organizations have become increasingly spread, massive scale and impact. engaged in facilitating internationally based volunteer placements. Furthermore, there is NEW FACES OF VOLUNTEERISM diaspora volunteerism in which experts from emigrant communities undertake short-term Opportunities for people to engage in volun- assignments to transfer knowledge to their teer action have been expanding in recent countries of origin. Fundamental years as a result of factors such as globaliza- misperceptions tion, the spread of new technologies and Another relatively new phenomenon is remain initiatives associated with corporate social involvement of the private sector. Today, widespread in responsibility from the private sector. The roughly one in three large companies offers the Western advent of mobile communication technolo- some type of employer-supported volun- world and gies and online volunteering, for example, teerism. There is a growing trend of long- beyond as to has enabled many more people to participate term collaboration between private sector the nature and for the first time. Mass short message service enterprises and local NGOs. contributions (SMS) communication is one form of “micro- of volunteerism volunteerism” that contributes to the produc- VOLUNTEERISM AND THE tion and sharing of information. It is DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM frequently used by people to raise awareness, inform choices and monitor public services. The contribution of volunteerism to develop- ment is particularly striking in the context of Online volunteering, i.e. volunteer work done sustainable livelihoods and value-based via the Internet, has eliminated the need for notions of well-being. Contrary to common volunteerism to be tied to specific times and perceptions, the income poor are as likely to locations, thus greatly increasing the freedom volunteer as those who are not poor. In doing and flexibility of volunteer engagement. The so they realize their assets, which include sharing of information through social net- knowledge, skills and social networks, for the working sites such as Twitter, Facebook and benefit of themselves, their families and their Orkut has helped people to organize around communities. The values of volunteerism are issues ranging from the environment to extremely relevant in strengthening the democratic change, most recently in some capacity of the most vulnerable to achieve Arab states. The Internet facilitates volun- secure livelihoods and to enhance their phys- teerism by matching the interests of people ical, economic, spiritual and social well-being. who seek to volunteer with the needs of host Moreover, volunteering can reduce the social organizations, through programmes such as exclusion that is often the result of poverty, the UN Volunteers Online Volunteering marginalization and other forms of inequality.xxii
  25. 25. OVERVIEWVolunteerism is one path to inclusion among highly effective and practical means ofpopulation groups that are often excluded building on people’s capabilities in all soci-such as women, young and older people, eties and at all levels. It also provides apeople with disabilities, migrants and people channel through which these capabilitiesliving with HIV/AIDS. may enhance the well-being of individuals, communities and nations.There is mounting evidence that volunteerengagement promotes the civic values and In order to meet international developmentsocial cohesion which mitigate violent targets, such as the Millennium Developmentconflict at all stages and that it even fosters Goals, the voluntary efforts of countlessreconciliation in post-conflict situations. By millions of ordinary citizens are needed tocontributing to building trust, volunteer bolster the efforts of governments and inter-action diminishes the tensions that give rise national actors.12to conflict and can also contribute to conflictresolution. It can also create common We want to bring about a greater recognitionpurpose in the aftermath of war. Indeed, of the rich and manifold expressions of volun-people bound together through active teerism as a powerful force for progress. Weparticipation and cooperation at local level truly believe that volunteerism goes farare in a better position to resolve differences beyond merely completing a given task. Itin non-confrontational ways. creates and sustains bonds of trust, societal The values cohesion, and helps to forge a common inherent inVolunteer action in the context of natural sense of identity and destiny. Volunteer volunteerismdisasters has long been one of the most action by which people unite in shared endow it withvisible manifestations of volunteerism. It is endeavours towards a common purpose is a far-reachingalso one of the clearest expressions of the feature of most societies. As such, it touches potential forhuman values underpinning the drive to care the lives of vast numbers of people all over humanfor others. Despite the tendency of the media the world. developmentto focus on international volunteers, neigh-bours and local residents are often the first to The SWVR is both a description and a cele-respond. The role of volunteerism in this field bration of the positive impact of volun-has become even more prominent as the teerism, especially on the large numbers ofincidence of disasters increases owing to people experiencing income poverty, inse-climate change, rapid urbanization and other curity and exclusion. We hope to awaken anfactors. There is growing international aware- interest in volunteerism beyond the practi-ness that nations and communities can and tioners and scholars already engaged in theshould build resilience to disasters through a subject. We want to inform future policy“bottom-up” process in the form of volunteer debates on peace, development and well-initiatives rooted in the community. Indeed, being that will lead policymakers to take intothe 2005 World Conference on Disaster account this massive but largely invisible andReduction declared that the most effective untapped resource.resources for reducing vulnerability are localcommunity self-help, local organizations and A central thesis running through this reportlocal networks. “Putting people at the centre is that the values inherent in volunteerismof development is much more than an intel- endow it with far-reaching potential forlectual exercise”, notes the HDR 2010. “It human development. This notion of devel-means making progress equitable and broad- opment includes factors such as solidarity,based, enabling people to be active partici- social inclusion, empowerment, life satisfac-pants in change”.11 Volunteerism can be a tion and individual and societal well-being. xxiii
  26. 26. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 The well-being of individuals is intrinsically universal renewable resource and a vital linked to their contributions to the lives of component of the social capital of every others. nation. It has a huge potential to make a real difference in responding to many of the most These values have long been close to the pressing global concerns. We expect this work of the United Nations. Yet, despite all report to contribute to a better appreciation that it offers, volunteerism remains largely of this potential and to encourage greater absent from the peace and development strategic thinking and action to incorporate agenda. This must change. Volunteerism volunteerism into mainstream policies and should be recognized as a powerful and programmes for peace and development.xxiv
  27. 27. VOLUNTEERISM IS UNIVERSAL CHAPTER 1 Volunteerism is universalVolunteering is an expression of the individual’s involvement in their community. Participation, trust, solidarity and reci- procity, grounded in a shared understanding and a sense of common obligations, are mutually reinforcing values at the heart of governance and good citizenship. Volunteering is not a nostalgic relic of the past. It is our first line of defence against social atomisation in a globalising world. Today, maybe more than ever before, caring and sharing are a necessity, not a charitable act. UNV (2000, November) 1
  28. 28. STATE OF THE WORLD’S VOLUNTEERISM REPORT 2011 VOLUNTEERISM AND TRADITIONAL education, housing and environmental VALUES programmes and a range of other civil society, public and private sector programmes world- Volunteerism is one of the most basic of wide. It is an integral part of every society. expressions of human behaviour and arises out of long-established ancient traditions of At the heart of this report are values. Deeply sharing and reciprocal exchanges. At its core ingrained in many communities around the are relationships and their potential to world are systems characterized by solidarity, enhance the well-being of individuals and compassion, empathy and respect for others, communities. Social cohesion and trust, for often expressed through the giving of one’s example, thrive where volunteerism is preva- time. Volunteering also expresses the desire lent. Volunteerism is not only the backbone to act on one’s feelings about justice and fair- of civil society organizations and social and ness in the face of inequality and to foster political movements, but also of many health, social harmony based on a shared interest in the well-being of one’s community. In most BOX 1.1 : Traditional forms of volunteerism languages, there are words to express the concept of volunteerism. Often inspired by In many countries, volunteerism is deeply rooted in traditional indigenous traditions, they describe the prin- beliefs and community practices. In Norway, for instance, the term cipal ways by which people collectively apply Dugnad describes collective voluntary work: a traditional scheme their energy, talents, knowledge and other of cooperation within a social group such as family, neighbour- resources for mutual benefit. The act of hood, community, geographical area, professional sector or nation. volunteering is well known throughout the An example is outdoor spring cleaning in urban areas. Dugnad is world, even if the word as such is not. about contributing time or money. It is also about creating a sense of community and building relationships between neighbours and For example, elements of the philosophy of community members. Ubuntu, common throughout southern Africa, are found in many traditions around In the Arab world, volunteerism has been associated with helping the world.1 Ubuntu values the act of caring for people in celebrations or at difficult times and is considered as a one another´s well-being in a spirit of mutual religious duty and charitable work. Volunteerism in Arabic is support. It is based on recognition of human (tatawa’a) (‫ )عوطت‬which means donating something. It also means worth, communal relationships, human to commit to a charitable activity that is not a religious require- values and respect for the natural environ- ment. It originates from the word (al-taw’a) (‫ )عوطلا‬which means ment and its resources.2 As an official South compliance, smoothness and flexibility. The concept is taking new African government paper explains it: “Each forms as a result of modernization and the development of individual’s humanity is ideally expressed governmental and non-governmental institutions. through his or her relationship with others. In southern Africa, the concept of Ubuntu defines the individual in Ubuntu means that people are people relation to others. In Nelson Mandela’s words: “A traveller through a through other people. It also acknowledges country would stop at a village and he didn’t have to ask for food or for both the rights and the responsibilities of water. Once he stops, the people give him food, entertain him. That is every citizen in promoting individual and one aspect of Ubuntu, but it will have various aspects. Ubuntu does not societal well-being.”3 mean that people should not enrich themselves. The question therefore is: are you going to do so in order to enable the community around you to be able to improve?” Sources: Haugestad. (2004, July 25-30); Leland. (2010, August 29); Mandela. (2006, June 1); Nita Kapoor, [Director General, Fredskorpset (FK Norway)], Personal Communication. (2011, July 27); Shatti. (2009).2