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  • 1. 0 Lubrication is our World Klüber special lubricants for plain bearings The right choice made easy Don’t lose your bearings
  • 2. 2 Contents Plain bearings and lubricants 3 The selection of operating lubricants 4 1. Lubricating oils 4 2. Lubricating greases 10 3. Dry lubricants 14 Selection of lubricants for running-in and repair lubrication 17 Cleaning bearings and determination of oil ageing 20 Product survey 22 Technical Questionnaire Plain Bearings 30
  • 3. 3 Plain bearings and lubricants High loads call for high performance “Plain bearing n bearing consisting of stationary bearing shells in which a rotat- ing journal slides (supported by an oil film)” What the dictionary does not mention is the loads a plain bearing can be exposed to: breathtakingly high speeds, extreme temperatures from – 180 to + 450 degrees centigrade and the effects of aggressive media – oper- ating conditions like these take their toll. Proper lubrication of the bearing helps to improve wear resistance, cor- rosion protection, performance and, consequently, the bearing’s service life. For all plain bearings – whether dry sliding bearings, sintered bearings, hydrodynamic or hydrostatic bearings – the lubricant must be accurately tuned to the individual requirements of the application and the bearing design in order to become effective before the bearing’s vital functions are put at risk. Klüber Lubrication has developed a wide range of high-quality special lubrication products to cover all aspects of up-to-date plain bearing lubrication. This range encompasses high-performance greases for extreme loads as well as food-grade lubricants for the food-processing and pharma- ceutical industries and rapidly bio- degradable lubricants for applications in agriculture, forestry and the water resources industry. Lubricants as design elements For plain bearings to offer maximum performance throughout their nominal service life, it makes sense to regard the selection and specification of the lubricant as an integral part of the design process. Only if lubricants are conceded the full worth of design elements can the potential of the manufactured compo- nent be fully utilised. With appropriate lubrication, plain bearings allow low- wear operation over a long time, in the mixed friction regime at high loads and/or low sliding speeds, as well as with fluid friction at high speeds. Is the old lubricant still fit for its job? However, selecting the right lubricant is of importance not only when designing new plain bearings. Higher transmitted power, higher speeds or changing ambient temperatures in existing machines, plants or vehicles may make a modification or even replacement of the lubricant necessary. Changing ecological requirements, or situations where the lubricant may come into contact with foodstuffs, are further factors that require the lubricant to be adjusted to the individual appli- cation. As a supplier of special lubri- cants, Klüber offers tailor-made up-to- date solutions for any task on hand. Klüber – the right choice Depending on the design and the type of application, plain bearings are lubricated by oils, greases, bonded coatings, solid lubricants or their com- binations (see diagram). The Klüber product range can be divided into two categories: t Operating lubricants t Running-in lubricants This classification makes for easy orientation in lubricant selection.
  • 4. a) Determination of requirements 1. Determining values for: u Mean bearing load u Sliding speed u Operating temperature of bearing 2. Determination of additional requirements: u Lubricating oils for standard applications, table I, page 6. u Lubricating oils especially designed for long- term use, table II, page 7 – for applications where long oil change intervals bring about major savings in oil quantities and oil disposal quantities as well as in costs for maintenance and repair, production loss and organisation of disposal. u Lubricating oils with USDA-H1 approval for the food-processing and pharmaceutical indus- tries (food-grade lubricants), table III, page 8 – for applications where there may be an inci- dental, technically unavoidable contact between the lubricant and the food product. u Rapidly biodegradable lubricating oils / lubri- cating oils of water hazard class 1, table IV, page 8 – for applications where lubricating oils may be released into the environment, e.g. the water or the soil, under normal operating condi- tions. 4 The selection of operating lubricants 1. Lubricating oils For oil-lubricated plain bearings to offer full performance and attain their specified service life, a lubricant must be chosen that ensures low-wear continuous opera- tion and minimum friction during starting and slowing down. However, wear can be reduced to a minimum only if journal and bushings are completely separated by a lubricant film under operating conditions (operating load, temperature, speed, etc.) such that the surfaces of the friction bodies are not in contact, i.e. the bearing must operate in the hydrodynamic range. The formation of a load-bearing lubricant film separating the friction bodies depends largely on the oil’s viscosity. This is why the determination of the appro- priate viscosity is a central aspect in the selection of the plain bearing oil. Tables 1 to 3, pages 6 to 8, are to help in quickly and reliably selecting the right lubricating oil. Proceed as follows: F (N/mm2 ) D · B pm = v = d · π · n (m/s) J (°C)
  • 5. 5 b) Oil selection 1. Selection based on additional requirements. 2. Selection of lubricating oil suitable for the operating conditions (pm, v, J). 3. Accurate calculation of required oil viscosity. (Calculations could be made for one bearing type only to give a rough idea of the viscosity range. Accurate calculations of the plain bear- ing functions have to be made prior to series application.) Based on the values found for u surface pressure, u sliding speed and u bearing operating temperature, as well as the other criteria listed above, a suitable lubricating oil can be selected. The viscosity grade, which is indicated by the product name – e.g. ISO VG 150 in the case of Klübersynth GH 6-150 – was obtained by means of a generally recognised plain bearings comput- ing program (see box on page 6). Not every individual bearing application could be taken into account for these tables, so the vis- cosities given are to be regarded as orientation values only. Most of the products listed are avail- able in a wide range of viscosities. To ensure reli- able operation in all bearing applications, users are advised to carry out their own calculations based on recognised methods. Of course, our application engineers will be glad to assist you. 0.01 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 w Bonded coating Lubricating paste Oil lubrication w Grease lubrication Oil lubrication for circulation lubrication (ISO VG > 460) Solid-film lubrication 0 Sliding speed v (m/s) Lubricant selection depending on sliding speed
  • 6. 6 Lubricating oils up to 50 LAMORA HLP 32 Almost constant up to 70 LAMORA HLP 68 up to 90 CRUCOLAN 150 0 up to 50 LAMORA HLP 68 Almost constant up to 70 CRUCOLAN 220 up to 90 CRUCOLAN 460 up to 50 CRUCOLAN 22 Almost constant up to 70 LAMORA HLP 46 up to 90 CRUCOLAN 100 up to 50 LAMORA HLP 68 Almost constant up to 70 CRUCOLAN 150 up to 90 CRUCOLAN 320 Operating Operational Product recommendation temperatures bearing temperature [°C] for standard applications Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 I The viscosity data in the tables for lubricating oil selection were determined by means of the ASSIG PC system (assistance system for the design of hydrodynamic plain bearings). This program was developed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Machine Elements and Design of the Engineering and Business Polytechnic in Zwickau, in cooperation with the Research Association for Power Transmission Engineering FVA in the years 1991 to 1994. The calculations are based on the following data: u plain bearing acc. to DIN 31 690, size 9 u shaft diameter D = 90 mm u bearing width B1 = 60 mm u proj. of load-bearing surface: B1 x D = 5 400 mm2 u housing surface: 0.416 m2 u 360° bearing
  • 7. up to 50 Klüber Summit SH 32 Almost constant up to 70 Klüber Summit SH 68 up to 90 Klübersynth GH 6-80 up to 120 Klübersynth GH 6-150 Varying 20 up to 60 Klüber Summit SH 46 20 up to 90 Klüber Summit SH 100 Low start-up and – 45 up to 50 Klüber Summit SH 32 service temperatures – 60 up to 30 ISOFLEX PDP 38 up to 50 Klüber Summit SH 68 Almost constant up to 70 Klübersynth GH 6-100 up to 90 Klübersynth GH 6-150 up to 120 Klübersynth GH 6-320 Varying 20 up to 60 Klübersynth GH 6-80 20 up to 90 Klübersynth GH 6-150 Low start-up and – 40 up to 40 Klüber Summit SH 46 service temperatures – 55 up to 60 ISOFLEX PDP 65 up to 50 Klüber Summit SH 32 Almost constant up to 70 Klüber Summit SH 46 up to 90 Klüber Summit SH 100 up to 120 Klübersynth GH 6-100 Varying 20 up to 60 ISOFLEX PDP 48 20 up to 90 Klüber Summit SH 100 Low start-up and – 55 up to 50 ISOFLEX PDP 40 service temperatures – 65 up to 40 ISOFLEX PDP 38 up to 50 Klüber Summit SH 68 Almost constant up to 70 Klübersynth GH 6-100 up to 90 Klübersynth GH 6-150 up to 120 Klübersynth GH 6-220 Varying 20 up to 60 Klüber Summit SH 100 20 up to 90 Klübersynth GH 6-100 Low start-up and – 40 up to 40 Klüber Summit SH 46 service temperatures – 50 up to 60 ISOFLEX PDP 65 Operating Operational Product recommendation temperatures bearing temperature [°C] providing excellent long-term resistance Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 II 7
  • 8. 8 up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG - 32 Almost constant up to 70 Klüber Summit HySyn FG - 68 up to 90 Klüber Summit HySyn FG - 100 Low start-up and – 45 up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG - 32 service temperatures up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG- 68 Almost constant up to 70 Klüberoil 4 UH1-150 N up to 90 Klüberoil 4 UH1-220 N Low start-up and – 40 up to 40 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-46 service temperatures up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-32 Almost constant up to 70 Klüber Summit HySyn FG- 46 up to 90 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-100 Low start-up and – 45 up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-32 service temperatures up to 50 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-68 Almost constant up to 70 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-100 up to 90 Klüberoil 4 UH1-220 N Low start-up and – 40 up to 45 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-46 service temperatures up to 60 Klüberbio CA 2- 100 Almost constant up to 90 Klübersynth GEM 2-220 up to 110 Klüberbio CA 2-460 Low start-up and – 25 up to 40 Klüberbio C 2-46 service temperatures Operating Operational Product recommendation temperatures bearing temperature [°C] for the food-processing and pharmaceutical industries Rapidly biodegradable lubricating oils falling under water pollution category 1 Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v = 2 up to 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm < 3 N/mm2 Sliding speed v > 4 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 3 up to 7 N/mm2 Sliding speed v = 2 up to 10 m/s / mean bearing load pm = 0.1 up to 7 N/mm2 Lubricating oils III IV
  • 9. Selection example for lubricating oils In a tabletting machine producing fondant sweets, the screw conveying the heated sugar mass runs in two oil-lubricated plain bearings. Since it is technically unavoidable that small lubricant quantities may occasionally leak through the seals and into the sugar mass, a food-grade lubricant certified in line with USDA-H1 requirements is indispensable for lubricating these bearings. Bearing data / operating conditions: Inner Ø of bearing D = 40 mm Width of bearing: B1 = 38 mm B2 = 50 mm Bearing material: red bronze Speed of conveyor screw: n = 4000 min–1 = 66.6 s–1 Load force: F = 4000 N Measured bearing J = approx. 70 °C, operating temperature constant Selection of required lubricating oil 1a. Calculation of mean bearing load pm 1b. Calculation of sliding speed v v = d · π · n (m/s) v = 0.04 · 3.14 · 66.6 v = 8.4 m/s 2. Determination of additional requirements (see under 2, page 4) For this application, a food-grade lubricant with USDA-H1 certification is required. 3. Selection according to additional requirements Selection table to be used: Table III (page 8) 4. Selection of required lubricating oil Table III is divided up into four sections. The section in which to look is determined by the calculated sliding speed v and the mean bear- ing load pm. Sliding speed v: 8.4 m/s; this value belongs to section v > 4 m/s Bearing load p: pm1 = 0.33 N/mm2 pm2= 0.25 N/mm2 ; these two values belong to section p < 3 N/mm2 Result: For a constant operating temperature of approx. 70 °C, the appropriate lubricating oil would be Klüber Summit HySyn FG-46. The recommended oil has a kinematic viscosity of 50 mm2 /s at 40 °C. When making an accurate calculation for this bearing application, one will find that the viscosity of Klüber Summit HySyn FG-32 is also sufficient. This is due in particular to the sliding speed above 8 m/s. This calculation is based on the viscosity data given in the product survey (page 22/23). The lubricant selection can be checked against the product data given on page 22/23. F (N/mm2 ) D · B pm = 4 000 = 2.63 N/mm2 40 · 38 pm = 9
  • 10. 10 The selection of operating lubricants 2. Lubricating greases Klüber offers a comprehensive range of products for grease-lubricated metal and plastic plain bearings. The prod- ucts’ suitability for the lubrication of plain bearings has been tested in prac- tice-oriented tests (bench tests on bearings with different surface designs: smooth, perforated or with holes). The task of deciding which lubricant to use for a plain bearing is made easy by the selection tables V, VI and VII, page 12/13. Please observe the following criteria to ensure maximum performance of the bearings throughout their service lives: u Operating motion: rotating or oscillating u Sliding speed range for grease lubrication: v = 0.01 to 2.5 m/s (see diagram on page 5) u Permissible bearing load: Depends on bearing material and bearing geometry (note: high surface pressures at low speeds – e.g. during starting and slowing down – lead to mixed friction. Under conditions like these, the special lubricants shown in table V enable low wear and a long lubricant and bearing life.) u Resistance to and sealing against media: To compare the different lubricating greases, they are tested for water resistance acc. to DIN 51 807 pt. 1, 3 h/90 °C (page 25). The lower the test result, the better the grease’s water resistance (i.e. 0 = best). u Service temperature range: The service temperatures given in the tables are orientative values assuming the grease is used in a plain bearing; they depend on the individual operating conditions. In the following you will find the areas of application that are of interest for you: u General machinery, plants, equipment and vehicles: lubri- cating grease selection in table V (page 12/13) u Machinery, plants and equipment in food-processing and pharmaceutical industries: lubricating grease selec- tion in table VI (page 12/13) u Machinery, plants, equipment and vehicles where con- tact between lubricant and the environment is possible (e.g. agricultural and forestry machines, hydroelectric power plants): lubricant selection in table VII (page12/13)
  • 11. 11 Selection example for lubricating greases The grease required is to lubricate the plain bearings of calender rollers used in a rubber production plant. What is difficult about this application is that the rollers rotate at very slow speeds while loads acting on the bearings and bearing tem- peratures are very high. Bearing specifications / operating conditions: Bore diameter: D = 295 mm Bearing width: B = 320 mm Running surface: smooth Bearing material: bronze Operating speed: n = 4 min–1 Radial bearing load: F = 685.7 kN Bearing temperature: J = 145 °C Resistance to media: sodium hydroxide solution Lubrication method: continuous lubrication by means of automatic lubricant dispenser Sliding speed v v = d · π · n (m/s) v = 0.295 x 3.14 x 0.066 = 0.061 m/s Permissible sliding speed range for grease lubrication = 0.01 bis 2.5 m/s, i.e. in this range grease lubrication is possible. Mean pressure pm This is clearly below the permissible maximum of 100 N/mm2 . Selection of lubricating grease: The calender rollers are pieces of general machinery. Selection table to be used: table V (page 12/13), section: sliding speed < 1 m/s, maximum surface pressure approx. 100 N/mm2 , operating temperature range1) – 20 to 160 °C Result: Suitable lubricating grease: Klüberlub BVH 71-461 Please note: All plain bearing greases listed in tables V and VI are high-performance lubricants. Friction measurements made on test bearings at room temperature (25 °C) have shown that a low friction coefficient and low temperatures can be obtained even under difficult operating conditions, e.g. v = 0.01 m/s, p = 50 N/mm2 . F (N/mm2 ) D · B pm = 686 700 = 7.27 N/mm2 295 · 320 pm = 1) see page 34
  • 12. 12 – 20 up to 160 – 20 up to 140 oscillating / rotating < 1 approx. 100 – 30 up to 180 – 40 up to 260 – 40 up to 150 mainly rotating ≥ 1 approx. 10 – 50 up to 150 mainly rotating ≥ 2 approx. 1 – 50 up to 130 oscillating / rotating < 1 approx. 100 – 20 up to 160 – 5 up to 150 mainly rotating ≥ 1 approx. 10 – 40 up to 120 Mode of operation Sliding Max. surface Service speed pressure temperature1) [m/s] [N/mm2 ] [°C] Food-processing and pharmaceutical industries General machinery, plants, equipment and oscillating / rotating < 1 approx. 100 – 20 up to 100 mainly rotating ≥ 1 approx. 10 – 40 up to 120 Machinery, plants, equipment and vehicles where the Bonded coatings < 1 approx. 50 – 40 up to 180 rotating / oscillating ≤ 2 approx. 10 – 40 up to 80 ≤ 2 approx. 7 – 240 up to 260 Tribo-system materials Lubricating greases Dry lubricants 1) see page 34 – 40 up to 230 rotating / oscillating depending on coated part – 180 up to 450 – 40 up to 300
  • 13. Klüberlub BVH 71-461 Plain bearing lubricant for long service life and long relubrication intervals, NLGI 1 Klüberlub BE 41-542 Alternative product, NLGI 2 PETAMO GHY 441 Alternative product for higher ambient temperatures Klüberalfa BHR 53-402 High-temperature and long-term lubricant which is almost neutral to many materials (metals, plastics) POLYLUB GLY 501 Especially for plastic plain bearings POLYLUB GLY 151 Klübersynth LR 44-21 Klüberlub BVH 71-461 USDA H2 lubricant for the food-processing and pharmaceutical industries Klübersynth UH1 64-1302 USDA H1 lubricant for the food-processing and pharmaceutical industries Klübersynth UH1 14-151 USDA H1 lubricant for the food-processing and pharmaceutical industries vehicles Product proposal Notes Klüberbio BM 72-501 Rapidly biodegradable if lubricant gets into contact with environment Klüberbio M 72-82 Rapidly biodegradable if lubricant gets into contact with environment FLUOROPAN 340 A/B Thermosetting UNIMOLY C 220 Hygrosetting Suitable for ultra-high-vacuum applications Klübertop TG 05-371 Thermosetting lubricant may get into the environment Klüberdur KM 02-854 For bronze plain bearings with lubricating holes Klüberdur KS 01-308 Granules for the manufacture of self-lubricating plastic plain bearings by injection moulding Klüberplast Semifinished product for the manufacture of self-lubricating plastic plain bearings by means of machining V VI VII VIII IX 13
  • 14. 14 The selection of operating lubricants 3. Dry lubricants Dry lubrication is of advantage in applications where, due to low sliding speeds, no load-bearing lubricant film can form, so the friction bodies are not sufficiently separated. A layer separating the two sliding surfaces can therefore only be obtained by interposing a bonded coating or a self-lubricating layer – in these cases, there is a “lubricating film” right from the start of the motion. Dry lubricants, i.e. bonded coatings or tribo-system materials, offer maintenance- free permanent lubrication especially for plain bearings running under high loads at low speeds. This includes oscillating motions. Even under extreme operating conditions, e.g. at very high temperatures, in a vacuum or when exposed to chemicals, these dry lubricants help to reduce wear significantly. Dry lubricants are particularly useful in applications where the use of lubricating oils or greases is problematic, where lubricant dripping off the friction point may contaminate the product or where bearings cannot be maintained. And what’s more: dry lubrication by means of bonded coatings or tribo-system materials makes sense not only economically but ecologically as well! Bonded coatings consist of three dif- ferent components: solid lubricant, binder and solvent. The lubricity of a bonded coating depends on the type and quantity of solid lubricant it con- tains, while its service life and abrasion resistance are influenced by the binder. The solvent serves for applying and spreading the bonded coating on the friction bodies’ sliding surfaces. Upon application, the solvent evaporates and has no further effect on the friction and wear behaviour of the bonded coating. Bonded coatings are frequently used for lifetime lubrication – which requires special testing – but also for running-in or correction purposes. A variety of bonded coatings are available for use in plain bearings. They contain solid lubricants that are particularly suitable for dry lubrication and wear-resistant organic binders. Which bonded coating contains the best suitable dry lubri- cant component for a particular application is determined by the operating conditions, i.e. temperature, sliding speed, load and the surrounding atmosphere. Other criteria are the special requirements to be met by the bonded coating, for instance use in a vacuum or a very low friction coefficient. For further information, please refer to the following brief product descriptions and tables VIII and IX, page 12/13. Adhesion and service life of bonded coatings depend pri- marily on the pretreatment of the parts to be coated, the application method used for the coatings, the care dedi- cated to hardening and the subsequent use of the parts. Before using a bonded coating, please observe the informa- tion in the product information leaflet, which we will be pleased to send you on request. a) Bonded coatings (see table IX, page 12/13)
  • 15. FLUOROPAN 340 A/B Solid lubricant: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Characteristics: good wear resistance long service life low friction coefficient good corrosion protection good resistance to chemicals and oils2) Suitable for metal/metal or metal/plastics material pairings. Recommended espe- cially for very low sliding speeds: v < 0.05 m/s UNIMOLY C 220 Solid lubricant: molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) Characteristics: good pressure resistance low friction coefficient good wear resistance good resistance to chemicals and oils2) Suitable for metal/metal friction pairings (especially where high pressures forbid the use of PTFE bonded coatings). Also well suitable for use in a vacuum. Not suitable for applications in a moist atmosphere. Klübertop TG 05-371 Solid lubricant: graphite Characteristics: wide operating temperature range long service life and good wear resistance low friction coefficient good resistance to chemicals and oils2) good lubricity also when exposed to moisture Suitable for metal/metal or metal/plastics friction pairings. Especially suitable also for plain bearings that are normally lubricated by oil (e.g. for supporting lubrication when starting motors until the operating lubricant reaches the friction point). 15 2) see page 34
  • 16. 16 b) Tribo-system materials (see table VIII, page 12/13) Klüberdur KM 02-854 This product is a two-component system and contains a solid lubricant compo- nent consisting primarily of graphite with incorporated lubricating oil. The two components – i.e. the resin and the hardening agent – are mixed to form a paste-like mass, which is then filled into the bore holes of plain bearing bush- ings. Once Klüberdur KM 02-854 has hardened and, thanks to its good adhesion, is firmly fixed inside the lubricating holes, the plain bearings can be subjected to high loads without requiring wet lubrication or maintenance. The friction bodies are lubricated by a permanent transfer of dry lubricant from the lubricating holes in the bushings. However, there is also constant minor wear to the inside metal surfaces. The service life of plain bearings containing Klüber- dur in lubricating holes does not, therefore, depend on the supply of solid lubri- cant but on the maximum permissible internal clearance of the bearing. Klüberdur KM 02-854 is oil- and grease- resistant, which allows combined lubri- cation (dry lubricant together with oil or grease) if required. New bearings can additionally be filled with grease for run- ning-in or to facilitate assembly. This additional one-time lubrication helps to prevent boundary and mixed friction until the solid lubricant is distributed through- out the bearing. However, this kind of priming lubrication is not obligatory. Klüberplast Klüberplast is the family brand name of PTFE compounds used for the manufacture of maintenance-free, dry-running plain bearings. Plain bearings made of Klüberplast offer good oxidation and ageing stability, high resistance to chemicals3) and a wide service temperature range. Since low friction is attained without additional lubrication, Klüberplast bearing materials enable cost-efficient and simple bearing design – without the risk of lubricant leakage. Also, there is no risk of gasification when used in a vacuum. Klüberplast is supplied either as a semi-finished product or as a finished part made to customer specifications. It is available with three different reinforcement materials. Klüberdur KS 01-308 Klüberdur KS 01-308 is a POM polymer supplied in the form of granules. It con- tains a solid lubricant improving wear resistance and prolonging service life. The low friction obtained allows smooth oper- ation without stick-slip under varying operating conditions. Plain bearings made of Klüberdur KS 01-308 have good emer- gency running properties. For an economical shaping of plain bear- ings or other parts, the injection moulding technique is chosen. 3) see page 34
  • 17. 17 Selection of lubricants for running-in and repair lubrication 1. Running-in lubrication 2. Repair lubrication In many cases, scoring and scuffing marks on functional surfaces of plain bearings can be eliminated by means of a so-called “repair lubrication”: by the application of a bonded coating or a lubricating paste on the damaged bearing sur- faces followed by a running-in process (at reduced sliding speed and load), scores and scratches can be smoothed considerably thus restoring the surface characteristics. Additional advantage: the emergency lubricating properties of dry lubricants used in subsequent operation for repair purposes protect the bearings from the effects of starved lubrication and reduce the risk of new surface damage. The surfaces of new plain bearing ele- ments always show a certain degree of surface roughness, which can be more or less pronounced depending on the finishing method used. By applying a bonded coating or a lubricating paste, the roughness peaks can be smooth- ened during the running-in process without scoring or scuffing the sur- faces. If two friction components have very smooth surfaces, mixed friction (partial contact of the surfaces) only occurs under very adverse conditions, even with very thin lubricating films. Bonded coatings or pastes used for running-in also protect the friction points in the case of starved lubrication during nor- mal operation, e.g. during the start-up and slow-down of a machine, when low sliding speeds prevent the forma- tion of a load-bearing and coherent grease or oil film. Hint: to ensure a perfect surface finish, we recommend running in bearings at reduced load (approx. one third of the rated load and one third of the rated speed).
  • 18. 18 Selection example: Running-in of truck engine bearing with bonded coating and operational lubricant For the camshaft bearing in a truck diesel engine, a bonded coating is needed which u together with the operational lubricant (engine oil) improves the bearing run-in and prevents the formation of initial damage to the sliding surfaces during the run-in phase, u supports lubrication during the start-up phase until engine oil has reached the friction points to form a hydrodynamic lubricating film. Bearing data / operating conditions: Bearing shell, ID Ø 50 mm Width: 32 mm Material pairing: St/St Operating temperature: – 40 to 120 °C Load p: oscillating or impact load, 6 ... 8 N/mm2 Selecting the suitable bonded coating: Running-in of bearings by means of bonded coating in combination with the operational lubricant. For product selection, please refer to table XII, page 19. Result: an excellent bonded coating for bearing shells made of steel is Klübertop TG 05-371, offering long service life, wear protection and resistance to lubricating oils. It contains graphite as solid lubricant. Hint: in normal operation, the solid lubricant particles on the functional bearing surfaces protect the friction points in case of starved lubrication, e.g. during the start-up and slow-down of a machine. Selection example: Running-in of a conveyor screw bearing with lubricating paste A lubricating paste is required to run in and smooth the functional plain bearing surfaces of a screw conveyor of a soft candy making machine. The paste has to be physiologically safe and comply with relevant regulations, as a contact between the food product and the lubricant cannot be com- pletely excluded. The criteria of an USDA H1 approval have to be met as well. For the operational lubrication of the bearings, a lubricating oil is used (see selection example for lubricating oils, page 9). Selecting the suitable lubricating paste The bearings are to be run in with a lubricating paste. For product selection, please refer to table XI, page 19. Result: the suitable lubricating paste for this application is Klüberpaste UH1 84-201. Bearings should be run in at reduced speed in order to ensure proper smoothing of the surfaces. After the running-in process, and provided the lubricants are compatible, it is possible to immediately switch to operational oil lubrication without prior cleaning of the bearings. Please consult our application engineers as far as the compatibility of lubricants is concerned.
  • 19. Aluminium- – 15 up to 150 Klüberpaste ME 31-52 3 / 2 alloy – 40 up to 140 DUOTEMPI PMY 45 2 / 3 Copper alloy, – 15 up to 150 Klüberpaste ME 31-52 3 / 2 steel – 40 up to 150 Klüberpaste 46 MR 401 1 / 2 – 40 up to 230 UNIMOLY RAP 3 / 2 – 40 up to 200 (10004) ) Klüberpaste HEL 46-450 1 Material of Service Product proposal Consistency the bearing temperature1) NLGI grade bushing [°C] Lubricating pastes General machinery, plants, equipment and vehicles Aluminium- USDA H1 – 45 up to 120 Klüberpaste UH1 84-201 1 alloy Copper alloy, USDA H1 – 40 up to 200 (12004) ) Klüberpaste UH1 96-402 2 steel USDA H2 – 40 up to 140 DUOTEMPI PMY 45 2 / 3 Material of Approval Service Product proposal Consistency the bearing temperature1) NLGI grade bushing [°C] Lubricating pastes Food-processing and pharmaceutical industries Aluminium, copper Graphite – 40 up to 300 Klübertop TG 05-371 thermosetting alloy, steel Steel MoS2 – 180 up to 450 UNIMOLY C 220 Hygrosetting, suitable for ultra-high-vacuum applications, avail- able as aerosols Material of Solid Service Product proposal Notes the bearing lubricant temperature1) bushing [°C] Bonded coatings for the running-in lubrication in conjunction with the operational lubricant Lubricants for running-in and repair X XI XII 1) and 4) see page 34 19
  • 20. 20 Cleaning bearings and determination of oil ageing 1. Concentrated conditioner: Klüber-Summit Varnasolv The use of mineral-based lubricating oils in plain bearings may lead to varnish and carbon buildup in the entire lubrication system, especially at high bearing temperatures. Such residues can damage bearing components or clog oil lines and filters. Starved lubrication, or even bearing failure, may occur, resulting in high maintenance and repair costs. Klüber-Summit Varnasolv puts an end to expensive maintenance and repair works. Hint: Klüber-Summit Varnasolv is a concentrated conditioner fluid which dissolves varnish and carbon residues during operation. When using this product prior to an oil change, it is no longer necessary to dismantle bearings and lubrication sys- tems for cleaning purposes. Application notes: As the cleaning agent dissolves buildups and residues, the system does not have to undergo expensive flushing processes before switching to the new product. Klüber-Summit Varnasolv is added to the existing plain bearing oil at a ratio of 10% (i.e. add 1 litre of Klüber-Summit Varnasolv to 9 litres of lubricating oil). For this purpose, enough lubricating oil has to be drained. After filling the conditioner into the bearings, let them run for an additional 40 to 60 hours at service tempera- ture to dissolve all varnish and carbon residues. Drain the unit while the oil is still hot in order to prevent the dissolved residues from settling. Then exchange the oil filters and refill with the synthetic oil. Material compatibility: According to our knowledge, a 10% concentration of Klüber-Summit Varnasolv in mineral oil is compatible with all materials resistant to mineral oil.
  • 21. 2. Test kit, also for plain bearing oils: Klüber Summit T.A.N. Kit The Klüber Summit T.A.N. Kit is a simple and rapid way of checking the ageing condition of lubricating oils. This Kit can be used to test all conventional mineral and synthetic lubricating oils that have an initial T.A.N. of less than 2. This applies to all oils mentioned in this brochure. Application notes: u Draw a small sample of the used oil to be tested to the 1 ml mark of the graduated pipette. Wipe off the excess oil on the outside of the tube with the provided cloth, and add the contents of the pipette to the glass vial. Draw the solution in the vial into the pipette and squeeze it back several times in order to completely transfer all of the oil into the vial. u Replace the vial cap and shake the contents for a few seconds. u Observe the solution colour. a blue colour means: – the lubricant condition has not changed significantly a green colour means: – the lubricant has suffered slight ageing, but can still be used; repeat oil ageing test at short intervals a brown/orange colour means: – the oil has to be changed. When using the test kit, please observe the material safety data sheet. Avoid contact with clothing and skin. Do not get in eyes. The Kit consists of: u Plastic bag containing glass vial with test solution u Pipette u Cloth 21
  • 22. 22 Klüber product ISO VG Service Density Kinematic temperature viscosity DIN range1) DIN DIN 51 562, part 1 51 519 [°C] 51 757 [mm2 /s] approx. [g/cm3 ] at at 20 °C 40 °C 100 °C approx. approx. approx. Lubricating oils Product survey Mineral oils CRUCOLAN 22 22 – 20 up to 100 0.87 22 4.3 CRUCOLAN 100 100 – 10 up to 100 0.89 100 11.0 CRUCOLAN 150 150 – 10 up to 100 0.89 150 14.7 CRUCOLAN 220 220 – 10 up to 100 0.89 220 18.5 CRUCOLAN 320 320 – 10 up to 100 0.90 320 23.0 CRUCOLAN 460 460 – 10 up to 100 0.91 460 30.0 LAMORA HLP 32 32 – 25 up to 120 0.87 32 5.4 LAMORA HLP 46 46 – 20 up to 120 0.88 46 7.0 LAMORA HLP 68 68 – 15 up to 120 0.88 68 8.8 Synthetic hydrocarbon oils Klüber Summit SH 32 32 – 45 up to 145 0.85 32 6.0 Klüber Summit SH 46 46 – 40 up to 145 0.86 46 7.8 Klüber Summit SH 68 68 – 40 up to 145 0.88 62 10.0 Klüber Summit SH 100 100 – 30 up to 145 0.87 100 12.0 Food-grade lubricants Klüberoil 4 UH1-150N 150 – 25 up to 120 0.85 150 19.0 Klüberoil 4 UH1-220N 220 – 25 up to 120 0.85 220 26.0 Klüber Summit HySyn FG- 32 32 – 45 up to 135 0.83 33 6.1 Klüber Summit HySyn FG- 46 46 – 40 up to 135 0.84 46 7.9 Klüber Summit HySyn FG- 68 68 – 40 up to 135 0.83 70 9.9 Klüber Summit HySyn FG-100 100 – 35 up to 135 0.84 95 12.7 Polyglycol oils Klübersynth GH 6- 80 – – 35 up to 160 1.05 80 16 Klübersynth GH 6-100 100 – 35 up to 160 1.05 100 20 Klübersynth GH 6-150 150 – 35 up to 160 1.05 150 28 Klübersynth GH 6-220 220 – 30 up to 160 1.06 220 42 Klübersynth GH 6-320 320 – 30 up to 160 1.05 320 58 Ester oils ISOFLEX PDP 38 – – 65 up to 100 0.92 12 3.2 ISOFLEX PDP 40 – – 50 up to 100 0.92 19 5.0 ISOFLEX PDP 65 – – 50 up to 100 0.92 68 17.0 Rapidly biodegradable lubricating oils Klüberbio C 2- 46 46 – 40 up to 80 0.93 46 10 Klüberbio CA 2-100 100 – 30 up to 110 0.94 100 15 Klüberbio CA 2-460 460 – 15 up to 110 0.95 460 50 Klübersynth GEM 2-220 220 – 30 up to 130 0.95 220 27
  • 23. Dynamic Viscosity Flash Pour viscosity index point point mPa · s DIN DIN DIN at ISO 2909 ISO 2592 ISO 3016 (VI) [°C] [°C] 40 °C 100 °C approx. approx. 18.9 3.5 > 80 > 170 approx. – 20 87.7 9.2 > 90 > 220 < – 10 132.0 12.3 > 90 > 220 < – 10 193.0 15.5 > 90 > 240 < – 10 284.0 19.5 > 90 > 250 < – 10 413.0 25.7 > 90 > 250 approx. – 10 27.5 4.4 approx. 100 > 200 approx. – 30 39.9 5.8 approx. 100 > 210 approx. – 30 59.0 7.3 approx. 100 > 220 approx. – 25 27.1 5.0 approx. 140 > 230 approx. – 50 38.1 6.5 approx. 140 > 240 approx. – 45 53.8 8.3 approx. 145 > 240 approx. – 45 70.2 9.9 approx. 140 > 240 approx. – 35 125.8 15.3 > 150 > 220 approx. – 30 184.5 20.8 > 150 > 220 approx. – 30 27.0 4.8 approx. 130 > 230 approx. – 50 40.9 6.2 approx. 130 > 240 approx. – 45 57.9 7.8 approx. 125 > 240 approx. – 45 78.5 10.0 approx. 130 > 240 approx. – 40 82.0 15.7 > 190 > 280 < – 35 103.0 19.7 > 190 > 280 < – 35 154.0 27.5 > 200 > 280 < – 35 227.0 40.3 > 220 approx. 250 approx. – 35 330.0 57.1 > 220 > 280 < – 30 11.0 3.1 approx. 150 approx. 200 approx. – 70 17.2 4.3 approx. 230 approx. 200 approx. – 55 61.7 14.7 > 245 approx. 200 approx. – 55 42.1 8.7 – > 200 < – 30 91.7 13.1 > 140 > 200 < – 30 431.0 46.7 > 160 > 220 < – 20 206.1 24.2 approx. 150 approx. 270 < – 30 For details as to the application and compatibility of lubricants please refer to the product information leaflets 1) see page 34 23
  • 24. 24 Klüber product Base oil / Consis- Worked Service thickener tency5) pene- temperature tration range DIN DIN [°C] 51 818 ISO 2137 approx. [0.1 mm] approx. Lubricating greases Product survey Klüberalfa BHR 53-402 Perfluorinated 2 265 – 295 – 40 up to 260 polyether oil/ Na complex soap Klüberbio BM 72-501 Ester oil/ 1 310 – 340 – 20 up to 120 Rapidly biodegradable polyurea Klüberbio M 72-82 Ester oil/ 2 265 – 295 – 40 up to 140 Rapidly biodegradable polyurea Klüberlub BE 41-542 Mineral oil/special 2 265 – 295 – 20 up to 140 lithium soap Klüberlub BVH 71-461 Mineral oil/synth. 0 / 1 340 – 370 – 20 up to 160 Special lubricating grease hydrocarbon oil/ with USDA H2 approval polyurea Klübersynth LR 44-21 Mineral oil/synth. 1 310 – 340 – 50 up to 130 hydrocarbon oil/ spec. lithium soap Klübersynth UH1 64-1302 Synth. hydro- 2 265 – 295 – 10 up to 150 Food-grade lubricant carbon oil/ with USDA H1 approval silicate Klübersynth UH1 14-151 Synth. hydrocar- 1 310 – 340 – 40 up to 120 Food-grade lubricant bon oil/aluminium with USDA H1 approval complex soap PETAMO GHY 441 Ester oil/ 1 310 – 340 – 30 up to 180 polyurea POLYLUB GLY 151 Mineral oil, synth. 1 310 – 340 – 50 up to 150 hydrocarbon oil/ spec. lithium soap POLYLUB GLY 501 Mineral oil, synth. 1 310 – 340 – 40 up to 150 hydrocarbon oil/ spec. lithium soap
  • 25. Density Base oil Drop Water Apparent Colour viscosity point resistance viscosity DIN 51 757 DIN 51562 DIN Klüber [g/cm3 ] part 1 ISO 2176 DIN 51 807 viscosity at [mm2 /s] part 1 grades 20 °C at [°C] 3h/90 °C see approx. 40 °C 100 °C approx. below6) approx. approx. 1.82 400 35 not S white measurable 0.90 590 70 > 220 0 M brown 0.94 100 28 > 220 1 L/M brown 0.93 540 32 > 230 0 / 1 S brown 0.90 490 34.5 > 240 0 / 1 S light brown 0.85 20 4.5 > 220 1 EL beige 0.99 1300 100 without 0 / 1 S beige 0.92 150 22 > 250 L/M beige 0.97 435 36 > 250 0 L/M beige 0.85 150 18 > 220 1 L beige 0.88 500 40 > 250 0 / 1 L / M beige 25 1) ,5) and 6) see page 34
  • 26. 26 Klüber product Base oil/ Service Density Base oil thickener temperature at 20 °C viscosity range1) DIN 51562 [°C] [g/cm3 ] part 1 approx. approx. [mm2 /s] at 40 °C approx. Lubricating pastes Product survey DUOTEMPI PMY 45 Mineral oil/synth. – 40 up to 140 1.2 55 USDA H2 approval hydrocarbon oil/ spec. Li soap/ solid lubricants Klüberpaste HEL 46-450 Ester oil/ – 40 up to 1000 1.43 42 polyglycol oil/ > 200°C solid lubricant dry lubrication Klüberpaste ME 31-52 Mineral oil/ – 15 up to 150 1.38 46 calcium complex soap/ solid lubricant Klüberpaste 46 MR 401 Polyglycol oil/ – 40 up to 150 1.23 360 lithium soap/ solid lubricant mixture Klüberpaste UH1 84-201 Synth. hydro- – 45 up to 120 1.13 200 USDA H1 approval carbon oil/PTFE, solid lubricant Klüberpaste UH1 96-402 Polyglycol oil/ – 30 up to 1200 1.58 360 USDA H1 approval silicate, > 200°C solid lubricant dry lubrication UNIMOLY RAP Paraff. mineral oil/ – 10 up to 450 1.6 70 silicate/ > 150°C solid lubricant dry lubrication MoS2
  • 27. 27 Drop Four ball Flow Consistency Colour point tester, pressure DIN welding load DIN 51 818 ISO 2176 DIN 51 350 DIN 51 805 part 4 at °C [°C] [N] [mbar] > 190 > 3200 at – 35 °C < 1400 2 / 3 beige > 250 > 5000 at – 35 °C 500 1 / 0 black > 170 > 4000 – 3 / 2 beige > 185 > 4400 at – 40 °C < 1600 1 / 2 whitish > 240 > 3000 at – 45 °C < 1400 1 white > 250 > 2400 at – 40 °C < 1400 2 white – > 2400 – 3 / 2 black 1) see page 34
  • 28. 28 Klüber product Service Colour Solid Drying temperature lubricant or range1) baking [°C] condi- tions approx. Bonded coatings Product survey FLUOROPAN 340 A/B – 40 up to 230 black Polytetra- dry: fluoroethylene 5 min/100 °C (PTFE) burning-in: 15 min/250 °C Klübertop TG 05-371 – 40 up to 300 greyish- Graphite dry: black (C) 5 min/100 °C burning-in: 15 min/220 °C UNIMOLY C 220 – 180 up to 450 grey Molybdenum dry: disulphide 5 min/20 °C (MoS2) hardening: 30 min/20 °C Klüber product Service Colour Chemical temperature composition range1) [°C] approx. Tribo-system materials Klüberdur KM 02-854 – 40 up to 200 dark grey Component A: epoxy resin, solid lubricant Two-component mixture, ester oil; Component B: special tribo-system material hardening agent, graphite, ester oil Klüberdur KS 01-308 – 40 up to 80 white Injectable polyoxymethylene with incorporated lubricant Klüberplast LD – 240 up to 260 red-brown PTFE + glass fibre + additives Klüberplast W2 – 240 up to 260 black PTFE + graphite Klüberplast – 240 up to 260 beige-brown PTFE + polyimide
  • 29. Yield Friction [m2 /l] coefficient with a layer (Tannert 20 °C) thickness of approx., 10 µm Vmax = 0.243 mm/s, F = 300 N 17 0.04 18 0.06 8 0.10 Friction coefficient acc. to Tannert linear contact against steel Vmax = 0.243 mm/s, 30 N/mm approx. 20 °C 120 °C 0,05 0,18 no stick-slip no stick-slip 20 °C 70 °C <0,05 < 0,045 no stick-slip no stick-slip 20 °C 150 °C 0,05 0,04 no stick-slip no stick-slip 20 °C 150 °C 0,06 0,05 no stick-slip no stick-slip 20 °C 150 °C 0,04 0,03 no stick-slip no stick-slip For more information, please ask for our technical publication: You will find more information on self-lubricating bearing materials and Klüberplast products in our brochure: 1) see page 34 29
  • 30. 30 Technical Questionnaire Plain Bearings 1. Application Machine / Equipment Manufacturer 2. Bearing and Shaft Details Type of bearing * u radial bearing u smooth bushing u bushing with lubricating grooves u perforated bushing u other u thrust bearing u pad bearing pad width pad length number of pads u plain sintered-metal bearing u low-maintenance dry bearing u pivoting bearing u other Lubricating groove position, shape, width, depth: (please specify or sketch) Non-locating bearing Locating bearing Permanent pressure u hydrostat. u hydrodyn. Bearing manufacturer Designation / order no D = mm d = mm B = mm d1 = mm B1 = mm Clearance when installed (e.g. Dshaft = 50 mm H7 and dbearing = 40 mm d7) Dshaft = mm dbearing = mm Bearing material Shaft material / hardness Roughness grade / shaft / bearing Ra / Rt / Rz (shaft) µm Ra / Rt / Rz (bearing) µm Surface treatment Shaft / bearing Mounting position of shaft / bearing u Vertical u Horizontal u Inclined, angle Bearing seal (type, material, manufacturer) Thrust washers (dimensions, material) Housing material Oil check unit material (e.g. oil gauge glass) Interior coating / housing Sender: Company Name Position Street City Phone Fax E-mail
  • 31. 31 Technical Questionnaire Plain Bearings ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS u Food grade registration as NSF H1** u low noise at __________ °C u low torque at __________ °C u customer specification / lubrica- tion chart – see enclosure 4. Lubrication Details Lubricant currently used Desired improvement (actual status / desired status) Lubrication method: u running-in lubrication u assembly lubrication u lifetime lubrication _____ h u oil circulation lubricant u relubrication u additional lubrication 3. Operating conditions* LOAD Medium surface pressure pm = –––– = –––––––– = N/mm2 u impact load _____________ N or load-time-diagram in sketch form SPEED AND TYPE OF MOVEMENT Bearing or shaft speed u shaft turns u bearing turns v = d · π · n = ___ · π · ___ = ___ m/s u rotating u oscillating u intermittent u vibrating Frequency _________ Hz Path _________________ (° or mm) or speed-time-diagram in sketch form TEMPERATURE SERVICE LIFE (TIME) Service per day _________ h Starts per day _________ Setting operation per day_________ h AMBIENT INFLUENCES type, concentration, temperature, pressure u liquid u vapour u gas u dust u electric current u other Other factors Lubricant dispenser / metering unit u manual u automatic u self-lubricating Lubrication ring material __________ Supply pressure ______________ bar oil throughput _______________ l/min Type of filter _____________________ pore size _________________ µm Permanent hydrostatic pressure __ bar Heating capacity per area ____ W/cm2 Lubricant dispenser type Lubricant line (dimensions, pressure, material, distributor type) Annual lubricant consumption * Minimum information required for consulting ** National Sanitation Foundation F B · d Temperature °C* Bearing temperature Ambient temperature estimated min. max. measured min. max.
  • 32. 32 Do you want to know more about our range of products? Do you need useful information on the lubrication of machine elements and technical components? Then you should order our Product Guide “Intelligent lubrication to save costs”.
  • 33. 33 Sender: Company Name Position Street City Phone Fax E-mail u Please send me more information about the following product(s): u Please quote a price for Product: Quantity: u Please give me a call about the following Application: Product: u Please call me for an appointment Request for Information Please fill in and return to Klüber Lubrication.
  • 34. 34 Klüber viscosity Definition grade EL Extra light lubricating grease for extremely low torques, e.g. smooth running grease L Light lubricating grease for low torques or high speeds in rolling bearings, e.g. high-speed grease M Medium lubricating grease for standard requirements in the whole range of grease lubrication S Heavy lubricating grease for applications subject to high loads or fluids, e.g. high-pressure/sealing greases ES Extra heavy lubricating grease for applications requiring high torques or securing effect, e.g. ocular grease or grease for valves and fittings Notes 1) Service temperatures are guide values which depend on the lubricant’s composition, the intended use and the application method. Lubricants change their consistency, apparent dynamic viscosity or viscosity depending on the mechano-dynamical loads, time, pressure and tem- perature. These changes in product characteristics may affect the function of a component. 2) Especially if series application is planned, we recommend checking the compatibility of the materials to be coated (our results were obtained in tests made on random samples and do not release the user from the obligation to perform his own tests). 3) Especially if series application is planned, we recommend checking the compatibility of the chemicals to be in contact with the material (our results were obtained in tests made on random samples and do not release the user from the obligation to perform his own tests). 4) Dry lubricants 5) 6) Consistency Worked penetration Texture DIN 51 818 DIN ISO 2137 (NLGI) [0.1 mm] 000 445 up to 475 fluid 00 400 up to 430 almost fluid 0 355 up to 385 extremely soft 1 310 up to 340 very soft 2 265 up to 295 soft 3 220 up to 250 moderate 4 175 up to 205 stiff 5 130 up to 160 very stiff 6 85 up to 115 extremely stiff
  • 35. Publisher and Copyright: Klüber Lubrication München KG Reprints, total or in part, are permitted if source is indicated and voucher copy is forwarded. 9.28 e Edition 05.01 The data in this technical brochure is based on our general experience and knowledge at the time of printing and is intended to give information of possible applications to a reader with technical experience. It constitutes neither an assurance of product properties nor does it release the user from the obligation of performing preliminary tests with the selected product. We recommend contacting our Technical Consulting Staff to discuss your specific application. If required and possible we will be pleased to provide a sample for testing. Klüber products are continually improved. Therefore, Klüber Lubrication reserves the right to change all the technical data in this technical brochure at any time without notice. 35