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  • <br />
  • The main reason i started flying was because during last summer, my cousin came to visit from texas and he is a pilot and currently has 3 licenses and he took me out a couple flights and then my dad asked me if i wanted to start flying because he really likes it too and i thought for a long time and then finally started flying. <br />
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  • Alot of people think that the Wright Brother&#x2019;s were the first to fly ever, but they weren&#x2019;t. The first human flight was on November 21, 1783, in a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers. This was such a breakthrough in Aviation because before this, people only believed that gods or people with magical powers had the ability to fly but this proved that science could be used to make something that was considered impossible, possible. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • The man in this picture is Otto Lilienthal and he is considered the Glider King. From 1881 to 1896 Otto Lilienthal made over 2,000 successful glides in a glider that he had built with the help of his brother Gustav. He was a german engineer and inventor by profession but even researched birds and their structure to see how they are capable of flying. Then he made his own man-made hill near Berlin, Germany and tested his glider out and proved to the world that flight in a heavier-than-air machine is possible. <br />
  • The Wright Brothers are probably the most famous and recognized Aviator&apos;s in America. The reason they are so famous is because on December 17th, 1903, the Wright Brother&#x2019;s achieved what no other man had achieved in the world yet: The first flight that was powered, controlled and sustained. On that day, they made four flights starting with a twelve second flight and ending with a fifty-nine second flight. This was an amazing feat that left everyone in awe. <br />
  • Every fixed wing airplane has something in common, and that is the five major parts that make it an airplane The Powerplant, the wings, the Empennage, the Fuselage, and the Landing Gear. (Show and point to the Wright Flyer, the Cessna 172( this is theplane that i fly), and this model is British Airways but other airlines have them too-Boeing 747&#x2019;s. Show and Point to Each of the 5 main parts on each plane. <br />
  • At the beginning of World War one, Planes weren&#x2019;t a big deal and everyone thought that they wouldn&#x2019;t really help the war effort. Then when planes were tried out, they were used for reconnoissance and just finding enemy positions. Then they started to evolve into fighter planes because the other side started sending out planes but the planes still only had one seat so it was hard for the pilot to shoot guns and fly at the same time so then another seat was added so that one person could shoot and the pilot could fly the plane. Towards the end of the war, Bombers were used. The plane would fly over an enemy target and release small bombs that the pilot carried in the cockpit. <br />
  • After World war one, new planes were constantly designed and greatly improved warfare for World War two. Newer and better planes were made such as the p-51 mustang and the B-29 super Fortress. The fighter planes now had better engines that could go faster and higher than the planes in world war one. Also, the planes had bigger fuel tanks witch meant that they can also travel a farther distance. The cockpit was greatly improved. There was a closed canopy on the cockpit and now the pilot&#x2019;s had their own supply of oxygen so altitude wasn&#x2019;t a problem for them. The bombers of world war two were giant. They had multiple engines and instead of the pilot throwing little bombs out of the cockpit, the planes of World War 2 had a huge cargo hold and a bomb bay which would automatically open at the push of a button and would drop hundreds of bombs on the enemy. The bombers of World War two also held an enormous capacity of fuel. <br />
  • Top Left-Wright Flyer Top middle- World War 1 plane Top Right- World war 2 plane <br /> <br /> Bottom Left- World War 2 Bomber(talk about bomber&#x2019;s were introduced) <br /> <br /> Bottom Middle- UAV Predator Bottome Right- Cessna 300 <br />
  • Top Right- Cockpit of cessna 172 in 1965 Top left- Cockpit of C-172 in 2009 <br /> <br /> Bottom Left-Cockpit of Boeing 747 in 1960 Bottom Right-Cockpit of 747 in 2009 <br />
  • A glass cockpit is really the new version of all the flight instruments packed in a computer screen. This is really in all new airplanes that are built today because they are easier to use and the computer calculates all the equations for you and you even have GPS and weather data all at your disposal. I prefer the older planes because i learned on a older plane that had all the instruments and no GPS or screens so it actually made me a better pilot because if the power goes out in a glass cockpit, the pilot had the six main instruments but doesn&#x2019;t really know how to use them to full advantage because in their training, they learn to depend on the computer and rarely practice using the 6 main instruments so they forget some of the information but in my training, i make all the calculations, and all the decision&apos;s if the power fails, i still have my knowledge that i always use so i am prepared to deal with the problem. <br />
  • The Powerplant of a plane is very important because it hold&#x2019;s the planes engine and Propeller. The picture on the right is a single engine plane like the one i fly.The powerplant looks like this(point to picture-you can see the propeller and the engine easily.). Right behind the engine is a wall of fabric and aluminum and it is called a firewall. A fire wall is there to protect you from the engine just in case it it catches on fire. <br /> -The picture on the right is a jet turbofan engine. It is basically the same principle as the engine on the right but just is super sized.(point to picture on right and explain)The fan is like 15 propellers working together. The inside of the engine works like this-(pointing to picture) Air comes into the engine and is compressed using fans that get smaller and smaller and then fuel is added to the air and is then ignited and then sent out the back of the engine producing thrust. <br /> <br />
  • The wing is very important because it creates lift, a force that is created by air flowing over and under the wing creating pressure. The wing also has the aileron&#x2019;s, and the flaps on it. The aileron&#x2019;s are used to control the direction a plane is moving in and to keep the plane level. The flaps are used when a plane is coming in for a landing or when there is a very short runway because when the flaps are extended, there is more surface are for the air to pass generating lift but decreasing the speed of the plane also. <br />
  • The fuselage of a plane is where the cock-pit is located. It&#x2019;s also where all the passenger&#x2019;s and the cargo is held.(Point out where the fuselage on each plane is). <br />
  • The landing gear is also a very important part of a plane. When a plane lands, all the weight and force of the plane is forced onto the landing gear. There are different types of landing gear configurations, a nosewheel configuration and a tailwheel configuration. The top left picture is an Airbus 330 and it has an Nosewheel configuration. The main landing gear is in the back and the nosewheel is in the front. It&#x2019;s the same for the picture on the top right except that the plane on the top right does not have a retractable landing gear. The picture on the bottom is a tailwheel configuration. The main gear is in the front and there is a tailwheel in the back. The differerence between nosewheel and tail wheel planes is the type of landing that they perform.(show how each lands with the toy plane). <br />
  • This is the undercarriage of a Boeing 747 and it is a nose-wheel plane but It also has a retractable gear and a pilot needs a special license to operate a plane with a retractable landing gear. The point of a retractable landing gear is so that the surface is smoother for the air to pass over and that increases the speed a plane can go. <br />
  • The empennage is usually at the end of a plane. It&#x2019;s also called the tail section of the plane. It includes the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer. There is a elavator and trim tab on the horizontal stabilizer and it is used to control the plane&#x2019;s up and down motion and is used to climb or descend. The trim tab on the horizontal stabilizer is used when a plane is taking off or landing.(explain to make it easier of the pilot so that is stays in that spot) The vertical stabilizer has the rudder and it is used to control the tail of the plane to go in to the right and left motion(show on toy plane), and the trim tab on the rudder is used to keep the rudder in one place so the pilot doesn&#x2019;t have to hold the control&#x2019;s and can multitask like look at the maps or talk on the radio. <br />
  • If you go into a cockpit in any plane, you will see these instruments. These are the flight instruments and the FAA requires them to be on every single plane that is operational. These six different instruments are all used together to determine the speed, direction, and altitude of a plane. These six instruments are split up into 2 different categories, gyroscopic instruments, and Pitot-static instruments. <br />
  • The three gyroscopic instruments in a plane are the turn coordinator, the heading indicator, and the attitude indicator. All three of these instruments use gyros to do their job. Gyroscopic instruments use rigidity in space and precession in order to work. <br />
  • The concept of rigidity in space is the idea that taking a gyroscope and placing on gimbal rings, will allow the gyroscope to continue to spin freely no matter which way the rings turn. <br />
  • Precession is the concept that in response to pressure, a gyro will tilt or turn. <br />
  • The attitude indicator is an instrument that is used to sense roll and pitch which is the up and down movement of the nose of an airplane. The center of an attitude indicator is used to represent an artificial horizon and is used when climbing or decending. This instrument helps if you can not see the horizon outside of an airplane. <br />
  • The turn coordinator is used to determine how safe a turn is when turning. This instrument uses a ball in a tube of liquid called an inclinometer to determine this. The turn coordinator is also helpfull in the case that the attitude indicator fails in the plane. <br />
  • The heading indicator in a plane is used to determine the direction that the plane is going in , in degrees. It is similar to a compass but it does not use the earth&#x2019;s magnetic fields for direction. A pilot is supposed to line the heading indicator with the same direction that the magnetic compass is pointing to so the pilot does not get confused while flying. <br />
  • Pitot-static instruments use pressure sensitive devices to convert pressure that is gathered and supplied by the pitot-static system and is used for instrument indications in the cockpit. The pitot-tube lets air and pressure in while flying and converts the pressure into information such as your speed, the altitude, and if you are climbing, or decending. <br />
  • The airspeed indicator uses air that is supplied from the pitot-static system and converts the air hitting on the diaphragm into airspeed in knots. The green, yellow, white, and red lines along the outside have to do with the certain aircraft that the airspeed indicator is installed in. The white line on the airspeed indicator means that it is safe to operate the aircrafts flaps in this range.The green line means that when the speed is in between the green line, the aircraft is safe to operate. The yellow section means that the aircraft is getting stressed but you can operate in this speed range only in calm air, and the red line means that you can&#x2019;t pass that speed or the aircraft will have structural damage. <br />
  • An altimeter in an airplane is a very important instrument because it lets you know what altitude or hight you are at. It uses Barometric pressure to convert pressure into feet and pilots get this information from a flight station, or the airport it is closest to. Each .01 inches of mercury represents 10 feet above the earth&#x2019;s surface. <br />
  • The vertical speed indicator or VSI is used to determine the rate of climb or descent. It uses static pressure to display the rate of climb in feet per minute. It measures the ambient air pressure increasing or decreasing. <br />
  • The four forces of flight are lift, weight, thrust and drag and all aircraft have these qualities when in flight. <br />
  • Lift is created using thrust and basic physics of an airfoil. An airfoil is a fancier name for a wing. The wing of an airplane is designed so that as thrust is increased, high pressure&#x2019;s go under the wing and the lower pressure&#x2019;s go over the wing and high pressure always goes towards low pressure pusshing up on the wing and creating lift. <br />
  • weight is the force of gravity that is put upon an object. The weight is a force put upon aircraft and the lift has to be greater than the weight in order to achieve flight. <br />
  • To overcome drag, airplanes use a propulsion system to generate a force called thrust. The direction of the thrust force depends on how the engines are attached to the aircraft. In a twin turbine aircraft(point to picture), a turbine engine is under each wing, parallel to the body of the plane with thrust acting along the body centerline. The Harrier is different because the thrust direction can be moved to help the airplane take off like a helicopter or like a plane. The amount of the thrust depends on the propulsion system including the type of engine, the number of engines, and how much throttle is applied. <br />
  • Drag is the aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft&apos;s motion through the air. Drag is generated by every part of the airplane. Drag is generated when air interacts with an airplane slowing down or pushing against the plane. <br />
  • Before every plane takes off, the pilot does a weight and balance of the plane. The weight and balance of a plane is really important because if a plane is too heavy, it won&#x2019;t be able to take off or won&#x2019;t be able to operate normally. <br /> <br />
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  • Angle of attack: Is the angle created by the chord* of the wing and the relative wind*. <br /> <br /> Chord:Is the immaginary line that would be created if you drew a line from the leading edge of the wing to the trailing edge. <br /> <br />
  • For my application component for my project, I got my private pilot license. I fly at Hortman Aviation which is based at Northeast Philadelphia Airport. It took me really long to get this and i flew all over the east coast. i have flown to Ocean City New Jersey, Allentown, Reading, and Lancaster the most. I&#x2019;ve also flown to Salisbury Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, New York and several different Airport&#x2019;s in new jersey.(How many hours do you have?) <br />
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  • For me, after high school i am joining the air force and am going to get my AMP which is a license to operate on airplanes as a mechanic until i get my bachelors. After that, i am going to become a officer so i can fly cargo planes like the c-17 globemaster.(point to pic of the plane) I am going to fly for the Air Force for about 4 years after i become an officer and then fly for the airlines and also work for Hortman Aviation Charters. <br /> <br /> In Aviation, the outlook is really good. Because of the economy, a lot of pilots have been laid-off and are out of work but within 10 years, the airlines will start hiring again and the outlook will be really good. Currently, b/c of the economy, everyone is going into the armed forces to fly for them and other careers in that category. The reason i am going into the Air Force is because i can&#x2019;t trust another student and teach at a flight school because it is pretty scary letting someone else who is just starting to fly land and take-off the plane b/c thats where the most accidents occur for students. <br />
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Senior grad project slides Senior grad project slides Presentation Transcript

  • AVIATION By: Rahul Bhutani
  • PERSONAL RELEVANCE -My cousin
  • AVIATION • Thesis • Aviation is integral in our everyday lives. Through my application component I hoped to use it as a stepping stone in to a career path that i want to proceed in. I will also enlighten the class on how planes work and the process that they have to go through in order for you to have an understanding of the intricacies of aviation.
  • WHERE DID IT ALL START? • The Montgolfier Brothers Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • WHERE DID IT ALL START CONTINUED • The Glider King Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE WRIGHT BROTHER’S The Wright Flyer Orville Wright Wilbur Wright Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • BASIC TO COMPLEX Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • WORLD WAR 1 http://www.theaerodrome.com/aircraft/germany/albatros_cv.php Faber, Harold. The Airplane. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print. Harold
  • WORLD WAR 2 Faber, Harold. The Airplane. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print. Harold
  • EVOLUTION OF PLANES Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot. Spies That Fly. Larry Klein, David Axelrod, Alan Ritsko, 2003. WGBH Boston Video, 2006. DVD. Faber, Harold. The Airplane. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print. Harold Kagan, Neil, et al., eds. Century of Flight. Richmond: Time-Life, 1999. Print.
  • EVOLUTION OF PLANES CONTINUED Kagan, Neil, et al., eds. Century of Flight. Richmond: Time-Life, 1999. Print. Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE “GLASS COCKPIT” Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE POWERPLANT Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE WING Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE FUSELAGE Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE LANDING GEAR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • A RETRACTABLE LANDING GEAR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE EMPENNAGE Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot. Toff, Nancy, et al., eds. The Federal Aviation Administration. Vol. 1. New York: Chelsea, 1989.
  • GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • RIGIDITY IN SPACE Gyroscopic instrument Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • PRECESSION Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE ATTITUDE INDICATOR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • TURN COORDINATOR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • HEADING INDICATOR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • PITOT-STATIC INSTRUMENTS Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • AIRSPEED INDICATOR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • ALTIMETER Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THE FOUR FORCES OF FLIGHT Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • LIFT Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • WEIGHT Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • THRUST Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • DRAG Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • WEIGHT AND BALANCE Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • AIRSPACE -Class A -Class B -Class D -Class E Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • AIRCRAFT STALLS Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • MY APPLICATION
  • THE FUTURE -In Aviation -For Me Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • CLASS ACTIVITY -Balsa Wood Airplane
  • WORKS CITED Aviation. New York: Feruson, 2005. Print. Ferguson’s Careers in Focus. Faber, Harold. The Airplane. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print. Kagan, Neil, et al., eds. Century of Flight. Richmond: Time-Life, 1999. Print. Parker, Christopher. “Wait! Is it Airworthy?” AOPA PILOT Oct. 2009: 22-25. Print. Spies That Fly. Larry Klein, David Axelrod, Alan Ritsko, 2003. WGBH Boston Video, 2006. DVD. Toff, Nancy, et al., eds. The Federal Aviation Administration. Vol. 1. New York: Chelsea, 1989. Willits, Pat, Mike Abbott, and Liz Kailey, eds. Guided Flight Discovery Private Pilot. 2007 ed. Englewood: Jeppesen, 2007. Print. Jeppesen Private Pilot.
  • CONCLUSION Take the time to think? Every single person in this room has already flown on a plane or will sometime in their life. This is why aviation is so important in our life, and ensuring that our pilots are well qualified to make sure we fly safe.