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Paper apresentado no World Planning School Congress - Perth, Australia, 4-8 Julho de 2011. O trabalho traz uma reflexão sobre os desafios que os municípios enfrentam para o desempenho de uma boa ...

Paper apresentado no World Planning School Congress - Perth, Australia, 4-8 Julho de 2011. O trabalho traz uma reflexão sobre os desafios que os municípios enfrentam para o desempenho de uma boa governação, tendo como estudo de caso o município de Águeda, Portugal.

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The challenges of municipalities in performing good environmental governance   presentation The challenges of municipalities in performing good environmental governance presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The challenges of municipalities in performing goodThe challenges of municipalities in performing good environmental governanceenvironmental governance WPSC 2011 4-8 July 2011, Perth – Western Australia Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Daniela Salgadoa, danielasalgado@ua.pt & Teresa Fidéisb, teresafidelis@ua.pt a,b Department of the Environment and Planning University of Aveiro, Portugal. 1
  • Departure IssuesDeparture Issues Local authorities face a challenge of tremendous importance: managingmanaging environmentalenvironmental issuesissues.. Governance of environmental affairs must be analysed in smallersmaller scalesscales.. There is a dearth of studies which examine environmental governance at the local level, especially with regard to the principlesprinciples ofof goodgood environmentalenvironmental governancegovernance.. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Aim of the study: Provide some relevant insights and a critical analysis regarding principles of good environmental governance at the locallocal levellevel.. 2
  • Research questionsResearch questions 1. What are the locallocal instrumentsinstruments adopted by the municipality and in which way they contribute to improve environmental governance? 2. Based on the analysisanalysis ofof locallocal environmentalenvironmental instruments,instruments, is the municipality under study working towards ‘good environmental governance’? Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 3. If so, what are the mostmost visiblevisible principlesprinciples and how the municipality has been following them? 4. Finally, what are the aspectsaspects toto bebe improvedimproved towards good environmental governance? 3
  • Paper structurePaper structure 11stst sectionsection:: principles of good environmental governance, the role of municipalities in governing environmental issues and some local instruments to promote good environmental governance. 22ndnd sectionsection:: case study – municipality of Águeda, Portugal. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 33rdrd sectionsection:: instruments related to the management of local environmental issues adopted by this municipality. LastLast sectionsection:: critical analysis and conclusions. 4
  • BackgroundBackground Principles of good environmental governancePrinciples of good environmental governance Some relevant insights from the literature review:Some relevant insights from the literature review: Environmental governance has been widely discussed by academics and by institutions, especially at the global level; Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Re-incorporation of the term ‘governance’ in academic literature in the 1980s - emerged with a different meaning; ‘Governance’ highlights the shift from the traditionaltraditional conceptconcept ofof ‘government’‘government’ toto aa broaderbroader conceptconcept basedbased onon sustainabilitysustainability;; Environmental governance the way societies cope with environmental problems. 5
  • The EC White Paper (2001) challenges for good governance in Europe:The EC White Paper (2001) challenges for good governance in Europe: BackgroundBackground i) openness: EU actions and decisions are to be communicatedcommunicated toto thethe generalgeneral publicpublic in an accessible language; ii) participation: wide publicpublic participationparticipation throughout the policy-making chain; Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro iii) accountability: all Member States and institutions responsible for the development and implementation of EU policies should be transparenttransparent andand responsibleresponsible;; iv) effectiveness: policies must be effectiveeffective and well-timed, with clearclear objectives,objectives, based on previous experiences; v) coherence: policies and actions must be coherentcoherent andand easyeasy toto understandunderstand.. 6
  • BackgroundBackground SomeSome definitionsdefinitions regardingregarding ‘Good‘Good environmentalenvironmental governance’governance’:: Principles of ‘good environmental governance’ are similarsimilar worldwideworldwide and may vary according to the purposes under consideration. Regarding the compliancecompliance toto andand enforcementenforcement ofof environmentenvironment--relatedrelated measures,measures, good environmental governance includes (Harman, 2005): Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro »» (i) providing information to the general public, allowing transparency and accessible decision-making; »» (ii) promoting the participation of stakeholders to ensure that practices meet expectations, and »» (iii) adequate environmental regulation. 7
  • Effective delivery of basic environmental services in a transparent,transparent, accountable,accountable, andand participatoryparticipatory manner (Malayang, 2004). Working instrument for assessing performance of local environmental governance may involve (Malayang, 2004): »» (i) effective delivery of basic environmental services; BackgroundBackground »» (i) effective delivery of basic environmental services; »» (ii) transparency; »» (iii) accountability, and »» (iv) participation. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 8
  • BackgroundBackground TheThe rolerole ofof municipalitiesmunicipalities inin governinggoverning environmentalenvironmental issuesissues:: Implementation of sustainabilitysustainability at the local level (Thomas, 2010; Fidélis and Pires, 2009; Pires 2011); Local government units are key actors in the implementationimplementation ofof EUEU integrationintegration policiespolicies (Kosecik and Sagbas, 2004). Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro policiespolicies (Kosecik and Sagbas, 2004). Local governments are responsible for providingproviding publicpublic servicesservices andand enforcingenforcing democracydemocracy;; Localocal stakeholdersstakeholders andand thethe generalgeneral publicpublic »» key actors in governance actions. 9
  • SomeSome locallocal instrumentsinstruments toto improveimprove environmentalenvironmental governancegovernance BackgroundBackground The instruments adopted by Águeda, some of them widely used in the international context, can help municipalities to improveimprove environmentalenvironmental governancegovernance:: » Local Agenda 21 (LA21); Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro » Environment-related strategies and plans; » Local government instruments for communication and public participation; » Environmental Management Systems of the ISO 14000 family. 10
  • ÁGUEDA Case study and methodologyCase study and methodology The municipality of ÁguedaThe municipality of Águeda Europe ÁGUEDA Fig. 1: Location of Águeda, Portugal. Source: Águeda Local Council (2010). Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 11
  • Case study and methodologyCase study and methodology Location: central region of Portugal, Aveiro district. Population: aprox. 50,000 inhabitants; Territorial features: 335.3 km2, 20 parishes; Brief descriptionBrief description Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Natura 2000 Network: 12% of its territory; Embedded in a complex lagoon ecosystem called “Ria de Aveiro”; High number of local associations, almost 200 (emphasis on the culturalcultural and socialsocial areas). 12
  • MethodologyMethodology Case study and methodologyCase study and methodology Identification and critical analysis of the instruments related to the management of local environmental issues adopted by Águeda City Council. From the instruments previously presented, Águeda has adopted: Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro “State of Sustainability 2010” (LA21 process); Municipal Water Plan; Local structure for communication and public participation: ‘Green Line’ and Citizen Service Office. 131313
  • » LALA2121 It has started to be set up in 2008 with the adhesion of the municipality to the AalborgAalborg commitmentscommitments;; AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies AnalysisAnalysis ofof locallocal strategiesstrategies Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro CitizenryCitizenry andand locallocal organizationsorganizations are considered to be key actors; Águeda has formed a coordinator group with the involvement of some City Council members and locallocal communitycommunity.. 14
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies i) Governance; ii) Local management for sustainability; iii) Responsible consumption and lifestyle choices; The Local Council has elaborated the report “State of Sustainability in Águeda”, which characterizes the municipality according to the following areas: Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro iii) Responsible consumption and lifestyle choices; iv) Planning and urban design; v) Better mobility, less traffic; vi) Natural common goods; vii) From local to global. 15
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies Areas Main ongoing actions i) Governance For a sustainable city: Municipal Master Plan (PDM), LocalLocal AgendaAgenda 2121.. Participation capacity of local community : Local Council Website, SMS, MMS and e-mail services, CitizenCitizen ServiceService OfficeOffice (certified by ISO 9001), TelephoneTelephone lineslines for direct contact with the municipal Table 1 – Local sustainability characterization in Águeda. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro TelephoneTelephone lineslines for direct contact with the municipal services. Openness, accountability and transparency of decisions: Award for Best Practices in the Public Sector, thethe levellevel ofof satisfactionsatisfaction withwith administrativeadministrative services,services, amongst others. ii) Local Management for sustainability ContinuousContinuous improvementimprovement cyclecycle for local sustainability system: participated planning, implementation, checking, reviewing. Source: Águeda Local Council (2010). 16
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies Areas Main Ongoing Actions iii) Responsible Consumption and Life Style Choices Recyclable waste collection, energy certification of municipal buildings, computerizedcomputerized proceduresprocedures andand informationinformation management,management, amongst others. iv) Urban Planning and Design MunicipalMunicipal MasterMaster Plan,Plan, Noise Charter, Natura 2000 Network. v) Better mobility, less traffic MobilityMobility plan,plan, studies on traffic and mobility, promoting the use of public transport and cycling. Table 1 – (Cont.) Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro use of public transport and cycling. vi) From Local to Global (climate protection). Signing of the ‘Covenant‘Covenant ofof Mayors’Mayors’ (to reduce emissions by at least 20% by 2020), Zero Carbon City Programme, distribution of efficient lights. Area Main Indicators vii) Common Natural Property Protect, preserve and ensure equitableequitable accessaccess toto naturalnatural commoncommon goodsgoods:: consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, population served by public water supply, Natural 2000 classified areas, Air Quality Index, etc. 17
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies » MunicipalMunicipal WaterWater PlanPlan Implementation of Water Framework Directive; Participation of experts and Local Council members: scientific and technical knowledge associated with locallocal experiencesexperiences.. AnalysisAnalysis ofof locallocal strategiesstrategies Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro knowledge associated with locallocal experiencesexperiences.. The Plan consisted of: i) a complex DiagnosisDiagnosis regarding the survey of the local environmental problems; ii) WorkshopsWorkshops where construction of common visions were built, and iii) ActionAction Plan,Plan, with the identification of measures to be implemented. 18
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies Diagnosis Areas Infrastructure, sewerage and wastewater treatment and characteristics; sustainable management and integrated water resources; use of surface water and groundwater; quality of water for human consumption; water catchments and private water standpipe, and quality of watercourses. Workshops Main problems Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 19 Workshops Main problems Areas without water supply; low sanitation coverage and treatment; uncontrolled discharge of industrial effluents, and contamination of the Águeda river by agriculture practices. Action Plan Areas Oversighting mechanisms; plan leisure-tourist activity, and efficient water use in public buildings.
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal strategiesstrategies AnalysisAnalysis ofof locallocal instrumentsinstruments » CityCity CouncilCouncil structurestructure forfor communicationcommunication andand publicpublic participationparticipation Creation of Citizen Service Office, in 1998 (certified by ISO 9001 Quality Standard since 2008); Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Creation of the ‘Green Line’: direct contact between the public and environmental services and inspection; public confidence in relation to municipal environmental services. direct contact between the public and environmental services and inspection; public confidence in relation to municipal environmental services. 20
  • AA closercloser looklook intointo locallocal instrumentsinstruments » NetworkNetwork interactionsinteractions International context Networks Energie-Cités; “One Billion Tree for the Planet Program from UNEP, and EuropeanEuropean NetworkNetwork ofof SustainableSustainable CitiesCities andand TownsTowns.. National “+ MARia” project (process of administrative modernization); Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 21 National context “+ MARia” project (process of administrative modernization); AdRA - Waters of the Region of Aveiro; Águeda 21,Águeda 21, and NationalNational NetworkNetwork ofof LALA2121.. Local context Several associations of social, recreational, cultural, and environmental, amongst others.
  • CriticalCritical analysisanalysis 11.. WhatWhat areare thethe locallocal instrumentsinstruments adoptedadopted byby thethe municipalitymunicipality andand inin whichwhich wayway theythey contributecontribute toto improveimprove environmentalenvironmental governance?governance? LA21: is the most important strategy regarding sustainability goals, with a strong emphasis on the improvementimprovement ofof locallocal environmentalenvironmental qualityquality.. Municipal Water Plan: reflects a complex environmental diagnosis of the water Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Municipal Water Plan: reflects a complex environmental diagnosis of the water resources, contributing to the identification of the aspects to be improved. It is also an initiative for intermunicipalintermunicipal waterwater governancegovernance.. ‘Green Line’ and Citizen Service Office: reflects a great effort in communicatingcommunicating withwith citizenscitizens and is also a channel for publicpublic participationparticipation.. 22
  • 2. Based on the analysis of local environmental instruments, is Águeda working2. Based on the analysis of local environmental instruments, is Águeda working towards ‘good environmental governance’?towards ‘good environmental governance’? CriticalCritical analysisanalysis Local instruments reflect a great effort in improving environmental governance with a strong emphasis on sustainabilitysustainability goalsgoals.. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro LALA2121:: E.g.: goodgood practicespractices inin thethe LocalLocal CouncilCouncil (reducing paper consumption and increasing digital information support ) or actions from outside (Mobility Plan). E.g.: ProximityProximity toto thethe publicpublic:: LA21 Blog, Newsletter, Telephone lines for direct contact with the municipal services. 23
  • CriticalCritical analysisanalysis KeyKey instrumentinstrument for local environmental governance: guidance for implementation of sound policies. Involvement and participation of experts and Local Council members in order to identify the problems related to water resources and their appropriate measures. Municipal Water Plan:Municipal Water Plan: Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro identify the problems related to water resources and their appropriate measures. Adhesion to the ‘AdRA’: more efficient management of water resources by facilitating the interinter--municipalmunicipal waterwater governancegovernance.. 24
  • Águeda is strongly connected with local, regional, national and international networksnetworks in several areas: CriticalCritical analysisanalysis Also…Also… Instruments for communication and public participation - ‘Green Line’ and Citizen Service Office: allow democraticdemocratic principlesprinciples to be implemented. Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro »» Which makes the municipality dynamic and interactive,dynamic and interactive, enabling the exchange of experiences and knowledge. 25
  • 3. If so, what are the most visible principles and how the municipality has been3. If so, what are the most visible principles and how the municipality has been following them?following them? CriticalCritical analysisanalysis Participation and openness. Águeda has been striving to engage the public and other local actors to participate in the LA21 process; Águeda has been striving to engage the public and other local actors to participate in the LA21 process; Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro participate in the LA21 process; creation of a Citizen Service Office and a telephone line for attending public demands on environmental issues; high levels of participation in the regional context (citizen environmental complaints); creation of innumerable channels for public communication and participation (LA21 Blog, PDA events ). participate in the LA21 process; creation of a Citizen Service Office and a telephone line for attending public demands on environmental issues; high levels of participation in the regional context (citizen environmental complaints); creation of innumerable channels for public communication and participation (LA21 Blog, PDA events ). 26
  • 4. Finally, what are the4. Finally, what are the aspects to be improved towards good environmental governance?aspects to be improved towards good environmental governance? CriticalCritical analysisanalysis Fully implement the specific targets of local strategies; Evaluation of the practical results of such measures; Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Monitoring of local activities regarding management of environmental issues. Make possible the evaluation of environmental governance practices. Make possible the evaluation of environmental governance practices. ! 27
  • CriticalCritical analysisanalysis Accountability,Accountability, effectivenesseffectiveness andand coherencecoherence:: would demand a deep analysis of local policies and practices. Local and regional authorities need to give more attention to some local problems (e.g.: limitations of local groundwater resources). Furthermore…Furthermore… Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro 28
  • ConclusionsConclusions andand recommendationsrecommendations Good environmental governance depends on specificspecific featuresfeatures from the local level perspective; Some principles are essential to provide good environmental governance and should be in the line of action of local governments (e.g.: those referred to in the EC White Paper and in the expert literature). Some relevantSome relevant insightsinsights Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro OpennessOpenness andand participationparticipation are in the line of action of Águeda: Strongly engaged to communicate and interact with the public. Strongly engaged to communicate and interact with the public. ! 29
  • ConclusionsConclusions andand recommendationsrecommendations The municipality has been extremely willing to work on governance for sustainabilitysustainability;; Local instruments reveal a great effort in opening channels for publicpublic participationparticipation;; Águeda has a strong ability to interactinteract with several networks at various scales and In brief words…In brief words… Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Águeda has a strong ability to interactinteract with several networks at various scales and subjects; LALA2121 is the local action which can better reach good environmental governance targets; Finally, the municipality would take more time to develop their activities and create conditions to be fully in line with ‘good‘good environmentalenvironmental governance’governance’ practices. 30
  • AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements The authors are grateful to the “Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia” (FCT), fellowship SFRH/BD/37010/2007, and the Águeda City Council. Thank you!Thank you! Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro Thank you!Thank you! Obrigado!Obrigado! 31
  • River Águeda Fermentelos Lagoon (“Pateira de Fermentelos”) Daniela Salgado & Teresa Fidélis Dep. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro ‘Ria de Aveiro’ÁguedaCity Center – bikes for community use