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Scala for Jedi

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Второе выступление в рамках спецкурса "Немейнстримовые технологии разработки", читаемого в НГУ. http://bit.ly/mainstreamless

Аудио дорожка работает, но нужно иметь некоторое терпение, так как грузится она не моментально.

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Scala for Jedi

1. 1. SCALA ДЛЯ ДЖЕДАЕВ Владимир Парфиненко vladimir.parﬁnenko@gmail.com @cypok
2. 2. THE LIGHT SIDE
3. 3. THE DARK SIDE
4. 4. TYPES
5. 5. OPTIONval set = Set(42, null, "Yoda")val found = set find { _ == null }if (found != null) { // huh, weve found it or not? println(s"Found \$found!")} else { println("Not found.")}
6. 6. OPTIONval set = Set(42, null, "Yoda")val found = set find { _ == null }found match { case Some(elem) => println(s"Found \$elem!") case None => println("Not found.")} olation 2 .10 string interp
7. 7. TYPES ON STEROIDSsealed abstract class Option[+A] { def get: A}final case class Some[+A](x: A) extends Option[A] { def get = x}case object None extends Option[Nothing] { def get = throw new NoSuchElementException("None.get")}
8. 8. TYPE COVARIANCE not im 2 .10 plemeclass Cell[T](x: T) { nte d def get: T = ??? def set(x: T) { ??? }}val c1 = new Cell[String]("Anakin")val c2: Cell[Any] = c1 // type mismatch
9. 9. TYPE COVARIANCEclass Cell[+T](x: T) { def get: T = ???}val c1 = new Cell[String]("Anakin")val c2: Cell[Any] = c1val jedi = c2.get
10. 10. TYPE COVARIANCEclass Cell[+T](x: T) { def get: T = ??? def set(x: T) { ??? } // compilation error}val c1 = new Cell[String]("Anakin")val c2: Cell[Any] = c1c2.set(37)
11. 11. TYPE COVARIANCEclass Cell[-T](x: T) { def get: T = ??? // compilation error def set(x: T) { ??? }}val c1 = new Cell[Any](37)val c2: Cell[String] = c1val jedi = c2.get
12. 12. TYPE COVARIANCEclass Cell[-T](x: T) { def set(x: T) { ??? }}val c1 = new Cell[Any](Anakin)val c2: Cell[String] = c1c2.set("Darth Vader")
13. 13. LOWER & UPPER BOUNDS class List[+A] { def ++[B >: A](that: List[B]): List[B] = ??? } val strs = List("Leia", "Organa") val syms = List(Anakin, Skywalker) val all = strs ++ syms // List[java.io.Serializable] def max[A <: Ordered[_]](xs: List[A]): A = ??? val accounts: List[Money] max(accounts)
14. 14. CONTEXT BOUNDStrait Jedi { def force: Double }val jediOrder: Set[Jedi]val grandMaster = jediOrder.max // No implicit Ordering defined for Jedi.implicit val jediOrdering = new Ordering[Jedi] { def compare(j1: Jedi, j2: Jedi) = j1.force.compare(j2.force)}val grandMaster = jediOrder.maxtrait TraversableOnce[+A] { def max[B >: A](implicit cmp: Ordering[B]): A = ??? def max[A : Ordering]: A = ???}
15. 15. TYPES HIERARCHY Any AnyVal AnyRef/Object ScalaObjectValue classes Primitives Java classes2.10 Scala classes Null Nothing
16. 16. TYPES ON STEROIDSsealed abstract class Option[+A] { def get: A}final case class Some[+A](x: A) extends Option[A] { def get = x}case object None extends Option[Nothing] { def get = throw new NoSuchElementException("None.get")}
17. 17. PARALLELISM & CONCURRENCY
18. 18. PARALLEL COLLECTIONSval nums = (1 to 10).parnums foreach { x => print(x + " ") } // 1 2 8 9 10 7 5 6 3 4nums reduce { _ - _ } // -15nums reduce { _ - _ } // 5nums reduce { _ + _ } // 55val word = Seq("G", "r", "i", "e", "v", "o", "u", "s")word.par reduce { _ ++ _ } // Grievous
19. 19. 2.10 FUTURES• Хранилище для значения, которое будет получено в будущем• Получениезначения может быть выполнено асинхронно и не блокировать программу• Значение может быть не получено вовсе
20. 20. FUTURESval f: Future[List[String]] = future { session.getRecentPosts}f onSuccess { case posts => for (post <- posts) println(post)}f onFailure { case t => println("An error has occured: " + t.getMessage)}
21. 21. FORval files: Seq[File]for (file <- files) { println(file.getName)}
22. 22. FORdef fileLines(f: File): Seq[String] = ???for (file <- files) { if (!file.getName.startsWith(".")) { for (line <- fileLines(file)) { if (line.nonEmpty) { println(file + ": " + line) } } }}
23. 23. FORfor { file <- files if !file.getName.startsWith(".") line <- fileLines(file) if line.nonEmpty} println(file + ": " + line)files withFilter { !_.getName.startsWith(".") } foreach { file => fileLines withFilter { _.nonEmpty } foreach { line => println(file + ": " + line) }}
24. 24. FORval lines = for { file <- files if !file.getName.startsWith(".") line <- fileLines(file) if line.nonEmpty} yield (file + ": " + line)files withFilter { !_.getName.startsWith(".") } flatMap { file => fileLines(file) withFilter { _.nonEmpty } map { line => file + ": " + line }}
25. 25. FUTURESval usdQuote = future { connection.getCurrentValue(USD) }val chfQuote = future { connection.getCurrentValue(CHF) }val purchase = for { usd <- usdQuote chf <- chfQuote if isProfitable(usd, chf)} yield connection.buy(amount, chf)purchase onSuccess { case _ => println(s"Purchased \$amount CHF")}
26. 26. FUTURES val rateQuote = future { connection.getCurrentValue(USD) } val purchase = rateQuote map { quote => if (isProfitable(quote)) connection.buy(amount, quote) else throw new Exception("not profitable") } purchase onSuccess { case _ => println(s"Purchased \$amount USD") }filter, fallbackTo, recoverWith, andThen, …
27. 27. PROMISESval p = promise[T]val f = p.futureval producer = future { val r = produceSomething() p success r continueDoingSomethingUnrelated()}val consumer = future { startDoingSomething() f onSuccess { case r => doSomethingWithResult() }}
28. 28. PROMISESdef first[T](f: Future[T], g: Future[T]): Future[T] = { val p = promise[T] f onSuccess { case x => p.tryComplete(x) } g onSuccess { case x => p.tryComplete(x) } p.future}
29. 29. 2.10 ACTORS & AKKA• Акторы – это приватные данные и описание поведения• Общение между акторами только через сообщения с неизменяемыми данными• Акторы могут создавать других акторов и управлять ими в случае исключительных ситуаций
30. 30. ACTORSclass MyActor extends Actor { def receive = { case "test" => log("received test") case _ => log("received unknown message") }}object Main extends App { val system = ActorSystem("MySystem") val myActor = system.actorOf(Props[MyActor], name = "myactor") myActor ! "test"}
31. 31. ACTORSclass Squarer extends Actor { def receive = { case x: Int => sender ! (x * x) case x: Double => sender ! (x * x) }}class Mathematician extends Actor { val squarer = context.actorOf(Props[Squarer], name = "squarer") def receive = { case x: Int => (squarer ? x) onComplete { case Success(x) => log(x) case Failure => fail() } }}
32. 32. OTHER FEATURES
33. 33. { on[ A] = ti n)) : Op ea trait => Bool Provi , p : (A def s der { rec Lis t[A] } mth: Int@ tail A]( xs: f ind[ p) def tch { ne (ta il, x s ma l = > No => find class e Ni tail lse LazyO c as :: hea d) e lazy ne ex tends head ) S ome( val s Provi case ead) ??? mth = der { p(h { if ( } } } } assert(assertion: Boolean, message: => Any): Unit assert(true, { ??? }) assert(false, { ??? }) ? my t = ?? 2.10 age : In ? pack o o { v al x t = ?? implicit class Ro cla ss F e[this] y : In = ??? ckString vat val nt def rock () = ??? (str: St ring) { pri e[ Foo] al z: I } pr ivat [my] v e "foo".ro pr ivat ck() } val xml = <and><much>More!</much></and>