Biological Positivism  Theories of Deviance, Crime and Social Control  Week 3
Outline <ul><li>Nature vs Nurture Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul><ul><...
From last week..  <ul><li>Positivism  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A review of Lombroso  </li></ul></ul>
Recent Biological Theories  <ul><li>Nature vs Nurture Debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminality explained by genetics or en...
Somatotyping: Sheldon (1954)  <ul><li>Tissue layers developed at embryonic stages </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on certain ti...
Family / Environment Backgrounds  <ul><li>Farrington (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Study N=411 Males (1 st  ag...
Twin Studies  <ul><li>Dalgard & Kringlen (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=33,000 twins, (n=139) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G...
Adoption Studies <ul><li>Predictive influence of biological parents vs adoptive parents.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mednick et al ...
Criticisms of Twin and Adoption Studies  <ul><li>Twin Studies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological problems.  </li></ul><...
XYY Syndrome (Cytogenetic Studies)  <ul><li>46 Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males X (Mother) Y (Father) </li></ul></u...
The Brain and Crime <ul><li>Wilson (1975)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth trauma  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to viole...
Discussion Questions  <ul><li>What is your opinion about the evidence that criminals are physically different from non-cri...
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Biological Positivism2

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Biological Positivism2

  1. 1. Biological Positivism Theories of Deviance, Crime and Social Control Week 3
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Nature vs Nurture Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul><ul><li>SUPER MALE XYY Gene </li></ul><ul><li>Link with ADHD and Criminality </li></ul>
  3. 3. From last week.. <ul><li>Positivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A review of Lombroso </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Recent Biological Theories <ul><li>Nature vs Nurture Debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminality explained by genetics or environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical Effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction effects </li></ul>
  5. 5. Somatotyping: Sheldon (1954) <ul><li>Tissue layers developed at embryonic stages </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on certain tissue layers was hereditary. </li></ul><ul><li>Endoderm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Inner Layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesoderm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Muscle /Bones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Skin/Capillaries) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>self-conscious </li></ul><ul><li>preference for privacy </li></ul><ul><li>introverted, socially anxious, </li></ul><ul><li>artistic, </li></ul><ul><li>mentally intense, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desire for power, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>courage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indifference to what others think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competitive nature, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>love of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Love of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance, </li></ul><ul><li>love of comfort, </li></ul><ul><li>sociability, </li></ul><ul><li>good humour, </li></ul><ul><li>relaxed mood, </li></ul><ul><li>Need affection. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Family / Environment Backgrounds <ul><li>Farrington (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Study N=411 Males (1 st age =8 years old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent delinquents (aged 17-18) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most aggressive at age 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age 8 – 10, poor parenting. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Moffitt – Dunedin Cohort (Born 1972 – 1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N = 1037 (535 Males / 502 Females) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong Criminals had an early onset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low IQ, Poor language skills, ADHD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Moffitt (2002) MAO-A Gene Study (serotonin) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Twin Studies <ul><li>Dalgard & Kringlen (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=33,000 twins, (n=139) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater similarity amongst MZ than DZ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mednick and Volavka (1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% similarity amongst MZ; 30% DZ. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianson (1968) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=3,586; 52% MZ, 22% DZ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IF one twin is criminal, we would predict the other MZ would also be criminal. </li></ul>What is your opinion? Any problems?
  8. 8. Adoption Studies <ul><li>Predictive influence of biological parents vs adoptive parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Mednick et al (1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=1,145 (1927 – 1941) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminality of biological father was a “major predictor” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having biological criminal parents was more predictive than having criminal adoptive parents. </li></ul></ul>What is your opinion? Any problems?
  9. 9. Criticisms of Twin and Adoption Studies <ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small number of cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorisation of MZ and DZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was based on official records and not blood samples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High concordance rates could be due to environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective placement (match to find similar to family) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes not adopted immediately after birth. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. XYY Syndrome (Cytogenetic Studies) <ul><li>46 Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males X (Mother) Y (Father) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females XX (from each parent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacobs et al (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Hospital 13 XYYs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N =197 inmates were XYY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supermale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, severe acne, aggressive and violent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low social and intelligence skills. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Brain and Crime <ul><li>Wilson (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to violent criminality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>White et al (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD high risk of delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity, hyperactivity, inattentiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with interacting with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrations can lead to aggression and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Murderers Brain </li></ul>
  12. 12. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What is your opinion about the evidence that criminals are physically different from non-criminals? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the links are between ADHD and offending behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should children who have ADHD be medicated? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What, if any, are the dangers of suggesting that biological characteristics may help to explain criminality? </li></ul>

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