Seminar algorithms of web

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  • 1. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUT University of Paderborn Algorithms und ComplexitySeminarAlgorithms of theInternet Christian Schindelhauer 2004-04-19 Uploaded by: CarAutoDriver 1
  • 2. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEMotivation University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• The Internet – is the public global wide-area interconnection network for computers – grows exponentially – evolvesThe evolution of the Internet• Crises and catastrophes – Computer hackers since the 70s – The traffic breakdown in the 80s – Denial of service attacks in the 90s – SPAM forever• Clever algorithmic solutions – Secure protocols – TCP bandwidth control – DoS-detection – SPAM-filters Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 2
  • 3. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEGoals of the Seminar University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Algorithms of the Internet• Literature recherche in a hot topic• Write an survey on the state of the art• Give a presentation on this field• Interact with others on scientific research• Provide material for – the community – future lectures and seminars – a book Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 3
  • 4. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEOrganization University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• See the Web-pagehttp://wwwcs.upb.de/cs/ag-madh/WWW/Teaching/2004SS/AlgInternet/• Today: Registration Assignment of topics• Next two meetings: Kickoff and feedback• May 10th/17th: 2pm-6pm 1st presentation• From May to July weekly (voluntary) meetings for consultation• July 19th/26th: 1pm-7pm 2nd presentation• August 1st (11:59 pm): Deadline for written assignment• August 30th (2pm): Evaluation, grades and comments (voluntary participation) Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 4
  • 5. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEThe Deliverables University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• 1st presentation – Duration 15 min. – Presents • main issue • strategy to get the work done• 2nd presentation – Duration 45 min. – Survey of the research area• Written assignment – 5-10 pages (pure text without title, references, and figures) – Survey of the most relevant and interesting work in the assigned area Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 5
  • 6. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEHow it Counts for the Grade University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• 1st presentation – 0%• 2nd presentation – 25 %• Written assignment – 75 % Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 6
  • 7. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEThe Topics University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer1. The mobile Internet2. P2P-networks3. Web caching4. Algorithms for Web search engines5. The structure of the Web6. Security mechanisms of the Internet7. Denial of service attacks8. Worms, viruses and spam9. Epidemic algorithms10. The Domain Name System (DNS)11. Bandwidth allocation of TCP12. Routing algorithms of IP13. Broadcasting and Multicasting in IP14. The self-organization of the Internet15. “Wild card” Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 7
  • 8. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTEContents of Written Assignment University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Scientific survey on the assigned topic• For broad audience interested in algorithms and InternetTable of contents for “Tachyonic Networking”1. What is Tachyonic Network Transmissions (TNT)2. Applications of TNT3. How TNT began4. The main streams of TNT5. Recent developments in Tachyonic Networking and Computing6. Focus: The TachyNet - A clever solution of TNT7. Open problems and upcoming developments• References Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 8
  • 9. Format and Layout of Written HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE University of PaderbornAssignment Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• American English• Neutral style• 5-10 pages (pure text without title, references, and figures)• Accurate and correct citations and references• LATeX, BibTeX• Deliverables – LATeX source file – BibTeX file – Compiled PDF-output – As many referred text documents as possible • Electronically if possible • On paper if necessary Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 9
  • 10. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE1. The Mobile Internet University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• IP Tunneling• Mobile Ad-hoc Networks• Handhelds, PDA• UMTS, WAP Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 10
  • 11. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE2. P2P-Networks University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• 1st generation – Napster, Kazaa, Gnutella• Modern P2P-Networks – CAN, CHORD, Tapestry, …• Visit the lecture “Algorithmen für Peer-to-Peer-Netzwerke”• But do not copy (all) Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 11
  • 12. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE3. Web Caching University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Relieving hot spots in the Internet• Akamai• Distributed Hash Tables• Take a look into the script “Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2003 Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 12
  • 13. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE4. Web Search Engines University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Commercial systems – Google, Alltheweb, Altavista, etc – look at websearchengineshowdown.com• Algorithmic solutions – PageRank by Brin and Page (Google) – Kleinberg’s HITS-algorithm• Take a look into the script “Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2003 and 2004• Contact Peter Mahlmann! Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 13
  • 14. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE5. The Structure of the Web University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• The WWW is made by individuals• Yet the structure can be described by Pareto-distribution – number of links, size of connected components• The graph structure of the WWW• Take a look into the script “Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2002• Link to Web search machines Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 14
  • 15. 6. Security mechanisms of the HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE University of PaderbornInternet Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Are there any?• Is it all trust-based?• Start your investigations for the search of the missing crypto-layer of TCP/IP at the secure shell protocol Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 15
  • 16. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE7. Denial of Service Attacks University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• A new problem from the 90s• Solutions – Ingress filtering – Link testing – Logging – ICMP Trace back – Marking (!!!)• Take a look into the script “Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2003 Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 16
  • 17. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE8. Worms, Viruses, and SPAM University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Definition• How they spread• How they work• The perfect Antivirus-Software• An Immune-System for Computers Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 17
  • 18. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE9. Epidemic Algorithms University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Demers et al. – Epidemic algorithms for mirroring data bases – Idea: Spread information like a virus• Some analyses and new ideas by – Karp et al. 2001, Randomized Rumor Spreading• Take a look into the script “Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2002 Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 18
  • 19. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE10. The Domain Name System University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• What is it?• How does it work?• Why is it so stable?• Alternatives? Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 19
  • 20. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE11. Bandwidth Allocation of TCP University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Very classical problem of TCP/IP• Strangely enough network congestion in the Internet is healed in the transport layer and not in the network layer• Start with the scripts – Algorithmische Grundlagen des Internets”, Summer 2002 and 2003• Random early deletion (RED)• New TCP-allocation for Tera-Baud-connections Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 20
  • 21. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE12. Routing Algorithms of IP University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Start with the standard algorithms• There are lots of theoretical work of routing algorithms• Concentrate on such algorithms related to IP Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 21
  • 22. 13. Broadcasting and Multicasting HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE University of Paderbornin IP Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• IPv4 and IPv6 foresee multicasting• How does it work?• How can it be improved?• Is it possible to have TV on IP? Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 22
  • 23. 14. The self-organization of the HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE University of PaderbornInternet Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Official organizations of the Internet (IETF, …)• The Internet and its self-regulation – socially and technology based Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 23
  • 24. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUTE15. “Wild Card” University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian Schindelhauer• Did we miss something?• Take a hot topic of your choice within this area.• If everything fails, I’ll help. Seminar Algorithms of the Internet 24
  • 25. HEINZ NIXDORF INSTITUT University of Paderborn Algorithms und Complexity Christian SchindelhauerThanks and let’s go! Verteilte Algorithmen in Netzwerken 25