Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415

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  • 1. Front coverTape Automationwith IBMxSeries ServersSelecting an IBM xSeries automatedtape solution to meet your needsSetting up Tivoli Storage Manager,ARCserve, and Backup ExecIncludes the new 3600 LTOautoloader and library series Wim Feyants David Brown Frank Schallmoseribm.com/redbooks Redpaper
  • 2. International Technical Support OrganizationTape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries ServersDecember 2001
  • 3. Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Special notices” on page 107.First Edition (December 2001)This edition applies to tape subsystems supported by IBM for connection to IBM ^ xSeries servers.Comments may be addressed to:IBM Corporation, International Technical Support OrganizationDept. HZ8 Building 662P.O. Box 12195Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2195When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information inany way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2001. All rights reserved.Note to U.S Government Users - Documentation related to restricted rights - Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions setforth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  • 4. iii
  • 5. iv Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 6. Contents Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii The team that wrote this Redpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii IBM trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Do I need a tape library? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Tape library selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.1 Tape library capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.2 Number of tape drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter 2. Library Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.1 Linear Tape Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.2 Super Digital Linear Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 IBM 3600 automation products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.1 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2.2 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 IBM 3502 DLT automation products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.2 IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4 IBM 4mm automation product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4.1 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.5 Tape library comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.5.1 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.5.2 Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.3 Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.4 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.5 Form factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.5.6 Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5.7 Additional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.5.8 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.6 Supported solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Chapter 3. Software configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.1 Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.1.1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.1.3 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.1.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.1.5 Other tape usages within Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.2 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows 2000 / NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.2.1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.2.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.2.3 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 v
  • 7. 3.2.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.3 CA BrightStor ARCserve 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 3.3.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.3.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.3.3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Chapter 4. Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.2 Business recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.3 System recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.3.1 Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.3.2 Bare Metal Restore for TSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.3.3 BrightStor ARCserve Disaster Recovery Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.4 VERITAS Backup Exec Intelligent Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.5 St. Bernard Open File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.6 BrightStor ARCserve backup agent for open files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.3.7 VERITAS Backup Exec Open File Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.4 Application recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.5 Data recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Appendix A. TSM element numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 IBM 3502-x14 DLT Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 IBM 3502-108 DLT Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Autoloader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 106 IBM Redbooks collections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 106 Special notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107vi Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 8. Preface This Redpaper describes the current line of IBM xSeries tape automation products. These include the already existent 3502 DLT and DDS/4 series, as well as the new 3600 LTO series. We will discuss the need for tape products and libraries in particular, as well as give you library selection criteria. After describing the current products in details and positioning them to each other, we will provide information on how to use the tape libraries in conjunction with leading backup software. These include IBM’s Tivoli Storage Manager, CA ARCserve and Veritas Backup Exec.The team that wrote this Redpaper This Redpaper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. Wim Feyants is an IT Specialist working for IBM Global Services in Belgium. He is a certified Tivoli Storage Manager consultant and instructor. He has over six years’ experience in supporting and implementing Tivoli Storage Manager solutions, and has in-depth knowledge of tape systems and Storage Area Networks. His previous ITSO publications include the Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5218 and Using Tivoli Storage Manager in a SAN environment, SG24-6132. David Brown is a pre-sales Technical Specialist for xSeries Techline in the UK. His areas of expertise include storage and SAP solutions on xSeries. Before joining Techline, David worked as a Service Engineer with IBM Global Services. He has been with IBM for over five years. David is a Microsoft Certified Professional. Frank Schallmoser is a level 2 support specialist for IBM-Intel based servers and has specialized in tape products and backup software. He holds a degree in applied Physics from the Technical High School of Aachen department Juelich (Germany) and the University of Coventry (UK). Before he joined IBM UK in 1996, he worked for an IT company in Germany, setting up hardware, software and administrating Novell and UNIX networks. He is a co-author of IBM Tape Solutions for Storage Area Networks and FICON, SG24-5474. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Steve Russell ITSO Specialist, xSeries, IBM ITSO Raleigh Center, IBM Gail Christensen ITSO Editor, IBM ITSO Raleigh Center, IBM Paul Chenger xSeries Technology Lab, IBM Raleigh John Gates xSeries Storage Development, IBM Raleigh© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 vii
  • 9. Ron Hevener xSeries Tape Options test, IBM RaleighNotice This publication is intended to help storage and system administrators who are interested in or installing the current range of xSeries tape automation products.IBM trademarks The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: AFS® Redbooks™ AIX® Redbooks Logo™ DB2® S/390® DFS™ Sequent® e (logo)® Tivoli® Enterprise Storage Server™ WebSphere® FICON™ xSeries™ IBM® z/OS™ Informix™ Lotus® Magstar® Notes® MVS™ Domino™ Netfinity®Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our papers to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this Redpaper or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review Redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an Internet note to: redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to the address on page ii.viii Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 10. 1 Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library This chapter introduces the advantages and disadvantages of tape automation products. We look at the advantages of tape media compared to other removable media, and explain why tape automation products can help in reducing the total cost of ownership of your IT protection environment. In a second part, sizing and selecting a tape library is discussed. Establishing the correct capacity and performance requirements for a tape library can be very challenging. We look at different points that should be take into account, and provide some sizing examples.1.1 Introduction Tape media has a long history of offering high capacity at low cost when it comes to storing data. In the current storage environment, however, tape is becoming increasingly under pressure from other technologies. Storage devices such as CD-ROM drives, optical drives and hard disks have become dramatically cheaper, and these have some potential advantages for delivering reduced hardware costs for a backup solution. For many users, however, tape continues to be the media of choice, since it delivers features that are not available in the alternatives. These include: Lowest cost per bit of storage Tape media has an estimated cost of less than $5 per GB. Highest capacity per unit Comparing tape media to CD-R shows a massively higher capacity. For example an LOT cartridge is capable of holding 100 GB of data. Stored on CD-R media, this would require a total of 170 CDs. In the past, it has been assumed that tape media are unstable and slow. Where this was certainly true a few years ago, new technologies have dramatically improved reliability and performance.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 1
  • 11. Uses for tape devices differ, but most of them can be placed in the Storage Management arena of an enterprise. Storage management includes several disciplines, including: Data protection Data archiving Space management Data protection is probably the best known and most often implemented part of storage management. It includes backing up data, providing insurance against data loss. In today’s Intel server world there is a lot of information available on how to increase system reliability and availability. There are many solutions that help achieve this, including cluster solutions, RAID array solutions and Storage Area Networks (SAN). However, where these solutions provide assurance for system component failure, they do not protect against data loss due to application failures, human error or viruses. For this reason it is important that you have a backup strategy to provide the possibility to recover your data in the event of a failure. Backups not only secure your current data but also allow you the possibility to recover previous files that have been overwritten by newer versions. Data archiving is used to provide long term storage for important data. Most companies treat data from a legal point of view. Keeping that data in online storage such as disks is not the proper solution, due to high management costs. A better solution would be to place the data in offline storage, such as tapes. Important when implementing archive solutions is media stability. Tape media currently have an estimated life expectancy of 10 to 20 years, depending on the technology and storage conditions. Where this is enough for some documents, others might require longer retention periods. In that case, other data carriers like optical media, microfilm or even paper still need to be considered. A consideration for long-term storage is a factor called technology obsolescence. This indicates the possible problems that might arise when you are required to read a tape that has been created 20 years ago. Will you still have the required hardware available? Will it still work? Short-term archiving on the other hand is much more common, and ideally suited for low-cost storage. Imagine the case where you want to keep project data for a couple of years, but do not want to place it in online storage. In that case, tape media are ideal, especially when combined with archiving management software. Another, less common use of tape media is space management. The main purpose of space management is similar to short-term archiving of data. Both move unused or infrequently used data from disk storage to tape. The main difference is how moved data is handled. In the archiving solution, retrieving the data involves interaction with the storage manager. The user will need to request a retrieve of his archive data in order to consult it. With space management, this process becomes transparent to the user. When he requests his data, the space management software will automatically detect that it concerns migrated data. Next, the software will automatically recall the data from tape storage back to disk, where it can be consulted. The only inconvenience for the user requesting the data will be that it’s a bit slower to get his data. That is why most space management software use certain rules, for example the last access date, before moving data. Space management has been used for years on mainframe systems, such as MVS. In the open world, it has become more and more popular. When considering tape devices as secondary storage for space management, the most important factor is the data access time. This will typically require smaller capacity, but faster tape technology.2 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 12. 1.2 Do I need a tape library? The information in this section should help you to come to a decision on what type of tape product you require, whether this be a single tape drive or automated tape solution. Automated tape products are usually seen in two forms, the autoloader or the library. The autoloader is usually defined by the fact that it has only one tape drive. Another characteristic is the limited number of tape cartridges it can hold. The tape library has the same functionality as the autoloader, but it can host several tape drives and a much larger amount of tape cartridges. To make it easier, in the following discussion we refer to both of them as a tape library. Note: Although this Redpaper describes in detail only the available xSeries tape solutions, IBM offers a wide range of tape products, from entry level LTO, DLT and Magstar products to high-end enterprise libraries (3584 LTO and 3494 Magstar). When looking at the advantages and disadvantages of a tape library compared to manual tape drive implementation, the first topic will be cost. Although a tape library will have a higher initial cost than a single tape drive, it is the overall operational cost that needs to be considered. If you think about single-drive operations, you typically see a manual tape media replacement every day. In the worst case, however, you will outgrow the capacity of a single tape volume, requiring tape media replacements overnight. It is easily understandable that this is a costly operation. A solution without a tape library would be to add a second stand-alone drive, doubling the capacity without human intervention. Where this might look like viable solutions, think about some of the downsides: Where will you install the second tape device? Most current systems do not have the physical space to add a second tape drive, meaning that an external enclosure will be required. The cost of a second tape drive just to add capacity might be high. When comparing prices of tape libraries and tape devices, the additional cost of a tape library is typically around the price of a tape drive (high-end libraries differ from this equation). This means that two stand-alone tape drives would typically cost as much as a library with one drive. The complexity of manually managing two tape devices (times the number of systems equipped with tape devices) might lead to human errors. The tape library will solve this capacity problem by providing a seamless, automatic transition from one tape cartridge to another, without the need for human intervention. Also, the way media are handled is relative to their stability and reliability. Typically, mounting a tape cartridge in a single tape devices stresses the tape (tension, physical contact). With a single tape drive, media will typically be loaded by the end of business hours, allowing a nightly backup, and be unloaded the next morning. By automating this, the time the tape is mounted will be reduced to its required value, thus reducing possible media failures. Another advantage of a library is its scalability. Tape libraries typically offer the possibility to add tape devices, or sometimes cartridge slots, increasing the capacity and performance of the tape library. This leads us to the second major advantage of tape libraries when compared to single tape devices: performance. The number of tape devices is in direct relationship with the possible performance of a tape library. A question that can be asked is: does a tape library with two drives offer higher performance than two stand-alone tape drives? The answer is that there is no difference. But, keep the above discussion in mind: capacity plays an even more important Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 3
  • 13. role. If you require capacity that is larger than the one that fits on a single data cartridge, you will need two stand-alone drives. If you then need to double your performance, the resulting number of single tape devices is four. The same performance and capacity combination can be obtained by selecting a two-drive tape library, leading to a less expensive solution. A final but very important factor is centralization. As discussed above, tape libraries are the ideal solution for implementations that require high-capacity, high-performance backup devices. This allows to consolidate stand-alone tape backup solutions to a central backup server using a tape library. Advantages include lower operational and maintenance costs, better control and less need for backup skills. Instead of having the system administrators handle their own backup, one central service can manage the entire backup process. One of the disadvantages of a tape library compared to a single drive is its complexity in setup and management. Managing a tape library in an efficient way will call for more advanced software than that available in the operating system. However, these products typically add functions that simplify backup and tape management, making them a requirement for medium to large backup implementations.1.3 Tape library selection In this section, we look at some points that will help you in selecting the appropriate type of tape library or autoloader. These points mainly include the number of slots and the number of drives. There are some other features that might be important in selecting a library. Chapter 2, “Library Overview” on page 9 will provide you with a list of these additional features. They include connectivity possibilities, barcode scanners and input/output slots. Choosing the correct technology for your environment is also a very important step. However, this choice is mainly linked to capacity and performance requirements. The technology will become an additional variable in the capacity and performance calculations below.1.3.1 Tape library capacity Calculating the required capacity of a tape library is very important. It should include several factors, some more easily determined than others. Capacity of a library can be specified using two figures: the number of cartridges and the storage capacity of these cartridges. A first step in determining your capacity is to know which of the above two factors will be the determining one for your environment. An example of a backup that is oriented towards the number of cartridges would be a solution where you want to back up data from one day on one cartridge. If combined with the need to hold one week’s worth of backups in one library, this would mean that you require at least seven cartridges or slots in the library. Solutions more oriented towards total capacity are those where all backup data resides in the library at all times. The sum of the capacity of all cartridges should be greater than the expected amount of data that will be backed up. Unfortunately, sizing isn’t always that easy. It strongly depends on the types of uses of your library, the software product and the type of data that will be backed up. In addition, data tends to grow. This means that when calculating your required capacity, you should include a growth factor. The following sections provide you with some examples on which you can base your calculations. It is, however, advisable that you crosscheck your calculations with backup software and hardware experts before finalizing the decision.4 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 14. Sizing with tape rotationWill you use a tape rotation scheme, based on a full/incremental or full/differential pattern? Ifyes, what is the period between two full backups, and how long do you want to keep yourtapes in the library? The following is an example of calculating required library capacity.You intend to make a daily backup, using separate tapes per day, except for the weekend,where the backup for Saturday and Sunday is placed on the same tape or tapes. You want tokeep this data for two weeks. Next, you must determine if the daily backup fits on one singletape. At this point, the backup strategy becomes very important. You could choose between adaily full backup, a full backup with intermittent differentials or a full backup with intermittentincremental backups. We will use the following assumptions: A full backup requires two tape volumes. This assumption implies that you have decided on a certain tape technology, knowing the capacity of a single cartridge. Daily data change is 15%. This means that an incremental backup would require 10% of the full backup capacity. During the weekend, change is equal to one weekday (meaning 15% for the entire weekend). You base your strategy on a weekly full backup on Monday.The following table gives an overview of the different possibilities.Table 1-1 Calculating library capacity Day Full Full/Incremental Full/Differential Required Number of Required Required Number of Number of capacity tape capacity capacity tape tape cartridges cartridges cartridges Monday 2 2 2 2 2 2 Tuesday 2 2 0.3 1 0.3 1 Wednesday 2 2 0.3 1 0.6 1 Thursday 2 2 0.3 1 0.9 1 Friday 2 2 0.3 1 1.2 2 Saturday 2 2 0.3 1 1.5 2 Sunday Total 12 7 11 Cartridges requiredThe above table leads us to the following results: When you do a daily full backup, you will need to have 12 slots for a weekly change of the tapes. When doing a full/incremental backup, you only need 7 slots. This means that a 14 slot library could hold two weeks of backup.A final step in this example is to take the cleaning cartridge into account. This cartridge willtake up one slot, which needs to be added to the total number of tape slots. Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 5
  • 15. Sizing for online media A second example is the case of an always online solution for your tape media. This example can typically be used for a Tivoli Storage Manager implementation (see 3.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 31). This solution implies that the software manages your tapes, cleaning them when they become empty. By doing this, tapes become available for overwrite operations. Let’s start from the following backup strategy: A full backup requires one tape. Only the first backup is a full backup. All the other backups will be incremental backups. An incremental backup equals 10% of a full backup. You keep five versions of a file. There is no requirement to place daily incremental backups on separate cartridges, meaning that you can use cartridge to almost 100%. The first approach is the best case scenario: one full backup, plus a daily incremental, which keeps five versions. This means that you need 1 cartridge, and four days of 10% of the full backup, meaning 0.4 cartridges. This totals to 1.4 cartridges in total. There is one factor however that is not taken into account in the previous calculation, namely the fact that the 10%¨daily change may not be equal to the 10% change of previous days. And this leads us to the worst case scenario: what if the 10% daily backup represents different data each day? In that case, the required capacity over time would be equal to two times the total required capacity, totaling two cartridges. The above two examples should indicate the difficulty in sizing a library. There are numerous different variables, each playing their role in the final required capacity. That is why the actual decision on a correct library size should be preceded by a study of the required backup strategy and environmental data.1.3.2 Number of tape drives Where calculating capacity was difficult, and required a lot of assumptions, calculating the number of tape devices required is a bit easier. The required number of tapes depends on two factors: Functional requirements Performance requirements Functional requirements indicate the need for a certain number of drives to perform certain operations. Tivoli Storage Manager, for example, requires at least two tape drives when you need to make tape copies for offline storage. Performance requirements follow out of the available time to perform backup operations. If you need to back up a certain amount of data in a certain amount of time, called the backup window, you can easily calculate the required throughput. Since the potential throughput of a tape library is in direct relation to the number of tape drives, the equation is easily made. There is, however, one important factor that needs to be considered: there is a difference between the streaming mode throughput of a tape drive (the published figure), and the actual throughput when working in combination with backup software. That is why you should again analyze your environment and ask your software supplier for case studies or performance reports, which can be related back to your environment.6 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 16. This completes the introduction to the need and selection of a tape library. For additionalinformation, please refer to the following publications: Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5218 The IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Libraries Guide, SG24-5946 IBM Tape Solutions for Storage Area Networks and FICON, SG24-5474 Implementing IBM LTO Tape in Linux and Windows, SG24-6268 Using IBM LTO Ultrium with Open Systems, SG24-6502 IBM Magstar Tape Products Family: A Practical Guide, SG24-4632-03 Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 7
  • 17. 8 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 18. 2 Chapter 2. Library Overview This chapter discusses the features of tape automation products. These include: Tape drive technology Library capacity Performance information Interfaces Additional features Product comparison Supported solutions In addition, this chapter provides an overview of the current IBM tape automation solutions for IBM xSeries servers. We also describe the hardware installation and configuration. Specifically, the following tape libraries are covered: “IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader” on page 14 “IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library” on page 15 “IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader” on page 19 “IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library” on page 20 “IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader” on page 212.1 Technology As we see more and more tape products appear on the market, some of them using new technologies, it is important to know about these products and understand what each offers in terms of performance, capacity, growth, investment protection and connectivity. This section provides an overview of the technologies that are available from the tape automation products for IBM xSeries range. We discuss the newer tape technologies, mainly the Linear Tape Open (LTO) and the Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT). For other existing technologies, for example Digital Linear Tape (DLT) and Digital Audio Tape (DAT), see Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5216.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 9
  • 19. Note: Throughout this document we will no longer refer to DAT but instead to Digital Data Storage Four (DDS/4). This is the recording format that is currently used on DAT drives and as such indicates the standard of the product.2.1.1 Linear Tape Open LTO (Linear Tape Open) is a joint IBM, HP and Seagate initiative to create new tape standards in the Open System markets. The group developed the formats to serve multiple market areas and to be supported by multiple suppliers. Licenses are available to all manufacturers for the two formats based on the technology: Ultrium, a single-reel implementation, optimized for high capacity, that offers up to 200 GB of capacity assuming a 2:1 compression ratio (100 GB native) Accelis, a dual-reel implementation, designed for fast access, that offers smaller capacity, at 25 GB, but with data retrieval in under 10 seconds. Magstar technologies are at the foundation of the LTO specifications. This includes the extension of the Magstar method of writing data, the linear serpentine Magstar track recording, an enhanced servo tracking mechanism based on the Magstar MP servo system, a compression scheme derived from the same algorithm as the Magstar LZ1 algorithm, error correction code based on the Magstar architecture, magnetically sensitive highly stable metal particle media used in Magstar today, and the implied use of MR heads already in the Magstar products. An important fact regarding SAN implementation is the provision of a native Fibre Channel interface that will be available on products of the LTO format. This lifts the need for SAN data gateways or SCSI to Fibre Channel routers, and enhances connectivity possibilities using direct switch attachment. Note: Native Fibre Channel tape devices still use the arbitrated loop implementation (FC-AL) of the Fibre Channel protocol. Since some switches do not support these loop ports, ensure that your switch is capable of using FC-AL devices before attaching tape devices. If you do not have support, an intermediate switch might be necessary. The LTO Ultrium format The Ultrium tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for high capacity and performance with outstanding reliability, in either a stand-alone or an automated environment. The Ultrium tape format uses a single reel cartridge to maximize capacity. It is ideally suited for backup, restore, and archival applications. The LTO cartridges will load in a manner similar to DLT. Here are the basic specifications of the Ultrium tape format: The first generation of Ultrium allows for 100 GB native capacity in a single compact cartridge. The cartridge is smaller than existing single-reel tape cartridges. Ultrium provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps. Cartridge memory (LTO-CM) enhances functionality by providing a non-contacting passive radio frequency (RF) interface embedded in the cartridge, allowing information retrieval (calibration information, manufacturers data and information about initialization). The advantage is that this information can be retrieved without having to load the tape. Data integrity features include two levels of error correction that can provide recovery from longitudinal media scratches. Read-While-Write (RWW) capability allows real-time verification of written data.10 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 20. Table 2-1 provides an overview of possible future enhancements to the Ultrium format.Table 2-1 LTO Ultrium roadmap Generation 11 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Capacity 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB 800 GB Transfer rate2 10-20 MBps3 20-40 MBps 40-80 MBps 80-160 MBps Recording Format RLL 1,7 PRML PRML PRML Media MP MP MP Thin Film Notes: 1. The current products are first-generation products. 2. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 200 GB capacity and a 20-40 MBps transfer rate for first-generation Ultrium tapes. 3. The LTO standard allows transfer speeds ranging from 10 to 20 MBps in native mode. The currently available products from IBM typically perform at 15 MBps. Note: All the capacity and performance figures given for the LTO Ultrium and Accelis formats suppose the use of 8-head devices. The LTO standard also supports 4-head devices, which are less common on the market. The consequence of using only 4 heads instead of 8 is that the capacity and performance figures must be divided by two.AccelisThe Accelis tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for fast access todata. It uses a two-reel cartridge that loads at the middle of the tape to minimize access time.The Accelis tape format is targeted at automated environments and can enable a wide rangeof online data inquiry and retrieval applications. Data transfer speed is comparable to theUltrium format. At this point, no devices are available that use the Accelis tape format. The first generation of Accelis allows 25 GB native capacity. A self-enclosed tape path in the cartridge eliminates tape threading, which greatly improves time to first data byte. Cartridges are loaded in the middle of the tape rather than at the beginning, reducing average search time for random files. Accelis provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps in the first generation. Accelis is ideal for library use, with high-speed access to relatively short files. Accelis is suited for applications such as data mining and image retrieval, as well as traditional backup/restore. Cartridge memory (LTO-CM) enhances functionality by providing a non-contacting passive radio frequency (RF) interface embedded in the cartridge, allowing information retrieval (calibration information, manufacturers data and information about initialization). The advantage is that this information can be retrieved without having to load the tape. Data integrity features include two levels of error correction that can provide recovery from longitudinal media scratches. Read-While-Write (RWW) capability allows real-time verification of written data. Chapter 2. Library Overview 11
  • 21. Table 2-2 LTO Accelis roadmap Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Capacity1 25 GB 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB Transfer rate1 10-20 MBps 20-40 MBps 40-80 MBps 80-160 MBps Recording Format RLL 1,7 PRML PRML PRML Media MP MP MP Thin Film Data access time < 10 sec < 8 sec < 7 sec < 7 sec Notes: 1. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 200 GB capacity and 20-40 MBps transfer rate for first-generation Ultrium tapes. For more information on the LTO products and technology, see: http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/lto/lto.htm http://www.lto.org2.1.2 Super Digital Linear Tape Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT) is the next generation of DLT. SDLT offers major advantages over existing DLT in both tape capacity and data transfer rates. It is also backward read-write compatible with all DLT IV tape formats. DLT IV includes DLT7000 (35/70 GB) and DLT 8000 (DLT 40/80 GB) formats. SDLT increases tape capacity to 110 GB per cartridge, doubling that of the DLT8000 format, while data transfer rates have also increased from 6 MBps to around 11 MBps. These figures are applicable for the current available release of the SDLT technology, called SDLT 220. Note: All figures are native, non-compressed mode. Compression rate is 2:1 so capacity and performance will double. Some of the SDLT improvements over existing DLT are explained below: Laser Guided Magnetic Recording (LGMR) Previous magnetic servo tracking methods used some of the recording side of the tape to store the track information, which took up tracks that can now be used for data. By combining optical and magnetic technology, LGMR increases performance and capacity by using the back of the tape for optical servo tracking, leaving the entire media side of the tape free for recording data. Pivoting Optical Servo (POS) The optical servo pivots around a single mounting point which allows the LGMR system to easily align the magnetic heads for reading and writing to the tape. This ensures immunity from vibrations, allowing higher tape speeds. Magneto-Resistive Cluster (MRC) heads Densely packed heads use a thin-film processing technology to increase transfer rates and data capacity. Also the entire head is now used for read/write operations and no longer for servo use since this is done optically.12 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 22. New buckler design Where the buckler design of the DLT IV tapes was a regular source of tape breakdown the SDLT tapes provide a new buckling mechanism that is more reliable. See: http://www.quantum.com/NR/rdonlyres/000001c0lgzhcytizmgzqqio/wptapehandling.pdf As with LTO formats, Quantum has designed a roadmap for its SDLT product line. Table 2-3 provides an overview of the specifications of future SDLT generations. Table 2-3 SDLT product roadmap Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 SDLT 2201 SDLT 320 SDLT 640 SDLT 1280 SDLT 2400 Capacity2 110 GB 320 GB 640 GB 1280 GB 2400 GB Transfer Rate2 11 MBps 16 MBps 32 MBps 50 MBps 100 MBps Media SDLT I SDLT I SDLT II SDLT III SDLT IV Availability date 2001 2002 2004 2005 2007 Note: 1. This is the currently available product. 2. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 220 GB capacity and a 22 MBps transfer rate for SDLT 220 devices. For more information on SDLT technology see: http://www.dlttape.com/Technology/Default.htm http://www.quantum.com/Products/Quantum+l+DLTtape/SDLT+220/Default.htm Currently, IBM does not offer a tape automation product that uses the SDLT 220 drives, but rather the SDLT 220 single tape drive. For more information, see: http://www.pc.ibm.com/ww/eserver/xseries/tape.html2.2 IBM 3600 automation products The 3600 LTO automation products expand the current range of automated tape products for the IBM xSeries Server range and offer improvements in speed, capacity and scalability. The products range from an entry level autoloader for smaller solutions to a scalable library to meet the demands of today’s fast-growing data requirements. The 3600 library also introduces native Fibre Channel connectivity as an option. Chapter 2. Library Overview 13
  • 23. Table 2-4 Overview of 3600 LTO automation products Model Number 3600 LTO autoloader 3600 LTO tape library 3600 LTO tape library 3600-109 3600-220 (tower) 3600-R20 (rack) Number of drives 1 LTO tape drive 1 LTO tape drive 1 LTO tape drive (2 maximum) (2 maximum) Maximum number of 9 20 20 cartridges Native capacity1 900 GB 2 TB 2 TB Connection type Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Optional Fibre NO YES YES Channel connection FC-AL interface FC-AL interface Expandable NO NO YES with up to two 3600-LXU units. Note: 1. The total capacity of the library can double using compression.2.2.1 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader The IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader (product number 3600-109) is a single-drive entry-level LTO automated product for moderate-to-high-sized data requirements. Although it provides no expandability, it is still capable of backing up 1.8TB of data. Figure 2-1 IBM 3600 Series 900GB/1.8TB Tape Autoloader The autoloader has the following features: Up to 900 GB total native capacity, 1.8 TB using 2:1 compression. Data transfer rate of 15 MBps native, 30 MBps with compression. A six-slot removable magazine and three fixed slots in the back of the autoloader. The autoloader is primarily designed as a tower. It can be installed in a rack on a fixed shelf. Each unit occupies 6U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front -anel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup and restore application software.14 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 24. The 3600 autoloader option kit includes the following items: The LTO tape autoloader assembly. A country-specific power cord. An external 4-meter LVD SCSI cable. Publications, including: – Online version of the user manual. – Quick Install Guide (English). One data cartridge. One cleaning cartridge. An external 1-meter LVD SCSI jumper cable. Barcode kit. An LVD external active SCSI terminator. Trial version of the VERITAS Backup Exec software. Trial version of the Computer Associates ARCserve software. Figure 2-2 provides an overview of the required connections for the 3600-109. SCSI Jumper Cable SCSI T Terminator To Host SCSI Cable Figure 2-2 Connecting the 3600-1092.2.2 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library The IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library exists as both a tower model (product number 3600-220) or as a rack model (product number 3600-R20). Both libraries can be upgraded from the standard one-drive configuration to a two-tape drive library. Each tape drive is capable of providing transfer rates of 15 MBps, giving a total of 108 GB per hour using two tape drives.The native capacity of 2 TB is obtained using 20 cartridges. The rack model, 3600-R20, can be expanded using the 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module (see “3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module” on page 17). With two of these expansion units, the total amount of tape drives can reach up to six, providing a total throughput of 324 GB per hour. The capacity expands to 60 cartridges, providing up to 6TB of data storage. Note: All figures are native, non-compressed mode. Chapter 2. Library Overview 15
  • 25. Figure 2-3 The IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library The library has the following features: Up to 2 TB total native capacity native, 4 TB using 2:1 compression. A data transfer rate of 15 MBps native, 30 MBps with compression. Two drawers, each with two removable magazines that both hold five cartridges. The library comes in two form factors, as a tower model or a rack model that occupies 5U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. A remote management card is included to provide remote manageability and diagnostics. Hot pluggable drives. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. Modular building block architecture for the tower model using the 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module. Up to two tape drives using the 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Option. Native Fibre Channel support using the IBM Fibre Tape Automation Adapter. The 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO tape library option kit includes the following items: LTO tape library assembly. Country-specific power cord. An external 4-meter LVD SCSI cable. Publications, including: – Online version of the user manual. – Quick Install Guide (English). One data cartridge. One cleaning cartridge. External 1-meter LVD SCSI jumper cable. Barcode kit. An LVD external active SCSI terminator. Trial version of the VERITAS Backup Exec software. Trial version of the Computer Associates ARCserve software. Figure 2-4 provides an overview of the required connections for the 3600-x20:16 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 26. SCSI Cable To Host T SCSI LAN Terminator SCSI Jumper CableFigure 2-4 Connecting the 3600-220 and 3600-R203600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander ModuleThe expander module, 3600-LXU, is only available in combination with the rack model of theIBM 3600 Series LTO Tape Library, or 3600-R20. Each expander module provides twodrawers with 20 cartridge slots, power supply, electronic circuits and picker assemblies. Eachexpander module adds 2 TB native or 4 TB compressed backup storage. A maximum of twoexpander modules are supported.The expander module has no tape drives installed by default. You must order the 3600 SeriesLTO Drive Upgrade Option for each additional drive that you want to install in an expandermodule. A maximum of two tape devices can be installed in each expander module.Figure 2-5 shows a full configuration of the 3600 LTO library, consisting of the followingoptions: The rack model of the 3600 Series LTO Tape Library (3600-R20) Two 3600 Series Expander Modules (3600-LXU) Five times the 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Option (2 for each expander module and one for the library) Chapter 2. Library Overview 17
  • 27. T 360 0-LXU S C S I C able SC SI To Host Term ina tor T 360 0-LXU LAN T 360 0-R 20 SC SI Jum per C able Figure 2-5 3600-R20 with additional LXU units and tape drives As shown in Figure 2-5, each expander module requires a separate SCSI connection to the host system. The reason for this requirement is that due to the speed of the LTO tape drives, only two devices must be connected on the same SCSI bus. This is mainly to avoid saturation of the SCSI bus. When you add expander modules without additional tape devices, there is no need to add SCSI connections to the host adapter. Figure 2-5 also shows that the LTO 3600 tape library can be connected to the customer’s LAN; this is for systems management purposes. The systems management card enables remote management and diagnostics of the tape library via a Web browser. IBM Fibre Tape Automation Adapter The Fibre Tape Automation Adapter is supported with either of the 3600 Series LTO tape libraries and expander units (when additional tape drives are attached). It acts as a Fibre Channel router to provide direct attachment to supported Fibre Channel host adapters and switches. Figure 2-6 provides a connection example of the library and expander units using the Fibre Tape Automation Adapter. As with the SCSI connector, you can only connect two tape drives per Fibre Channel card.18 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 28. Fibre Channel Cable T T SCSI Terminator T T LAN T T SCSI Jumper Cable Figure 2-6 Fiber cabling diagram With the fiber card now installed you have native fiber connectivity. We will discuss the possible connections to the SAN or host adapters (see “Connectivity” on page 26).2.3 IBM 3502 DLT automation products In this section we will discuss the 3502 DLT Tape Library and Autoloader to provide a brief overview of each product including performance and capacity. Additional information about the 3502 is provided in the redbook Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5216-01. Table 2-5 Overview of 3502 automation products Model number 3502-108 3502-314 and R14 Number of drives 1 DLT 7000 1 DLT 7000 standard 3 DLT 7000 maximum Max. number of cartridges 8 DLT Type IV 14 DLT tape IV Maximum capacity (native/ 280 GB / 560 GB 490 GB / 980 GB compressed) Connection type SCSI-2 single ended SCSI-2 single ended Upgradable No Only with 2 additional tape drives2.3.1 IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader The IBM 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader is a single-drive automated backup device. It has little or no expandability but it is an ideal product for customers looking for an entry-level automated solution using DLT 7000 technology. Chapter 2. Library Overview 19
  • 29. Figure 2-7 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader The IBM 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader has the following features: Up to 280 GB total capacity native, 560 GB with compression. Data transfer rate of 5 MBps native, 10 MBps using compression. Removable 6-cartridge magazine plus 2 fixed slots. The autoloader is primarily designed as a tower. It can be installed in a rack, however, using a fixed shelf. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. The 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader option kit includes the following items: The autoloader assembly. Country-specific power cord. A 3-meter SCSI cable. An 2940U2B SCSI adapter. User Manual. DLT data cartridge. DLT cleaning cartridge. 0.8 mm. (68-pin adapter) A 0.5 meter SCSI jumper cable. A 68-pin SCSI terminator. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.3.2 IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library The IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library offers greater performance and capacity than the DLT autoloader. It is available in both a tower model (product number 3502-314) and a rack model (product number 3502-R14). The tape library can be expanded by adding up to two additional tape drives using the drive upgrade option, potentially tripling the performance. Note: The 3502 DLT library has one tape drive installed by default. To add tape devices, you should order the 3502 tape drive upgrade option. DLT 8000 devices are not supported.20 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 30. Figure 2-8 The 3502-314 DLT Tape Library, tower model The IBM 3502-314/R14 Tape Library has the following features: Up to 560 GB total capacity native, 980 GB using compression. Data transfer rate of 5 MBps native, 10 MBps using compression. Two removable 7-cartridge magazines. The library comes in two form factors, as a tower and a rack that occupies 4U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for a wide variety of backup/restore software. The 3502-314/R14 DLT Tape Library option kit includes the following items: The library assembly. Country-specific power cord. A 3-meter SCSI cable. A 2940U2B SCSI adapter. User manual. DLT data cartridge. DLT cleaning cartridge. 0.8-mm (68-pin adapter) A 0.5 meter SCSI jumper cable. A 68-pin SCSI terminator. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.4 IBM 4mm automation product IBM has only one automated product for this format. It is the DDS/4 autoloader.2.4.1 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader The DDS/4 format is backward compatibly with the DDS/3 and DDS/2 formats. This product is primarily designed for low range servers and high end desktops/Intelli Stations who need a reliable backup device. The DDS/4 fits into an internal 5.25 inch media bay or the 3503-B1X external enclosure (Option P/N 09N4047). Chapter 2. Library Overview 21
  • 31. Table 2-6 Overview of DDS/4 autoloader Model number 120/240 GB DDS/4 tape 120/240 GB DDS/4 tape autoloader autoloader with 3503-B1X Number of drives 1 DDS/4 tape drive 1 DDS/4 tape drive Max. number of cartridges 6 6 Maximum capacity (native / 120 GB / 240 GB 120 GB / 240 GB compressed) Connection type Ultra -2 LVD SCSI Ultra -2 LVD SCSI Upgradable No No Figure 2-9 DDS/4 120/240GB Autoloader The IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader has the following features: Up to 120 GB total capacity native, 240 GB using compression. Data transfer rate of 3 MBps native, 6MBps using compression. A six-cartridge removable magazine. Internal installation in any standard 5.25-inch full-height bay. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. The 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader option kit includes the following items: The 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader A user manual. Mounting screws. Five data cartridges. A cleaning cartridge. Two cartridge magazines. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.5 Tape library comparison In this section, an overview is provided for all specifications relative to a tape automation product. The current available models will be compared.22 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 32. 2.5.1 Performance The performance of a tape library is normally defined using two parameters: The performance of the tape technology used within the library. The number of tape devices that can be installed in a library. To obtain the overall potential data throughput of a tape library, the throughput of the tape drives should be multiplied by the number of tapes available. Table 2-7 provides an overview of the total library data throughput. The data throughput rates provided describe the native speed. Table 2-7 Library throughput Number of Drive Library drives performance throughput 3600 LTO tape library (tower) Standard 1 15 MBps 15 MBps Maximum 2 15 MBps 30 MBps 3600 LTO tape library (rack) Standard 1 15 MBps 15 MBps Maximum 61 15 MBps 90 MBps 3600 Series tape autoloader 1 15 MBps 15 MBps 3502 DLT tape library Standard 1 5 MBps 5 MBps Maximum 3 5 MBps 15 MBps 3502 DLT tape autoloader 1 5 MBps 5 MBps DDS/4 tape autoloader 1 3 MBps 3 MBps Note: 1. The total of 6 drives can be obtained using 2 3600-LXU expander units. Where the throughput is definitely an indication of the possible transfer speed of a tape drive or library, there are some considerations that need to be taken. When comparing products that will operate in a given condition, the throughput is a valid comparison tool. It is, however, not an indication of what throughput speeds you will obtain in the final setup. Several other factors play a role, including: Search time required to locate data and position a tape. Type of data transferred. Tape devices are typically optimized for data streaming, which means that data will flow continuously from or to the tape drive. If the used environment is characterized by a large number of small files, this streaming will probably not take place. The resulting transfer rate will be smaller. This becomes increasingly more important when trying to use the total throughput of the library. In the case of a fully configured 3600 LTO library for example, the 90 MBps rate can only be obtained if the host is able to stream the data to all six drives at the same time. If multiple tape mounts are required, the time required to mount a tape in a drive becomes an important value. This value is a function of the following points: – Time required to locate a volume and position the picker. – Time to move volume from the slot to the tape devices. – Time required to load and position the tape volume in the tape devices. Chapter 2. Library Overview 23
  • 33. 2.5.2 Capacity The capacity of a autoloader or library is dictated by the number of cartridges that it can hold and the tape technology used. As with the throughput values, the total capacity can be calculated by multiplying the number of available slots by the capacity of the cartridges used. Table 2-8 provides an overview of the total library capacity. The values provided describe the native capacity. Table 2-8 Library capacity Number of Cartridge Library slots capacity capacity 3600 LTO tape library (tower) 20 100 GB 2 TB 3600 LTO tape library (rack) 20 100 GB 2 TB 3600 LTO tape library (rack) with two 60 100 GB 6 TB 3600-LXU units 3600 Series tape autoloader 9 100 GB 900 GB 3502 DLT tape library 14 35 GB 490 GB 3502 DLT tape autoloader 8 35 GB 280 GB DDS/4 tape autoloader 6 20 GB 120 GB As with the data throughput values, there are some considerations that are important: Since tape libraries typically operate in a low-maintenance environment, you should add a cleaning tape to the library. This means that the number of available slots should bbe lowered by the number of cleaning cartridges (typically 1). In some situations, you will not use the entire capacity of a cartridge. For example, when you want to group all backup data of one client system on a cartridge, you could end up with a large amount of cartridges that are not fully used. Therefore, you should understand the use of your library, and base the decision about capacity on either the total data capacity or the number of available slots.2.5.3 Compression Where compression is not really a tape library factor, but more dependent on the tape technology used, it is commonly used when describing library capacity and performance. The current available tape product in the xSeries range use a compression algorithm that will typically double the capacity and performance. Care should be taken, however, when taking this compression factor into account. This because it strongly depends on the type of data that is written to the tape. Hardware tape compression is basically the same as normal software compression. The only difference is that hardware compression will be performed by the tape’s firmware, rather than by the host sending the data. The result is that files that are already compressed at the origin will not gain from hardware compression.2.5.4 Scalability When selecting a library, a customer is always faced with the problem of data growth. Since the capacity and performance needs will be largely based on the amount of data that needs to be placed on tape media, having a valid figure is very important. However, due to recent surges in data use, determining future needs has become increasingly difficult. A possible solution is to invest in a library that largely exceeds current needs, but is capable of coping with the projected data growth.24 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 34. The problem with this decision is that the investment required is much higher. Another, more reasonable solution would be to choose a library that can grow over time, meaning that there is the possibility to add tape devices (increasing performance) or capacity. Table 2-9 shows the expansion possibilities available for the current libraries. Table 2-9 Library expansion possibilities Capacity Performance expansion Expansion 3600 LTO tape library (tower) No Yes 3600 LTO tape library (rack) Yes Yes 3600 Series tape autoloader No No 3502 DLT tape library No Yes 3502 DLT tape autoloader No No DDS/4 tape autoloader No No2.5.5 Form factor The form factor describes what a library’s physical dimensions and mounting possibilities are. In general, the following types of form factors exist: Tower or desktop models The models are mainly designed to stand close to the host system to which they are attached. They do not require an additional enclosure or rack. If required, most of these models can be integrated into a rack by using a rack shelf. Rack mountable models Rack models are designed to be integrated in a rack environment. The advantage of rack mounting a library is that the required footprint diminishes. In the case of libraries, however, the mounting possibilities are limited due to weight of the devices. Therefore, libraries should always be mounted as close to the bottom of the rack as possible. Internal devices Internal devices are intended to be integrated within the host itself, using 3.5 or 5.25 bays. There are also external enclosures available if required. Table 2-10 shows the form factors and possibilities for physical installation of the tape libraries. Table 2-10 Library form factors Product Form Factor Rack Units Number 3600 LTO tape library (tower) 3600-220 Tower N/A 3600 LTO tape library (rack) 3600-R20 Rack 5 3600 Series tape autoloader 3600-108 Tower N/A 3502 DLT tape library (tower) 3502-314 Tower N/A 3502 DLT tape library (rack) 3502-R14 Rack 4 3502 DLT tape autoloader 3502-108 Tower N/A DDS/4 tape autoloader 5.25 full height N/A Chapter 2. Library Overview 25
  • 35. 2.5.6 Connectivity The possibilities we have connecting the library to the host system is called connectivity. Besides the standard SCSI connectivity, SAN attachment is becoming more and more important. There are many reasons for this, ranging from offloading network traffic to a SAN with LAN free solutions, sharing the backup device between servers (tape pooling) or distant disaster recovery solutions, to backing up data off ite or to and from other locations. SAN connectivity through the Fibre Channel protocol can be obtained using two methods: Direct attachment of the devices. Attachment through separate components, called gateways or routers. Table 2-11 provides an overview of the connectivity options for the different libraries. Table 2-11 Library connectivity SCSI interface SAN Connectivity 3600 LTO tape library LVD Fibre Channel Tape Automation adapter 3600 Series tape autoloader LVD Not supported 3502 DLT tape library SE IBM SAN Data Gateway SCSI Tape Router (2108-R03 and Feature Code 2840) 3502 DLT tape autoloader SE IBM SAN Data Gateway SCSI Tape Router (2108-R03 and Feature Code 2840) DDS/4 tape autoloader LVD Not supported The following two diagrams provide an overview of connectivity options using Fibre Channel connections. Figure 2-10 shows the connectivity using the integrated Fibre Channel connections available on the 3600 Series tape libraries. Connections can be made using point-to-point mode, or libraries can be directly attached to the SAN fabric. noit aru gifnoC hctiw S & buH revres seireSx lennahC erbiF hctiwS ro buH )troppus LA-CF( )tp 61 & 8( noit aru gifnoC tnio P-ot- tnio P elbaC lennahC erbiF = revres seireSx troppus taht sUXL & seirarbiL retpada rebif Figure 2-10 Native fiber configuration options26 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 36. For tape devices that don’t support native fiber connections, you will need additional hardware to provide fiber connectivity. For this, IBM offers a range of SAN data gateway products. These products will offer some investment protection for customers who don’t wish to purchase new tape products, but require some of the functionality that they provide. noi t ar u gifnoC noi tcennoC tceriD revres seireSx yawetaG ataD epat ISCS yrarbil /redaolotua elbaC lennahC erbiF = noit aru gifnoC hctiw S & bu H elbaC ISCS = revres seireSx lennahC erbiF yawetaG ataD epat ISCS hctiwS ro buH yrarbil /redaolotua )tp 61 & 8( Figure 2-11 SCSI configuration options2.5.7 Additional features Additional features that might help you in determining the correct library are the following: Barcode scanner A barcode scanner allows the use of barcode labels on tapes. The advantage of this is that every library inventory operation will be faster, since the library does not have to read each tape label physically by mounting it in the drive. The current range of xSeries libraries all include barcode readers, except for the 3502-108 DLT autoloader and the 4mm DDS/4 autoloader. Input/output ports I/O ports are predefined slots in a library where volumes are moved when check-in or checkout operations occur. The advantage is that the library does not need to be opened to handle these volumes, ensuring continuity of operations. Other names for I/O slots include entry/exit ports and mail slots. Currently, only the 3600 library (3600-220 and R20) have this functionality.2.5.8 Summary Figure 2-12 on page 28 shows each product and its relative position in comparison to the other automated solutions available for IBM xSeries servers. With the range of products available, there is always going to be an overlap. Let’s look at an example. Although the performance of the 3600 tape autoloader and the 3600 tape library are the same in terms of Chapter 2. Library Overview 27
  • 37. throughput, the 3600 tape library has the capacity to hold an additional tape or additional tapes if using the Library Expander Module (LXU), which is available for the rack mount library, to provide greater throughput. This is one reason that the library has been positioned above the autoloader. Another reason would be capacity. The figure also shows the market position of each product but this will change as customer requirements change, especially as storage requirements continue to grow, and new products are announced. Here we are only referring to those products offered as options by IBM xSeries servers and how IBM markets those products within this range. One other point to note: when we previously described some of the machines as entry-level products we didn’t necessarily mean that they are low-end solutions. For example, the LTO autoloader is an entry-level solution with regards to LTO tape products, but is not a low-end solution. Entry-level products are generally less complex machines; therefore they make excellent first-time automation products for customers who require greater capacity than a single tape drive can provide. Throughput High 3600-220/R20 Medium 3600-109 Low 3502-314/R14 3502-108 DDS/4 Autoloader Capacity Figure 2-12 Product positioning Table 2-12 provides a summary of all the topics discussed in the above sections.28 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 38. Table 2-12 Product comparison SCSI Form Data No. of Capacity Backup Rate1 interface factor cartridges drives (native/ (native/ (max) (std./max compressed) compressed) ) 3600 Series 2/4TB LTO LVD 2 Tower 20 1/2 2/4 TB 15/30 MBps Tape Library (Tower) 3600 Series 2/4TB LTO LVD 2 5U Rack 603,4 1/63,4 6/12 TB 3,4 15/30 MBps Tape Library (Rack) 3600 Series 900GB/1.8TB LVD 2 Tower 9 1/1 900 GB/1.8 15/30 MBps LTO Tape Autoloader TB 3502-314 DLT Tape Library SE Tower 14 1/3 490/980 GB 5/10 MBps (Tower) 3502-R14 DLT Tape Library SE 4U Rack 14 1/3 490/980 GB 5/10 MBps (Rack) 3502-108 DLT Tape SE Tower 6 1/1 280/560GB 5/10 MBps Autoloader 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape 16 Ultra2 5.25” FH 5 1/1 120/240 GB 3/6 MBps Autoloader LVD Notes: 1. Transfer rates are for single SCSI channel configurations. Tape libraries utilizing split library or dual host configurations may obtain higher rates. Data compression typically provides a 2X improvement in capacity and transfer rate, bur since data compression is affected by many factors, actual improvements may be more or less than 2X. 2. This is the standard connection. However, there is a fiber adapter option. This adapter installs in a 3600 Series Tape Library to allow native fiber connectivity. Each adapter supports up to two LTO drives. 3. Maximum configuration includes two 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Modules and additional LTO tape drive options. 4. The 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module must be installed by IBM service. This installation service is included without additional charge. It is supported only with the 3600 Series LTO Tape Library (Rack) P/N 21P99xx. One additional EIA space has to be allowed when installing either one or two units (maximum) to accommodate a filler plate for cable routing. Up to two 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Options can be installed in each module or the module can operate off the LTO drives installed in the LTO tape library.2.6 Supported solutions The final step before selecting your autoloader or library is to make sure it is a certified and supported solution. Up-to-date support information can be found at the following Web sites: For Serverproven for tape backup solutions: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/tmatrix.html For Serverproven for SAN solutions: ftp://ftp.pc.ibm.com/pub/pccbbs/pc_servers/nfsansol5.pdf Serverproven general Web site: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat Chapter 2. Library Overview 29
  • 39. 30 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 40. 3 Chapter 3. Software configuration This chapter discusses the installation and configuration of additional software products that can be used to manage your backup and restore operations and control your library. The following software products are discussed: “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 31 “VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows 2000 / NT” on page 67 “CA BrightStor ARCserve 2000” on page 823.1 Tivoli Storage Manager This section describes the concepts and installation of the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) product, which integrates backup, archive and space management functions. Backup and restore Backup enables you to save copies of files on the Tivoli Storage Manager server. The TSM server will keep a predefined number of versions of a file in its storage repository. From a client, you can restore files that have been backed up to the TSM server. During a restore, TSM copies the backup version from the TSM server to your client. Restore enables you to recover a single file or an entire file system. Archive and retrieve Archive enables you to save copies of files for some period of time on the TSM server. Archive copies are never replaced with more current versions (as is the case with backups). They are preserved exactly as you store them. The process of restoring the archive packages is called retrieve.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 31
  • 41. TSM Server Database TSM Server Archive Retrieve Backup Restore TSM Server Storage Pools TSM Clients Figure 3-1 Tivoli Storage Manager components Tivoli Storage Manager manages your storage media based on a set of policies, which you can customize for different types of data and groups of users. You can also automate some operations, such as client backups and server database backups. TSM provides a wide range of versions for different platforms. Server platforms include Windows NT and 2000, AIX, Sun Solaris, HP UNIX and MVS. Client platforms include Windows platforms, Linux, Novell NetWare, AIX, HP UNIX and Sun Solaris. For details on other supported client platforms, please refer to: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/requirements.html The Tivoli Storage Management product set includes the following: Tivoli Storage Manager server The TSM server is the central component of the Tivoli Storage Management suite. The TSM server is responsible for storing and managing all client data. The server consists of the following three major components: – Server application code – The server database The TSM server database will be the heart of the entire TSM installation. All information about configuration and stored client data will be centralized in this database. The database is a relational database (proprietary), which has all major functions supported by relational database systems. This includes transaction logging, backup, point-in-time recovery and roll-forward capabilities. In addition, the database supports access through ODBC drivers (read-only) for reporting purposes. – The server’s storage pools Whereas the TSM server database stores all the meta or control data, the TSM server will make use of so-called storage pools to store the actual client data. These storage pools are made up of physical media, which can range from disks to tapes to optical devices.32 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 42. Administrative interfacesThe administrative interface component is used to configure and administer the TSMserver. TSM provides three types of administrative interfaces:– The Web administrative interface– The command line interface (CLI)– A plug-in into the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) interfaceThese interfaces can be used locally (on the TSM server), as well as on remotely networkconnected workstations. The Web administrative interface has the advantage that no codeis required on the workstation from where the TSM server is controlled. The CLI is onlyavailable when the code is installed. The CLI code is part of the TSM client installationpackage.TSM Backup/Archive clientThe Backup/Archive client component is installed on the TSM client systems. Its mainpurpose is to provide backup, restore, archive and retrieve functions.The TSM client is composed of the following components:– Backup/Archive GUI interface, allowing user-controlled backups, restores, archives and retrieve.– Command line interface, which can be used for batch processing.– A scheduler service, allowing automation of all client functions.– A Web Client Interface. This is a Java-based application that allows you to remotely run the Backup/Archive GUI clients.Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager (DRM)This product enables you to create a disaster recovery plan, which can be used to set up arecovery plan for both the TSM server as well as the TSM clients. Note: The DRM component provides a tool to automatically create TSM client and TSM server recovery plans, based on the information stored on the TSM server. It does not provide a tool for complete system recovery. If this function is required, TSM proposes a third-party add-on, called Bare Metal Restore for TSM. For more information, please see: http://www.tkg.com/products/baremetal/tivoli/baremetal_tivoli.phpFor more information concerning DRM, please see:http://www.tivoli.com/products/index/disaster_recover_mgrTivoli Space ManagerTivoli Space Manager uses hierarchical storage management (HSM) to automatically andtransparently migrate infrequently accessed files to the TSM server while more frequentlyused files remain in local file systems for fast access. When a user requires access to amigrated file, it will be automatically recalled from the TSM server’s storage.Tivoli provides a space management client for several UNIX platforms, and providessupport for Windows NT and 2000 space management clients in combination with aproduct called OTG DiskXtender.For more information on OTG DiskXtender, see:http://www.otg.com/tivoli/ Chapter 3. Software configuration 33
  • 43. Tivoli Data Protection for application clients These products enable you to back up and restore specific applications. Currently, the following applications can be backed up through these application clients: – Tivoli Data Protection for IBM Enterprise Storage Server (ESS) – Tivoli Data Protection for EMC Symmetrix – Tivoli Data Protection for NDMP – Tivoli Data Protection for WebSphere – Tivoli Data Protection for Informix – Tivoli Data Protection for Lotus Domino (including the S/390 edition) – Tivoli Data Protection for Microsoft Exchange Server – Tivoli Data Protection for Microsoft SQL Server – Tivoli Data Protection for Oracle – Tivoli Data Protection for R/33.1.1 Concepts All client data that is managed by TSM is stored in the TSM storage repository. This repository can consist of different storage devices, such as disk, tape, or optical devices, and controlled by the TSM server. To do so, TSM uses its own model of storage to view, classify, and control these storage devices, and to implement its storage management functionality. The main difference between the storage management approach of TSM and other commonly used systems is that the TSM concentrates on managing data objects instead of managing and controlling backup tapes. Data objects can be sub-file components (a sub-file is part of an entire file), files, directories or raw logical volumes that are backed up from the client systems. They can be objects such as tables or records from database applications, or simply a block of data that a client system wants to store on the servers storage. To store these data objects on storage devices and to implement storage management functions, TSM has defined some logical entities to classify the available storage resources. Most important is the logical entity called a storage pool. A storage pool describes a storage resource for one single type of media, such as a disk partition or a set of tape cartridges. Storage pools are the place where data objects are stored. A storage pool is made up of one or more storage pool volumes. For example, in the case of a tape storage pool, this would be a single physical tape cartridge. To describe how TSM can access those physical volumes to place the data objects on them, TSM has another logical entity called a device class. A device class is connected to a storage pool and specifies how volumes of this storage pool can be accessed. TSM organizes storage pools in one or more hierarchical structures. This storage hierarchy can span multiple server instances, and is used to implement management functions to migrate data objects automatically — completely transparent to the client — from one storage hierarchy level to another; or in other words, from one storage device to another. This function may be used, for example, to cache backup data (for performance reasons) onto a TSM server disk space before moving the data to tape cartridges. The actual location of all data objects is automatically tracked within the server database. Another important storage management function implemented within the TSM server is the ability to copy data objects asynchronously and to store them in different storage pools or on different storage devices, either locally at the same server system or remotely on another server system. It is especially important for disaster recovery reasons to have — in the event of losing any storage media or the whole storage repository — a second copy of data available somewhere in a secure place. This function is fully transparent to the client, and can be performed automatically within the TSM server.34 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 44. The storage pools themselves are defined in a so-called storage hierarchy. This allows TSMto set up a chain of storage pools that contain the client’s data. The storage pools hierarchy ismainly used as follows:1. A client’s data will initially go to a disk storage pool (defined in the clients data copy group). The advantage of writing data first to disk and then to tape is not mainly due to performance reasons (however, with some older tape technology and the required time for tape mounts in a library this can play a role), but to limit the amount of required tape drives. A tape device is typically a single session storage device. This means that only one process can write data to the tape at one moment in time. Since this process is the backup or archive process in TSM, this would mean that if concurrent backup or archive processes for different clients would be required, the number of required tape devices would be equal to the number of these concurrent client processes. A disk device, however, is multi-session, meaning that different clients can write data to the same disk device at once. So, by defining a disk storage pool as the initial storage pool, you are allowing multiple client sessions independent of the number of tape devices available.2. Since the initial disk storage pool cannot be created as big as required to hold all the client’s data, the data should be moved to another storage pool, which will typically be a tape storage pool. This movement between storage pools is called migration. Migration is controlled by setting a high and low threshold on the lower storage pool. Whenever the occupancy of this lower storage pool goes above this high threshold, the TSM server will automatically start a migration, and move data to the next storage pool. This movement will continue until the low-level threshold is reached. This migration process is totally independent of the client processes, and is therefore considered asynchronous to the initial data movement from client to server.Some additional considerations on using tape storage with TSM are due to the fact that TSMdoes not work with so-called backup sets or tape rotation schemes, nor does it call for anintermittent full backup. TSM will manage the client’s data entirely by itself based on thedefined policies. This means that the tapes used within TSM dont have a predefined life.A consequence of this is that good TSM design calls for availability of all tapes. This allowsyou to do a restore of any version of a file without user intervention. This means that you needto have enough storage slots within the tape library. A second consideration is that since alltapes remain on site (in the tape library or close to it), there is no off-site copy in case of adisaster. To provide this possibility, TSM uses copy storage pools. Copy storage pools aresimilar to primary storage pools, but contain a copy of the data in the primary storage pools.So, these tapes can be stored in an off-site location, and can be used in case of a disaster. Asecond more common use of copy tapes is when a tape in a primary storage pool becomesdefective.Figure 3-2 shows an overview of the main data movement in a TSM environment: Chapter 3. Software configuration 35
  • 45. TSM Client Backup Data Disk Storage Pool Copy Storage Pool Backup Stgpool TSM Server Migration Tape Storage Pool Backup Stgpool Storage Hierarchy Figure 3-2 Data movement The definition of a tape storage pool making use of a tape library is as follows (details on how to do this will follow later): 1. Define the tape library that you will use, giving it a logical device name by which it will be known to TSM (for example: IBM_3600). 2. Define the type of tape devices located in the tape library you just defined. This is called a Device Class. As with the library, the device class you define will need a name, which is user defined. Besides the type of devices, you can also define additional physical parameters, such as the number of mount points (a mount point is a logical drive associated with a physical drive; the number of mount points for a device class is determined by the mount limit for that class) and the tape format used. It is possible to define more than one device class within one tape library. This might be useful when using a library device that supports more than one type of tape devices within a library. 3. Define the tape drives located within the library defined in step 1. Again, you should name the tape drive. 4. Define a storage pool that will use the class of devices defined in step 2. This means that there is no direct link between the storage pool and the tape devices that will be used. The device class definition can therefore also be seen as a barrier between the physical part of the TSM servers storage and the logical part. Include the storage pool in the TSM server storage hierarchy. A tape, or sequential, storage pool can be used for the following purposes: – As a next storage pool of another storage pool (most common). – As a direct destination of a client’s data (less common). – As a copy storage pool, used to store security copies of primary storage pools. 5. Add space to the sequential storage pool. This is done by adding volumes to a storage pool. TSM makes a difference between volumes associated to a storage pool and tape volumes located in the library. Volumes associated with a storage pool can be seen as logical volumes, pointing to physically available volumes (volumes that are in the library) by the volume label or name. You can define volumes in a sequential access storage pool or you can specify that the server dynamically acquire scratch volumes. You can also use a combination of defined and scratch volumes. What you choose depends on the amount of control you need over individual volumes.36 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 46. Use defined volumes when you want to control precisely which volumes are used in the storage pool. Defined volumes may be useful when you want to establish a naming scheme for volumes. Use scratch volumes to enable the server to define a volume when needed and delete the volume when it becomes empty. Using scratch volumes frees you from the burden of explicitly defining all of the volumes in a storage pool. The server tracks whether a volume being used was originally a scratch volume. Scratch volumes that the server acquired for a primary storage pool are deleted from the server database when they become empty. The volumes are then available for reuse by the server or other applications.To add physical volumes to the library, they must be checked in. The check-in and check-outprocess will be discussed later.Policy conceptsA data storage management environment consists of three basic types of resources: clientsystems, rules, and data. The client systems contain the data to be managed, and the rulesspecify how the management must occur; for example, in the case of backup, how manyversions should be kept, where they should be stored, and so on.TSM policies define the relationships between these three resources. Figure 3-3 illustratesthis policy relationship. Depending on your actual needs for managing your enterprise data,these policies can be very simple or very complex. Policy Set Client Copy Group Manangement Rules Data Class Client Copy Group Client Policy Domain Manangement Rules Data Class Client Copy Group Client Manangement Rules Data ClassFigure 3-3 Policy relationsTSM has certain logical entities that group and organize the storage resources and definerelationships between them. Client systems, or nodes in TSM terminology, are groupedtogether with other nodes with common storage management requirements, into a policydomain. Chapter 3. Software configuration 37
  • 47. The policy domain links the nodes to a policy set, a collection of storage management rules for different storage management activities. A policy set consists of one or more management classes. A management class contains the rule descriptions called copy groups, and links these to the data objects to be managed. A copy group is the place where all the storage management parameters, such as number of stored copies, retention period, storage media, and so on, are defined. When the data is linked to particular rules, it is said to be bound to the management class that contains those rules. Another way to look at the components that make up a policy is to consider them in the hierarchical fashion in which they are defined, that is, consider the policy domain containing the policy set, the policy set containing the management classes, and the management classes containing the copy groups and the storage management parameters.3.1.2 Installation This section describes the installation of the TSM server. To install the server, your system will need the following requirements: Operating system: Windows NT 4.0 SP 4 or higher Windows 2000 Server (build 2072), Advanced Server or Datacenter Server Software: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Version 5 or higher Components that can be installed (server part): TSM server The server code includes the TSM database and tools for server management. Installation of this part is required. TSM licenses The license package includes the code and license files required to register the licenses you purchased. If this part is not installed, the TSM server will run in evaluation mode. TSM device driver Tivoli Storage Manager provides a device driver, called ADSMSCSI. This device driver allows TSM to manage and control automated tape libraries and tape drives without the need for additional Windows device drivers. Native Windows device drivers are supported as well, but have some limitations when used for TSM, such as the fact that TSM does not know which physical device type is used, inability of TSM to detect and report I/O errors, and limited support for barcode readers. In some conditions however, it is mandatory to use the native Windows device drivers. As seen later, the LTO tape drives within the 3600 tape library series fall under this category. For an overview of supported devices and support notes, please refer to: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/requirements.html In addition, the TSM client code can be installed. Installation if the TSM server and related code is straightforward. When the installation CD is inserted, autorun will automatically start the Welcome window. If autorun is disabled, run the setup.exe program in the root directory of the CD. TSM will require that you define a temporary directory where the installation program will extract the installation package. After defining this directory, the extraction will take place, and the TSM Server CD Browser window will appear (see Figure 3-4).38 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 48. Figure 3-4 Tivoli Storage Manager Server CD BrowserTo install the products, click the Install Products link. This will start the Install Productswindow. Here you can select the component that you wish to install. Start by selecting theTSM Server installation.After selecting the setup language (defines the language used in the installation windows)and the destination directory, you will have to choose between the Typical or Custom setuptype. By selecting the custom type, you can choose the language support for the product thatyou require (the language in which the TSM server product will run), and eventually disablethe installation of the online manuals. After completing this step, the server code will beinstalled.When finished, click the Finish button to go back to the Install product window.Continue the installation by starting the license installation. This step will not actually registerthe licenses (which will be done during the configuration step later), but only copy the requiredfiles. If this step is omitted, the TSM server will only be able to run in evaluation mode.Evaluation mode will allow you to run the TSM server for 90 days.Complete the server installation by installing the device driver.After installing the device driver, the installation program will propose a reboot of the system.If this is the last step of the installation, you can select to reboot now. If not, you can choosenot to reboot the machine immediately. However, a reboot will be required before configuringthe TSM server. Chapter 3. Software configuration 39
  • 49. Tip: Latest version As always, it is a good idea to start the installation using the last available level of the product code. This could be done by first installing the base GA level of the TSM server as described above. A second, more convenient way however is to start the TSM server installation by simply launching the PTF (program temporary fix) installation program (IPxxxx.EXE). This will, after extracting the package, bring up an installation window similar to the GA code. The only difference is that you do not have the possibility to install the license files, which are located on the official product CD. You can install the TSM server code and the device driver, and then launch the license package installation from the GA product CD. You do not have to reboot the system after installing the device driver. Do the license installation first. Latest versions are found at: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/adsercli.htm This completes the installation of the TSM server. If required, you can start the installation of the TSM Backup/Archive client. As with the TSM server, you can use the available GA code from the product CD, or use the last available version. In contrast with the server, there is no need to install license files for the client. Licensing of the client will be centrally managed on the TSM server. Installation of this package is not required, and only necessary if you need one or more of the following functions: Local backup/archive client Administrative command line interface The last component will probably be chosen by more experienced TSM administrators, who might prefer using commands to configure and administer their TSM environment. If this is required, be sure to follow the Custom installation path during the client installation, since the TSM administrative command line interface will not be part of the typical installation. If you choose not to install this component, you can still administer the TSM server using the provided MMC console (see Figure 3-8) for TSM or the Web administrator.40 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 50. Figure 3-5 Tivoli Storage Manager MMC console Note: In order to use the TSM management console on Windows NT 4.0, the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) must be installed. TSM requires Version 1.2 or greater of the MMC. Microsoft provides a redistributable install module for MMC. The TSM package includes the redistributable install module, and the installation program will install it for you (if necessary). There are different installation packages for MMC, depending on the language version of Windows that you are running. Due to the relatively large size of the MMC packages, this package includes only the English language version of MMC. If you wish to install the TSM management console on a non-English Windows NT 4.0 system, please install the required language version separately.3.1.3 Configuration After installation and reboot of the system, TSM needs to be configured. This configuration consists of setting up the entire policy, licensing, clients and devices. There are two ways of configuring the TSM server: Using the configuration wizards (only available on Windows platforms) Using administrative commands Usage of the wizards has the advantage that the initial TSM setup is quick and easy. However, more advanced users might miss the granularity and control that is available when going through the configuration using commands. In this case, we will discuss the general setup using the wizards, and come back with more details when it comes to setting up the library and tape devices. Chapter 3. Software configuration 41
  • 51. The following configuration steps will be necessary: Analyze drive performance to determine the best location for the disk storage pool volumes, database and recovery log. Initialize the TSM server database, recovery log and disk storage pool volumes. Register the required licenses. Configure TSM to access the storage devices. Prepare media. Register and configure TSM clients. Define Environment Wizard The initial configuration wizard will allow you to create a new TSM server instance, modify an existence instance or install a new server instance. When this is the initial installation, the wizard will detect that and will not propose to modify the instance or add an additional server instance. Note: A server instance is defined as a separate TSM server running on the same physical machine. Up to four TSM server instances can run on one physical machine. All instances are totally independent and do not share data or database information. In addition, you will be able to define the server to function as a stand-alone server (local server with one local client) or a network server (network clients attached). Configure Performance Wizard The Configure Performance Wizard will check which disk device has the best response time. Based on this test, the wizard will propose that disk for TSM initial volumes. You can however override the proposed location and set a user-defined location during the Initialization Wizard. The initial TSM volumes are: Disk storage pool volume Database volume Recovery log volume A TSM volume located on disk can be seen as a preformatted file. Initialization Wizard The Initialization Wizard will create all required files and format all volumes required for the TSM server instance. The proposed directories where to locate these files can be changed. By default, the wizard will use c:program filestivolitsmserverN as the instance directory (with N being the number of the instance being installed). Files in this directory will be limited in size. The location and size of the larger volumes (storagepool, database and recovery log), will be based on the result of the Performance Wizard. Again, these can be changed to the location and size chosen by the TSM administrator. Register Licenses Wizard The Register License Wizard will allow you to register the licenses that you purchased. This will only be possible if you installed the license support (see 3.2.2, “Installation” on page 71). Licenses include: Number of LAN attached clients Number of SAN attached clients Tivoli data protection clients42 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 52. Disaster recovery manager Space management clients (UNIX) DFS/AFS clients (UNIX)There are also two licenses specific to the tape library and devices: Managed libraries Shared librariesA shared library license is required when you are sharing one or more libraries betweendifferent TSM servers (see “Library Sharing” on page 66). A managed library license isrequired on the library manager when using library sharing, but also, and more important inthis context, for libraries that fall in the Extended Device Category. Table 3-1 shows anoverview of the license requirements for the libraries.Table 3-1 License requirements for TSM and IBM tape libraries Library Name Managed Library license required? 3600 Autoloader No 3600 Tape library (20 slots) No 3600 Tape library with one library expansion unit (LXU) (40 slots) Yes 3600 Tape library with two library expansion units (LXU) (60 slots) Yes 3502 Autoloader No 3502 Library No 4mm DDS/4 Autoloader NoConfigure Devices WizardThe Device Configuration Wizard will allow you to configure the sequential devices attachedto your TSM server. The wizard will automatically detect all devices that are attached. Bydoing a simple drag and drop operation, you can then create the actual device configurationas it will be used by TSM.Figure 3-6 on page 44 shows the wizard window, which is divided into a left and right pane.The left pane of the window shows all the available devices. Adding them to TSM storage isdone by dragging them to the right pane.The device name shown in the device list is the alias name. Alias names identify TSM devicesand are required when configuring devices using TSM commands. Alias names replace thereal device names in TSM commands and windows. The TSM device driver communicateswith devices by using the alias names.Alias names appear in the form mtx.y.z.n for tape devices or lbx.y.z.n for library devices,where:mt Indicates the device is a tape device. For example: mt5.0.0.1 (tape drive at SCSI ID 5, LUN 0, bus 0, port 1)lb Indicates the device is the controller for an automated library device. For example:lb4.1.0.0 (library at SCSI ID 4, LUN 1, bus 0, port 0)x Indicates the SCSI ID for the targeted device.y Indicates the logical unit number (LUN) for the targeted device.z Indicates the bus number supported by the adapter device driver.n Indicates the port number for the SCSI adapter device driver. Chapter 3. Software configuration 43
  • 53. There is one exception for alias names: when the Windows device driver is used to address a tape library (as shown for example in Figure 3-6), the Windows device name will be used, which has the format .Tapen, where n is the device number. Table 3-2 shows the names used for devices within TSM: Table 3-2 Device names within TSM Name Format Usage Logical device name Literal (max. 30 Used within TSM to address the library. All characters) library related commands will use this name. Devices alias lbx.y.z.n Used by the TSM server to access the device mtx.y.z.n through TSM device driver. Windows name . Tapen Used by the TSM server to access the device through the native Windows device driver. Figure 3-6 TSM Device Configuration Wizard Always start with the library device. Next, drag the tape device on top of the library icon, which will now be located in the right pane. Figure 3-7 shows the wizard window after completing this operation.44 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 54. Figure 3-7 Tivoli Storage Manager Device Configuration Wizard, completed viewBy doing this, the wizard will perform the following operations:1. Define a library, using the device name as TSM logical device name (in the example above, this would be LB0.0.0.1).2. Define a device class conforming to the format used by the drive or drives located in the library.3. Define the drive, again using the device name as logical device name.4. Define a storage pool, using a name based on the device format or device class.More details may be found in 3.1.4, “Operation” on page 50.Node Configuration WizardThe Node Configuration Wizard will allow you to define TSM clients, or nodes, and set up apolicy for them.The initial view (see Figure 3-8) shows the available storage pools and the default client node. Chapter 3. Software configuration 45
  • 55. Figure 3-8 Client Node Configuration Wizard As the figure shows, there are three storage pools. These consist of the two default disk storage pools (DISKPOOL and BACKUPPOOL), and a sequential tape storage pool, LTOPOOL, which is the result of running the Device Configuration Wizard. The initial hierarchy of the storage pools is as follows: The BACKUPPOOL storage pool has DISKPOOL defined as its next storage pool. This means that data residing in the BACKUPPOOL storage pool will be migrated to the DISKPOOL storage pool whenever the high-level migration threshold is reached. A sequential storage pool, LTOPOOL, is defined. Note: The wizard window will show only clients that are associated with the highlighted storage pool. In case that you have more than one storage pool, make sure you select the one which your clients are using as destination. The next step will be to modify the hierarchy in such a way that data from the DISKPOOL storage pool will also be migrated, and this to the LTOPOOL storage pool. This can be done by selecting the DISKPOOL storage pool icon, and dragging it to the LTOPOOL storage pool. The result of this will be that LTOPOOL will become the next storage pool of DISKPOOL. Figure 3-9 shows the result of this operation.46 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 56. Figure 3-9 Client Node Configuration Wizard - setting the storage pool hierarchyAfter setting the hierarchy, the next step will be to define the client policy, and add clientnodes. Clicking the Add Node button will bring up the node policy information window (seeFigure 3-10). You can enter the name of the node and password, as well as choose thedestination for that node’s backup data.Figure 3-10 Policy information window - node informationThe Policy Information tab allows you to define the policy settings for a client (seeFigure 3-11). These settings include the number of versions to keep, and the period that youwant to keep them. Chapter 3. Software configuration 47
  • 57. Figure 3-11 Policy information window - policy information Attention: When you define a new client, and modify the policy settings for that client, the wizard will create a new policy domain for that client. Although this is perfectly functional, larger installations might want to use the policy domain for a type of client, and define separate management classes for differences in data retention values. In that case, do not use the wizard to modify the retention settings, but use any of the other TSM administration interfaces. Prepare Media Wizard A final wizard that is related to setting up tape environments is the Prepare Media Wizard. The Prepare Media Wizard will allow you to physically label tape cartridges and add them to the library inventory. Figure 3-12 shows the first step in this process: selecting which tape drive will be used for labeling the volumes.48 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 58. Figure 3-12 Selecting the device used for labelingWhen the Next button is selected, the wizard will give a list of tape volumes currently insertedin the library, and some options for the labeling process (see Figure 3-13). You can select thevolumes in the provided list. Clicking the Next button will start the labeling process.Figure 3-13 Labeling the mediaThe following options are available: Overwrite existing label This options will force a label, even if the tape cartridge is already labeled. Use this option only if you are sure that there is no valid data on the tape you are using, since a label operation will erase the entire tape. Chapter 3. Software configuration 49
  • 59. Barcode reader TSM provides the possibility to use a barcode reader (when available), which scans the barcode label located on the media, and uses that name as label. If this option is not used, the wizard will ask a manual input for each tape that needs to be labeled. Keep volumes in library When this option is set, the tapes will remain inside the library after being labeled. If it is not set, TSM will instruct the library to remove the cartridge after it has been labeled. Prompt user to insert volumes If set, the wizard will ask the operator to insert tape volumes before they are labeled. Restriction: During our testing, some restrictions of the Media Labeling Wizard became apparent. These include: When the barcode scan is disabled, you can label only one volume at a time. Make sure that you do not select more than one volume. The Labeling Wizard will use the device name as the library name. This is valid when the devices were configured using the Device Configuration Wizard. However, in all other situations where the TSM administrator chose to use a different logical device name for the library, the Labeling Wizard will fail. It is impossible to perform a check-in of the tapes using a private status. After labeling completes, the wizard proposes to perform a check-in operation on the volumes just labeled. This will set the status of the volumes as being inside the library, meaning that they are available for TSM to use them. The check-in process will add the tapes to the scratch tape pool. Additional wizards are available, including: MSCS Cluster Configuration Wizard (only available when the TSM server is installed on a clustered system) Scheduling Wizard (setup client operation automation)3.1.4 Operation This section describes in detail how to configure and use the different tape automation products discussed in this paper. They include: “IBM 3600 library” on page 50 “IBM 3600 Autoloader” on page 55 “IBM 3502-x14 Library” on page 62 “IBM 3502-108 Autoloader” on page 64 “IBM DDS/4 Autoloader” on page 64 IBM 3600 library This topic describes the installation and operation of the IBM 3600 library under TSM. We will begin by looking at the required steps for installing the library. The configuration will be done using the Device Configuration Wizard. The IBM 3600 library has the following requirements: Managed library license When the library is used in combination with one or two expansion units, then a managed library license is required, since this device belongs to the extended device category.50 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 60. Windows device driver The LTO drive inside the library is currently not supported by the TSM SCSI device driver. It is therefore necessary to install the native Windows device driver for the tape device. You should install the driver before starting the Device Configuration Wizard. This driver is available from IBM at the following location: http://www.storage.ibm.com/storagesmart/lto/support/lto_ftp.htmWhen the Device Configuration Wizard starts, Figure 3-14 is the first window that you will see.It shows the 3600 library and the tape drive as seen by the TSM server.Be sure that thedevice name for the library is in the TSM alias format (see Table 3-2 on page 44) and that thetape drive is in the native Windows device name format.Figure 3-14 Device Configuration Wizard, available devicesIf the device names seen by the wizard do not conform to this naming scheme, it is anindication that there is something wrong with the device driver configuration. Start bychecking that the Windows device driver is correctly installed. To do this, start the ControlPanel and click the tape device icon. The IBM Ultrium Tape Device Driver should be started. Ifthis is not the case, check that you installed the driver. Chapter 3. Software configuration 51
  • 61. Figure 3-15 Native device driver Another possible conflict situation can arise from the fact that the TSM SCSI device driver is trying to manage the library. Check this by starting the MMC console. Go to the service information window, and double-click the correct device driver to see the properties of the device driver service. As shown in Figure 3-15, the tape drive should be listed as controlled by native device drivers. Figure 3-16 Tivoli Storage Manager device driver options52 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 62. Important: Windows 2000 users In order to correctly use LTO libraries, including the 3600, under Windows 2000 in combination with TSM, it is important that you perform the following steps: Disable the Removable Storage Manager (RSM) service under Windows 2000. This is especially important when you are connecting the library through a SAN environment. Disable the Windows 2000 plug and play device configuration for the LTO tape drivers. To do this, you must edit the registry and update the device path so that it reflects the location of the device driver. The device path can be found in the following registry key: “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionDevicePath: REG_EXPAND_SZ:%SystemRoot%Inf” Add the path in which the drivers are located. For example, if the drivers were located in the %Windir%Drivers directory, the value of the key should read: REG_EXPAND_SZ:%SystemRoot%Inf;%Windir%Drivers This operation is not necessary when the device drivers for the LTO drives were added during the installation of Windows 2000.If the devices are recognized correctly, you can proceed by defining the device configurationfor TSM. Start by adding the library and all the available tape devices (see Figure 3-14 onpage 51, left pane) to the TSM devices (see Figure 3-17, right pane). Do this by selecting theappropriate devices and then clicking the > button.Figure 3-17 Device Configuration Wizard, devices added to Tivoli Storage ManagerWhen the tape drive is added, the configuration wizard will ask you to enter the elementnumber for that device (see Figure 3-18). An element number is used by TSM to addresscomponents within a library. These components include the tape drives, the cartridge slotsand the robotics. The element number depends on the library type. Appendix A, “TSMelement numbers” on page 101 gives an overview of the element numbers of the discussedtape libraries.In this example, the element number is 1. Chapter 3. Software configuration 53
  • 63. Figure 3-18 Element number Once the devices are added, drag the tape devices onto the library icon in order to add them to the library (as shown in Figure 3-19). Figure 3-19 Device Configuration Wizard, finalizing the configuration This completes the setup of the IBM 3600 library. To use it, you must now add volumes to the library, label them, and define a storage pool that uses the defined library. For more information, please refer to 3.1.1, “Concepts” on page 34. Volume handling Typically, automated library devices require little human intervention after you set up a media rotation. However, you may occasionally need to add, remove, or manually manage media in automated library devices. TSM tracks the media in the library volume inventory, which it maintains for each automated library device.54 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 64. You can remove volumes from automated library devices by issuing the CHECKOUT LIBVOLUMEcommand. TSM mounts each volume and verifies its internal label before checking it out ofthe volume inventory. After a volume has been checked out, TSM moves the media to theentry/exit port of the device if it has one, or TSM requests that the operator remove thevolume from a drive within the device.Partially written volumes that are removed from the device will need to be checked in again ifTSM attempts to access them. Partially written volumes that are checked out of a librarydevice continue to be defined to a storage pool and have a status of private. You can returnpartially written volumes by checking in the volume by issuing the CHECKIN LIBVOLUMEcommand with STATUS=PRIVATE parameter.When the TSM volume inventory doesn’t match the actual content of the library, errors willoccur. The most common cause for these errors is manual removal or insertion of tapevolumes, without going through the check-in and check-out procedure. A way to synchronizethe physical content of the library and the library inventory table from the TSM server is toperform an audit of the library, using the AUDIT LIBRARY command.CleaningThe TSM server can control cleaning tape drives in SCSI libraries. For automated librarydevices, you can automate cleaning by specifying the frequency of cleaning operations andchecking a cleaner cartridge into the librarys volume inventory.If your library device includes its own functions for drive cleaning, you need to decide whichmethod to use: the devices built-in drive cleaning or the TSM servers drive cleaning. Devicemanufacturers that include automatic cleaning recommend its use to prevent premature wearon the read/write heads of the drives.If you decide to have the TSM server control drive cleaning, disable the devices own drivecleaning function to prevent problems.IBM 3600 AutoloaderConfiguration of the IBM 3600 autoloader is almost the same as the 3600 library (see “IBM3600 library” on page 50).Start by installing the IBM LTO Ultrium device driver, and disabling the RSM service whenrunning Windows 2000.In this example, we will use the Web administrative interface instead of the DeviceConfiguration Wizard to perform the configuration. The first step is to determine the devicealias for the autoloader, as well as the Windows device name for the tape drive. This can bedone by starting the MMC, and selecting Tivoli Storage Manager -> TSM Device Driver ->Device Information. Chapter 3. Software configuration 55
  • 65. Figure 3-20 Device information Figure 3-20 shows us that the autoloader device uses lb0.0.0.2 as device alias name, while the tape drive uses .Tape0 as the Windows device name. This information will now be used to define the library to TSM. Start the TSM Web administrator (URL: tsm_server_address:1580) using your preferred Web browser. In the left pane, expand Object View -> Server Storage -> Libraries and Drives -> Automated Libraries. In the right pane, you will now get the Operations drop-down menu. Select Define Automated Library. This will bring up the library definition window (see Figure 3-21). Add a library name, for example LTO_Autoloader, the device name (lb0.0.0.2) and select the sharing option. Sharing a library means that the library is SAN attached and will be used by multiple TSM servers (see “Library Sharing” on page 66). In our example, we will not share the library. When completed, click the Finish button. This completes the library definition.56 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 66. Figure 3-21 Define automated libraryA second step in defining the library infrastructure is the definition of a device class. Expandthe Device Classes section, and click LTO Device Class. From the Operations drop-downmenu, select Define Device Class. This will open the device class definition form (seeFigure 3-22). Chapter 3. Software configuration 57
  • 67. Figure 3-22 Define device class Set the fields to the values you require. The device class name can be chosen by the TSM administrator. Select the correct library name from the library name drop-down menu. This is the name you gave to library when defining it earlier. All the other parameters will define how TSM will use the physical library and drives. The most important parameters are: Recording format This sets the format in which the tape drive will operate. Possible values depend on the type of device class you are defining. The default value is DRIVE, which will get the format value from the drive’s firmware. Other possibilities include ULTRIUM and ULTRIUMC. The last value will indicate that data will be compressed using hardware compression on the drive. Mount Limit The mount limit value indicates how many tapes can be mounted simultaneously in the library. In normal conditions, this amount is equal to the number of tape drives located in the library. The default value for this field, DRIVES, reflects this number. You can however set the value to whatever value you require. Mount Retention Indicates the number of minutes the drive should keep a tape mounted after it stops using it. The purpose of this is that the tape doesn’t need to be mounted again for the following read or write operations. When a mount request for another tape is needed, TSM will dismount the idle tape, even when the retention period hasn’t expired.58 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 68. Mount Wait This parameter sets the number of minutes an operation will wait for a tape mount before generating a mount failure.Click the Finish button when completed.The next step is to define a tape drive, located in the library and using the parameters as setin the device class definition. In the Libraries and Drives directory, select the AutomatedDrives option. From the drop-down menu, select Define Automated Drive. This will load thedrive definition form, as shown in Figure 3-23.Figure 3-23 Define automated driveStart by selecting the correct library from the Library Name drop-down menu. Enter the nameyou want to give to the drive (for example DRIVE_IN_AUTOLOADER) in the Drive Name field,and then enter the device name, which is the Windows device name, .Tape0, in the case ofan LTO tape drive. The element number is 1 for this drive (see Appendix A, “TSM elementnumbers” on page 101). Complete the definition by clicking the Finish button.This completes the definition of the tape library and drive. To use it, we must now define astorage pool and integrate that storage pool in our storage hierarchy. We will start by defininga storage pool, called LTO_POOL and then update the DISKPOOL storage pool so that ituses this new defined storage pool as next storage pool. Chapter 3. Software configuration 59
  • 69. The storage pool definition form for tape storage pools (sequential media) can be found by clicking Object View -> Server Storage -> Storage Pools -> Sequential Access Storage Pools. Select the Create New Storage Pool option from the Operations drop-down menu. As you can see in Figure 3-24, the definition of a storage pool has more parameters to set than the previous definitions. We will keep this example simple however, and discuss only the parameters that are required for initial use of the library. For more details on the storage pool definition and parameters, please refer to the online documentation delivered with the TSM server. Figure 3-24 Define storage pool Start by selecting a name for your storage pool. As in the previous definitions, this name is chosen by the TSM administrator. Next, select the device class that will be used by this storage pool. By setting the correct device class, the TSM server will know what devices are defined in this device class. Ensure that the access status is set to READWRITE. If not, set it to that value. Two other parameters that are important are the following: Maximum Scratch Volumes Allowed This parameter sets the number of tape volumes that the storage pool is allowed to use from the scratch pool. This pool represents the tape volumes that are located in the library, and are not assigned to another storage pool. If you leave the default value of 0, you will not be able to use this scratch pool. So, set it to a value representative of the number of volumes that you will use in this storage pool.60 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 70. Collocation The collocation parameter allows you to group data from one client on one tape. If not set, the TSM server will mix the data of all the clients on all tapes. The advantage is that the migration process will be faster, and that tape volumes will be used more efficiently. The disadvantage is that restores will take longer, since they will require more tape mounts.Click the Finish button to complete the operation.The next step in the storage pool setup is to define the tape storage pool as the next storagepool for the existing disk storage pool. To do this, click Object View -> Server Storage ->Storage Pools -> Disk Storage Pools. Select the DISKPOOL storage pool in the right handpane. This will show the details of this storage pool. From the Operations menu, select theUpdate Storage Pool action. This brings up the window as shown in Figure 3-25. In the NextStorage Pool drop-down menu, select the just-defined tape storage pool (LTO_POOL). ClickFinish to complete the operation.Figure 3-25 Update storage poolThis complete the storage pool definitions. Finally, we must now perform a label and check-inof the tape volumes that will be used in the library. In our setup, the tapes have barcodelabels, which will be used as volume labels. Since there is no GUI interface available toperform the labeling, we need to use TSM administrative commands. You can enter thesecommands in the Server Command field in the bottom pane of the Web administrator. To startthis Java applet, select the Show Command Line option from the Options scroll box (topright). Chapter 3. Software configuration 61
  • 71. Enter the following command: Label Libvol LTO_AUTOLOADER Search=Yes LabelSource=Barcode Checkin=Scratch Overwrite=Yes Where: LTO_AUTOLOADER The name of the library Search=Yes Scan the entire library for eligible volumes LabelSource=Barcode Use the barcode printed on the tape label as volume name Checkin=Scratch Add the new volumes to the scratch pool Overwrite=Yes If the volume is already labeled, overwrite the exiting volume name. Use this option only when you are sure that you are labeling new volumes or volumes that are no longer needed. The command will start the label and check-in process. When this process completes, the library is ready for operations. IBM 3502-x14 Library A third library that will be configured is the IBM 3502-x14 DLT library. In this example, we will use a third way to configure the library, namely the TSM administrative commands. TSM administrative commands can be launched in several ways, using different interfaces. These include the command line utility in the TSM MMC (see Figure 3-26), the Web interface and the administrative command line application. Figure 3-26 Tivoli Storage Manager MMC command line prompt62 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 72. Start by identifying the TSM device name of the library and tape drive. This can be done usingthe MMC console, as shown in Figure 3-20 on page 56. Another tool that exists is theTSMDLST.EXE program, located in the CONSOLE directory of the TSM installation path.This command line tool provides a text-based output as shown in Example 3-1.Example 3-1 TSMDLST.EXE outputComputer Name: SANCLT2TSM Device Driver: RunningTSM Device Name ID LUN Bus Port TSM Device Type Device Identifier---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------lb0.1.0.4 0 1 0 4 LIBRARY ATL L500 6320000001Emt0.2.0.4 0 2 0 4 DLT QUANTUM DLT7000 2150Once you have identified the device names, lb0.1.0.4 for the library and mt0.2.0.4 for the drivein this example, start by defining the library. This is done using the Define Library command,as follows:define library 3502-r14 libtype=scsi device=lb0.1.0.4The parameters given with this command include the library name we want to use, 3502-r14and the library type, which is SCSI. There are other types of libraries, but the most commonone is the SCSI type. This simply indicates that the library uses a SCSI-controlled roboticssystem to move the tapes.Next, define a device class. The device class definition will set the format of the tape deviceslocated in the newly defined library (3502-r14).define devclass DLT_class library=3502-r14 devtype=dlt format=dlt35cThe parameters include the name of the device class (DLT_class). This name can be chosenby the TSM administrator. It also contains the library to which the device class is associated(library=3502-r14), and the type of device, which is DLT (devtype=dlt). A final parameter is theformat parameter, indicating the recording format that will be used (format=dlt35c). TheDLT35C format indicates that we are using 35/70 GB cartridges (DLT7000), and are usingcompressing (indicated by the trailing C).Next, define the drives located in the library. In our example, we only have one drive. If youhave more, repeat the following command, changing the parameters to the required values.define drive 3502-r14 drive0 device=mt0.2.0.4 element=16The command above defines a drive called drive0, located in library 3502-r14. The devicename is mt0.2.0.4, as reported by the TSMDLST tool (see Example 3-1 on page 63). Theelement number, indicating the location of the tape drive in the tape library, is 16 for the firstdrive of the IBM 3502 DLT tape library. See Appendix A, “TSM element numbers” onpage 101 for details.This completes the actual definition of the library as a storage device within TSM. To use ithowever, we must still define a storage pool that uses this storage device, and change thestorage hierarchy in such a way that it uses this newly defined storage pool. The followingcommand will define the tape storage pool, using the Define Stgpool command.define stgpool DLT_Pool DLT_Class Maxscratch=10 Chapter 3. Software configuration 63
  • 73. The first parameter, DLT_Pool, indicates the name we want to assign to the storage pool. The second parameter, DLT_Class, defines which device class will be used by the storage pool. It is through this link that the TSM server will eventually assign the physical library and tape drive devices to the storage pool. The Maxscratch parameter indicates how many tape volumes can be used from the available pool of scratch tape volumes inside the library. Once the sequential tape storage pool is defined, we will update the existing Diskpool storage pool, setting its next storage pool to the DLT_Pool. This is done using the following command: update stgpool Diskpool nextstg=DLT_pool Finally, we need to add volumes to the tape library, and label them if they are new. The procedure for this is as follows: 1. Physically insert the volumes in the tape library. If possible, use barcode labels, since this will greatly simplify the label procedure. 2. Issue the following command: label libvol 3502-r14 search=yes labelsource=barcode checkin=scratch overwrite=yes The command above will label all volumes (search=yes) inside the tape library 3502-r14, use the barcode as label (labesource=barcode), overwrite the label if existent, and perform a checkin of the volumes, adding them to the scratch pool (scratch=yes). If you are using tapes that are already labeled, you can perform the checkin command without labeling by issuing the following command: checkin libvol 3502-r14 search=yes checklabel=barcode status=scratch This completes the setup of the 3502-R14 or 314 tape library. IBM 3502-108 Autoloader The definition and configuration of the IBM 3502-108 DLT Autoloader will be similar to that of the IBM 3502-x14 Library (see “IBM 3502-x14 Library” on page 62). The only two differences are as follows: Only one tape device is supported, using element address 16. There is no barcode scanner available. This means that you will need to perform the label libvol command using the LABELSOURCE=PROMPT parameter instead of the LABELSOURCE=BARCODE parameter. The prompt value will require manual entry of the volume label name by the TSM administrator. IBM DDS/4 Autoloader A final device is the IBM DDS/4 Autoloader. We will use the Device Configuration and Media Labeling Wizards to set up the device. Figure 3-27 shows the initial window of the Device Configuration Wizard. As you can see, TSM recognizes the library device as lb6.1.0.2, and the tape drive as mt6.1.0.2.64 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 74. Figure 3-27 Device Configuration Wizard - step 1Add the library and drive to the TSM devices, making sure that you drag the tape drive overthe library icon to add it to the library.Figure 3-28 Device Configuration Wizard - step 2This completes the definition of the library and drive. In the background, the wizard will alsodefine a device class for the drive and library, and a storage pool that uses this device class.Next, start the Media Labeling Wizard, and follow the instructions as defined in “PrepareMedia Wizard” on page 48. Chapter 3. Software configuration 65
  • 75. 3.1.5 Other tape usages within Tivoli Storage Manager Until now, we focused on the common use of TSM and tape libraries. This common use consists of adding a tape library locally attached to your TSM server using a SCSI interface. There are, however, more advanced uses for tape media and libraries, which we will discuss briefly in this section. These uses include: Backup sets LAN-free solutions Tape library sharing Backup Sets Backup sets are part of the rapid recovery feature. The purpose of this feature is to enable a restore of a client system without having the network overhead of sending the data from client to server. Backup sets can be seen as exported data from the TSM server, located on portable media such as tape cartridges. Once the data is exported to tape, this tape can be used locally on the client system, using the TSM backup/archive client as the interface. It allows for a restore without having to connect to the TSM server. One of the requirements is that you have a local tape drive at your client system that is able to read the tape generated on the TSM server. Currently, the following common tape media types are supported for backup sets usage: 8mm tape devices 4mm tape devices DLT tape devices 3570 and 3590 Magstar products LAN-free The LAN-free option allows you to back up a client’s data over a SAN rather than a LAN. This requires a SAN-attached tape library, and the Tivoli Storage Manager Storage Agent product. The TSM client (including the TDP clients) will send data directly to the tape library over the SAN. The TSM server will still control the client’s data, and control the library. Library Sharing Library sharing allows the sharing of a tape library by several TSM servers. This can greatly reduce the cost of a TSM implementation by increasing the efficiency of your library. Again, this feature is only available when the tape library is SAN attached. One TSM server will act as library manager, and will control the library. All the other TSM servers, known as library clients, can use media and drives located in the library. The following redbooks give more in-depth information about TSM: Tivoli Storage Manager 3.7.3 & 4.1 Technical Guide, SG24-6110 Tivoli Storage Manager Concepts, SG24-4877 Using Tivoli Storage Manager in a SAN Environment, SG24-6132. In addition, TSM user manuals can be viewed online, at the following location: http://www.tivoli.com/support/public/Prodman/public_manuals/storage_mgr/admanual.h tm66 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 76. 3.2 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows 2000 / NT This chapter discusses the installation and configuration of VERITAS Backup Exec Version 8.6 for Windows 2000 and Windows NT. We will concentrate on the steps that have to be performed in order to install a tape library. For additional information, please refer to the online documentation, in particular the Administrator’s Manual, which ships with the VERITAS product CD. Backup Exec Version 8.6 is used, although IBM is shipping the trial Version 8.5 at present. From an installation and configuration point of view, there is not much difference between these versions. If you want to get the latest trial version, then you can download it from: http://www.veritas.com Select the PRODUCTS link, and then select TRIAL SOFTWARE from the drop-down menu. The Backup Exec exists in several different versions, or editions, depending on the environment that requires protection. There are also several optional products available. The available editions include: Datacenter Edition This product is intended for Windows 2000/NT servers. It also includes Backup Exec agent software for workstations running on Windows, UNIX and Macintosh platforms. It supports unlimited stand-alone drives and one single-drive robotic library. Backup Exec’s Library Expansion Option allows support for multi-drive robotic libraries. Advanced Server Edition This product is similar to the Datacenter Edition, except that it excludes support for Windows datacenter systems. Server Edition This product is similar to the Datacenter or Advanced Server Edition, except that it excludes support for Windows datacenter and advanced server systems. Small Business Server Edition This product is intended for the Windows 2000/NT Small Business Server. The other functions are equal to the above versions. Options are normally purchased separately, and require a separate license key to operate. The options that are relative to the topics described in this paper are: Library Expansion Option The Library Expansion Option is required when using a tape library that has more than one tape drive installed. Support for one drive in one library is included in the license for the base product. One license is required for each additional drive that is installed. Remote Agent for Windows NT/Windows 2000 The Remote Agent for Windows NT and Windows 2000 is required in order to back up remote Windows NT or Windows 2000 systems. The Remote Agent license must be installed on the Backup Exec server, while the Remote Agent component must be installed on the target system. SAN Shared Storage Option The Backup Exec SAN Shared Storage Option allows multiple Backup Exec servers to share secondary storage devices in a SAN. Chapter 3. Software configuration 67
  • 77. Other available options include: Agent for IBM ADSM Agent for Exchange Server Intelligent Disaster Recovery Agent for Lotus Domino Network Storage Executive Open File Option Agent for Oracle Server Remote Agent for NetWare Agent for SAP R/3 for Oracle Agent for SQL Server Intelligent Image Option Agent for Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server RAIDirector Note: These options (except Intelligent Disaster Recovery) are fully operational in the evaluation copy of this product. For more information, please see the VERITAS Web site.3.2.1 Concepts VERITAS Backup Exec lets you back up data directly to storage devices without using any intermediate stages. The current version adds support for backup to hard disks. Device and media management functions help to track usage of media. The built-in scheduler, media overwrite protection rules, and media rotation all help with the implementation of backup strategies. Backup Exec for Windows consists of the following modules: Media server The Backup Exec engine runs on the media server. It handles all jobs submitted to it, such as backup and restore, and manages all backup devices and media. Administrative console This component can run either on the media server or a remote server and is the primary interface for interacting with the Backup Exec system. It is used to submit jobs, view results, hardware utility functions, and so on. Client agents These are installed on servers and workstations and allow drives and directories on the local system to be protected by Backup Exec. Device and media management Device management functions help to organize and allocate the storage devices attached to the backup server. Backup Exec can organize drives into pools known as drive pools and cascaded drive pools. In the following sections, we will look at these components in more detail.68 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 78. The media server The Backup Exec media server is a job-based backup engine. Jobs define backup, restore, archiving, catalog, verify and backup scan operations. These jobs are then submitted to the server. Besides manual submission of these jobs, you can schedule jobs to run automatically at a certain time. A job history log is maintained, together with a catalog, which records what data has been backed up. The backup methods that can be used are shown in Table 3-3. The decision on whether to back up a file is based on the selected backup method and the value of the archive bit. Backup Exec uses the archive bit of a file to decide on file backup. When a file is created or updated, the archive bit is switched on to indicate the file requires backing up.Table 3-3 Backup Exec backup methods Backup method Backup criteria Archive bit value Result after backup Full All selected files Off All selected files are backed up. The archive bit is modified to indicated this backup. Copy All selected files Unmodified All selected files are backed up. Differential All selected files Unmodified All selected files that were modified or created Archive bit on since the last full backup are backed up. Incremental All selected files Off All selected files that were modified or created Archive bit on since the last full or incremental backup are backed up. The archive bit is modified to indicated this backup. Daily Modification date Unmodified All files that were modified or created today are backed up. Working set Archive bit on Unmodified All files that were created since the last full or Files modified within x days incremental backup. You can also specify to back up files that were accessed within the last number of days. Archive All selected files Unmodified All selected files are archived, and deleted from their original location. Workstation agents VERITAS Backup Exec provides backup agent software for backing up data from Windows, Macintosh, UNIX and NetWare systems. It is also possible to password-protect drives and directories, thus requiring the administrator to provide the password before the directory or drive can be backed up. When configuration is complete, the agents generally advertise their presence to the backup server. These workstation or server agents may be seen in the backup and restore windows, together with local and network drives. Device management Backup Exec automates device management and media management functions. Device management helps to organize and allocate the storage devices attached to the backup server. Backup Exec uses the concept of pools: drive pools and cascaded drive pools, with the pools containing the actual physical tape devices. Chapter 3. Software configuration 69
  • 79. Drive pools These are groups of two or more drives to which jobs may be assigned and run on the first available drive. This offers fault tolerance by moving jobs from a failed drive to the next available drive in the drive pool, concurrency by running different jobs on drives in the drive pool at the same time and load balancing by distributing jobs more evenly across all drives in the drive pool. Cascaded drives These are groups of two or more drives of the same type and capacity, appearing logically as one device. Large backup jobs that exceed the capacity of the media in one drive automatically continue on media in the next drive in the pool. As such, you can create logical drives that have a larger capacity then the single drive components. The device management capabilities in Backup Exec allow you to: Monitor device usage statistics and track hardware errors Generate reports containing details of when a drive was last cleaned, the number of errors it is generating, hours of use, bytes processed, etc. Device operations Device management functions allow you to manage the physical drives and perform operations on them such as: – Delete drives – Pause and resume drives – Inventory drives – Rename drives – Erase media in drives – Catalog media in drives – Retension tape media – Eject media – Label media – Format media – View drive statistics and properties – Enable and disable drives – Enable and disable hardware compression Media management The media management capabilities in Backup Exec help to recognize and categorize media in the storage device. Backup Exec classifies media into the following three categories: All media All media that have been introduced into the Backup Exec system. System media Media that have not been allocated to a media set, such as scratch, retired, and imported media. Reusable media are media that do not yet belong to a media set, which means new media, erased media, and media moved from another media set or group, such as imported media. Imported media are media created by another version of Backup Exec or another product. Data on imported media can be restored until the media are overwritten. Retired media are media that have been discarded because they are prone to an excessive number of errors and will not be reused. Retired media should be removed from Backup Exec.70 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 80. User media sets This is all media that have been assigned to media sets. A media set contains the tape volumes that contain the valid data. Media sets are defined by a retention period and append period. Until the retention period expires, the media are considered allocated, after which the media become recyclable and available for reuse. Recyclable media are media whose data retention periods have expired. To protect media from accidentally overwriting media, Backup Exec uses the Media overwrite protection mechanism. This mechanism has three levels of protection. There are: Full This setting protects media that belong to an allocated media set or imported media. This is the safest option because the media cannot be overwritten unless they are moved to the scratch category, or the media have exceeded their user-assigned data retention period. In that case, the media will belong to the recyclable media category. Partial Imported and recyclable media can be overwritten. Media belonging to an active media set are protected. None This is the least safe option, and basically disables the overwrite protection feature. The administrator is responsible for making sure that media in the storage device do not accidentally get overwritten. In addition, media management provides the following functions: Catalog Erase Format Inventory Label media Rename Retension Properties3.2.2 Installation The installation of Backup Exec for Windows 2000 / NT is straightforward if the correct tape device drives are installed. Do not use the native drivers under Windows NT or Windows 2000, as was the case with the older versions. Since version 8.0 Backup Exec provides its own device driver files. The consequence of this is that the tape device is still listed in the Windows control panel, but no longer has a device driver associated. After you have started the Backup Exec installation process from the CD, you will first have to select the language you would like to install. After the initial information panels, the window shown in Figure 3-29 will allow you to choose between installing the Backup Exec or the Remote Administrator code. Chapter 3. Software configuration 71
  • 81. Figure 3-29 Product installation choice The Remote Administrator provides a way to control the backup server from a remote system running Windows 2000 or Windows NT. When choosing Install Backup Exec software or options, the next installation panel will request the license information. The License panel will list the license key for any product or option previously installed. Figure 3-30 shows the selection window. In our example, we choose to install the following components: Backup Exec code Tape Device Drivers You should install the tape device drivers through this selection panel. This will perform the needed device driver installation that is used for the VERITAS software. However, some drivers will be less recent than others. It might be that you have to reinstall a newer device drive list, which can be found on the VERITAS Internet site. Online Documentation Robotic Library Support The robotic library support enables Backup Exec to work with automated library devices. As mentioned above, you will need an additional license if you have more than one tape drive installed in the library.72 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 82. Figure 3-30 Backup Exec install options: select componentsClick Next to start the installation.If you are using Windows 2000 and a device in a robotic library is discovered by Backup Exec,you will need to define if the library will be controlled by the Backup Exec or the WindowsRemovable Storage Manager. The choice depends on whether you are planning to share thelibrary between several applications, or if Backup Exec will be the only one using it. If thelatter is true, select the first option (which is the default).Figure 3-31 Backup Exec and RSM interactionAfter the installation program copies the necessary program files, you will need to register aservice account that will run the required Backup Exec services (see Figure 3-32). Chapter 3. Software configuration 73
  • 83. Figure 3-32 Service account These services include: Agent browser Alert server Device and media service Job engine Naming service Server You can use an existing account or define a new one. This service account, whether existing or new, will be assigned the following rights: Log on as a service and Administrative rights. Note: If you choose an existing user, ensure that the security attributes of that account reflect that the password never expires. If you don’t, Backup Exec will stop functioning when the password expires. After the account has been generated, the installation program installs the device drives for the tape and library devices. During this stage you still have the option to select what driver you would like to use. Select the VERITAS tape device drive for all tape drives (see Figure 3-33).74 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 84. Figure 3-33 Device driver install selectionOne of the main reasons for using the original VERITAS device drivers is productcompatibility. The usage of those drivers ensures that the device is fully operational in thebackup software. It might be necessary to uninstall existing drives or to download newerdevice drivers from the Internet. To find a list of the latest available drivers and patches for theBackup Exec product, please see:http://support.veritas.com/menu_ddProduct_BEWNT.htmIn addition, you can click Compatibility Lists to find a list of supported devices.When the Next button is clicked, the Device Driver Installer Wizard will scan the system for alist of available devices (see Figure 3-34). Chapter 3. Software configuration 75
  • 85. Figure 3-34 Backup Exec hardware scan If the scan completes, ensure that the tape device you are planning to use is installed. If it is, click the Next button. This will install the device driver required for the detected tape device. After the drivers are installed the software will continue with installing the robotic library support and eventually the remote client agent (if required).3.2.3 Configuration When starting Backup Exec after the reboot, the Configuration Wizard will start. The first step in the configuration of Backup Exec is to define the way media protection will be handled (see Figure 3-35). Media protection defines which tape volumes can be overwritten. Figure 3-35 Media Protection Wizard76 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 86. Refer to “Media management” on page 70 for details on the protection level. Next, you willneed to define the order in which Backup Exec will select tapes from the available pools. Youhave the choice between two types of media: recycled media or scratch media.Figure 3-36 Preferred overwrite media typeWhen the media configuration is complete, the Virus Protection Wizard is launched. Thiswizard allows you to set if data is scanned for viruses before taking a backup.The following wizard, the Windows Explorer Backup Wizard, allows you to add a shortcut tothe Windows explorer shortcut menu, that will launch backup jobs.Next, the Device Configuration Wizard will start. The initial window will show you attachedtape devices (see Figure 3-37). In this example, the IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloaderis attached to the system. The DDS/4 Tape Autoloader is a so-called Multi-LUN device,which means that the tape drive and the robotics share the same SCSI ID, but use differentLUNs. To use Multi-LUN devices, make sure that your SCSI host adapter and device driversupport multi-LUN devices, and that the function is activated.Other libraries in the xSeries range (3600 and 3502 Series) are SCSI ID based libraries.Every component in the library has its own SCSI ID. When using separate SCSI IDs for thedrives and the robot in the library, Backup Exec requires that the robotic arm has the highestSCSI ID. This means that the SCSI ID of the robot must be higher than that of the tapedevices.Also, make sure that your autoloader or library is set to use Random mode. Random modeenabled the robot to be controlled by external SCSI commands. Chapter 3. Software configuration 77
  • 87. Figure 3-37 Device Configuration Wizard: Detected Hardware Depending on the device you are using you might see different entries such as: HP 1 (Port: 1, Bus: 0, Target ID: 3, Lun 0) for the 3600 Tape library controller IBM 3 (Port: 1, Bus: 0, Target ID: 1, Lun 0) for the IBM LTO tape drive used in the 3600 Quantum 0 (Port: 2, Bus: 0, Target ID: 5, Lun 0) for the DLT tape product If the tape device is not shown in this panel, there might be a problem with the device or device driver. By pushing the Configure Devices button, the installation program will launch the Windows tape device configuration panel. Ensure that the device is seen by Windows NT, and that both device and device driver are functioning. Clicking the Next button displays the panel shown in Figure 3-38 to help verify drive configuration and ensure that drives appear correctly as drives in an autochanger or as a stand-alone drive.78 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 88. Figure 3-38 Device Configuration Wizard: drive configuration This completes the setup of Backup Exec.3.2.4 Operation When Backup Exec is launched after the initial configuration, the Backup Exec Assistant is automatically started (see Figure 3-39). This user interface provides access to all the different Backup Exec Wizards. The wizards can help and guide you through a variety of possible tasks. Figure 3-39 Backup Exec Assistant Chapter 3. Software configuration 79
  • 89. The Backup Exec Assistant may be used for most operations. If you prefer to go immediately to the Backup Exec client interface, uncheck the Always show me this at startup button, and click Close. This will start the administrative console (see Figure 3-40). The administrative console will be the main tool to perform backup and restore operations. In addition, you can monitor running jobs and control the status of earlier ones. Backup Exec Assistant Window selection tabs Figure 3-40 Administrative console If you prefer the wizard style of the Backup Exec Assistant, you can launch it by clicking the top left button. Device management (see “Device management” on page 69) is also called from the administrative console. This is done by selecting the Devices tab. Figure 3-41 shows the device management window. The tape library is positioned in the Robotic Library section under the server name where it is attached. At this time all tape devices are in the same drive pool, called the All Drives pool. A drive pool is used to define the destination of a backup operation. You can create additional tape pools, and drag the required devices (tape drives or libraries) into that newly created pool. If required, you can create a cascaded drive pool by dragging the tape devices onto the cascaded drive pool icon. As explained in “Device management” on page 69, cascaded pools only make sense when more than one tape device is available. A security feature allows you to lock or unlock a library or a tape device. This feature blocks the front panel controls of libraries and drives. This makes the library secure and will allow further access to the library only if the device has been unlocked or was restarted.80 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 90. Figure 3-41 Device Management windowAs you can see in Figure 3-41, the software is able to list information about media inserted inthe library. Initially, the media label information is unavailable. Backup Exec will need toperform a library inventory operation, or media scan, first. To do this, right-click the slot icon,and select the Refresh operation from the pop-up menu. The result of the inventory is shownin Figure 3-42.Figure 3-42 Device Management completed inventory Chapter 3. Software configuration 81
  • 91. As with TSM, Backup Exec will store this inventory information in its database. To prevent inventory corruption, you must follow a certain procedure when adding or removing media. To change media in the robotic library, perform the following steps: 1. From the right pane in the Devices tab, highlight all of the slots in the view by clicking the first slot in the list, holding the shift key, and then clicking the last slot. 2. Right-click and select Export from the pop-up menu. 3. Replace the media. 4. Highlight all of the slots in the view, right-click and select Import from the pop-up menu. To update the list of media contained in the slots, perform the refresh operation. In addition, you can erase the contents of media, or perform a label operation, as shown in Figure 3-43. Figure 3-43 Device management additional functions This completes the setup and configuration of Backup Exec. For more information, please refer to the online manuals, available at: http://seer.support.veritas.com/docs/234125.htm3.3 CA BrightStor ARCserve 2000 This section describes the installation of the ARCserve 2000. IBM currently ships a trial copy of ARCserve 2000 with all tape libraries.82 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 92. To install the server, your system will need the following requirements: Operating system: Windows NT 4.0 SP 4 or Higher Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server or Datacenter Server Note: The version currently shipped with IBM libraries is CA ARCserve 2000, which is now rebranded as CA BrightStor ARCserve 2000.3.3.1 Installation Before the installation of ARCserve 2000, you must first install the required licenses. To install the license files you must first run RegIT.exe, located in the root directory of the installation CD. The welcome window will appear. Click Next and you will see the available registration methods (see Figure 3-44). To install ARCserve 2000 in trial mode, select the Register Later option and click Next. Figure 3-44 Registration window To register the product in operational mode, you will need to obtain a customer ID from Computer Associates. This can be by phone or Internet. Once you have your unique customer ID, click Register Now or Install Keycode File to register the product. The following possibilities exist: Online Express allows you to quickly register CA software using any Windows NT machine with Internet access. E-mail lets you send CA product registration request through e-mail. Remote enables you to register through a remote Windows machine. Phone provides you with the ability to call your local CA office and register your software if you do not have Internet or e-mail access. Install Keycode File installs a text file that is needed to register your software through e-mail or remote location. Chapter 3. Software configuration 83
  • 93. For more information on licensing see: http://support.ca.com/ca-tlc/tlc_supp.html In the window shown in Figure 3-45, you must select the product that you wish to register. Use the drop-down menu and select ARCserve 2000 Advanced Edition, type in the registration code and click Next. If the license files are successfully created, click Next then Finish. You will have to repeat the whole process for the ARCserve 2000 Tape Library Option or any other product you wish to install and use. Tip: Since we are using automated tape solutions, you are required to install at least two products: ARCserve 2000 Advanced Edition and ARCserve 2000 Tape Library Option. You must install the Advanced Edition, becaue the Workgroup Edition will not work with the Tape Library option. Figure 3-45 Product registration The installation for ARCserve 2000 is the same for Windows NT and for Windows 2000. If you have the software CD in the drive, it should start the ARCserve Product Explorer automatically. If not, run Pe.exe. Double-click ARCserve 2000 Advanced Edition to see the setup options as shown in Figure 3-46. Select the required setup option (in this case we chose Standard Setup) and click Install.84 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 94. Figure 3-46 ARCserve 2000 Product ExplorerThe rest of the installation is straightforward and similar to most other software installations.Accept the terms of the license agreement, fill in customer information and select thedestination folder or accept the default.Next, you will have to select what database you will use as the ARCserve database. TheARCserve database records job information for each job that is run, including media andmedia device information. The database information allows you to perform restores bykeeping track of each file and directory that was backed up to media. When you want torestore a specific file, the database determines which media a file is stored on. The databaseinformation is also used to generate ARCserve’s reports. As shown in Figure 3-47, you havethe choice between the native ARCserve database or a Microsoft SQL database. Chapter 3. Software configuration 85
  • 95. Figure 3-47 Database selection The next step is to specify a system account. This account will be granted administrator and backup operator rights and must be an existing system account. The account will be used to run the ARCserve services. Click Finish to complete the installation of the advanced edition component. Restart the system. Next, install the ARCserve 2000 Tape Library Option. Since the installation of this component simply copies the required files to the system, no further details are necessary. After the installation, you might get prompted for the device configuration. If this happens, exit and reboot the system.3.3.2 Configuration After restarting the system, you can start configuring the library and tape devices. You have several options for doing this. These include the ARCserve Device Configuration application or Device Wizard. The ARCserve Device Configuration and the Device Wizard are both available from the Start menu. Note: Unlike TSM and Backup Exec, ARCserve requires Windows Removable Storage Manager as library manager. After the initial welcome window, you will need to select the type of device that you are installing (see Figure 3-48). Select the Tape and Optical Library to configure a tape library.86 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 96. Figure 3-48 Device Configuration optionsThe next window will allow you to assign drives to the library devices. This allows ARCserveto know which drives are available inside a library. The left pane should display the librarydevices and the right pane displays the available tape devices (see Figure 3-49).Figure 3-49 Tape/Optical Library Setup - step 1 Chapter 3. Software configuration 87
  • 97. You can add tape drives to the library using a manual selection and assignment, or choose the automatic Auto Config option. When performing the operation manually, select the drive and library, and click the Assign button. If you have more that one tape device in the library, make sure that you add them in the order that they are assigned in the library. For example, if your library has a Tape0 and Tape1 device, add Tape0 first. To determine which tape is which device in the library, use the SCSI ID available in the Detail window. Note: If your tape engine is started, a window appears that will let you stop the engine. The engine must be stopped in order to configure a library device. The result of the operation is shown in Figure 3-50. The tape drive should now appear under the library in the left pane of the window. Once you have assigned the devices, click Next. Figure 3-50 Tape/Optical Library Setup - step 1 assigning devices Step 2 allows you to assign a cleaning tape and add barcode support. Select the library device and click Properties. Finally, the advanced configuration window appears (see Figure 3-51).88 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 98. Figure 3-51 Advanced library settings This window provides the following advanced options: Library Quick Initialization This allows ARCserve to skip the library inventory process that is automatically activated when the tape engine is started. This feature assumes that no media have been moved, added, removed, or swapped since the last shutdown. Mark Drive(s) Online/Offline This allows you to mark defective drives offline. ARCserve will continue to operate using the remaining non-defective drives. To finalize the device configuration, click Next. This will show you the summary of your operations. Click Finish to complete.3.3.3 Operation If you open the ARCserve Manager from the start menu, this will give you access to all of ARCserve’s functions via the menu on the left-hand side under Contents. Chapter 3. Software configuration 89
  • 99. Figure 3-52 ARCserve Management Console ARCserve management functions can be accessed in several ways, either by Quick Access or using the wizards. Both can be accessed from the home page or from the links in the left pane. We have used the Quick Access method as shown in Figure 3-52. In this window you can view and access all the Managers below: Backup Manager The Backup Manager allows you to schedule and submit jobs to back up your data to media. Restore Manager Allows you to restore previously backed up data. Database Manager Displays information from the ARCserve database. Job Status Allows you to monitor, submit, start, stop, reschedule and delete jobs. Devices Manager As well as displaying information about your storage devices and media, the Device Manager also allows you to perform media functions such as compression, formatting, erasing, ejecting and retensioning. Report Manager Uses data in the ARCserve database to generate reports.90 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 100. Media PoolManages, creates and maintains logical groupings of media for easy identification ofbackups.ARCserve Server AdminAllows you to manage the three ARCserve Engines or Services: Job, Tape and Database.Alert ManagerSends messages/alerts about specific events that occur during ARCserves operation. Chapter 3. Software configuration 91
  • 101. 92 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 102. 4 Chapter 4. Recovery This chapter discusses various types of recovery that might be necessary after data loss. It explains the different types of recovery, including business recovery, system recovery, application recovery and data recovery. For each type, we provide you with an overview of the options you have, and the necessary components. We do not go into detail on the different recovery processes or products, mainly due to their extensive nature.4.1 Introduction One of the major goals of implementing a backup solution is the ability to recover from disasters, hardware failures, system failures and user errors. Where tape libraries and associated software are certainly a component in recovery operations, there are a lot more components that create a valid and working recovery. These components depend largely on what type of recovery you are trying to implement. We can distinguish four types of recovery, each with its own specific needs and considerations: Business recovery Recover an entire business after a major disaster. System recovery Recover one or more IT systems after system failures. Application recovery Recover an application after data loss or failure. Data recovery Recover data after data loss (accidental or failure). As you can see from this list, the scope of what we are trying to recover differs widely. In the following sections, we take a brief look at these types of recovery. One constant in recovery is planning. A recovery plan should clearly define procedures that need to be taken in the event of a certain condition. The most advanced hardware and software will not serve its purpose if nobody has a clear idea on how to recover. Recovery is typically a high-stress situation, and having a procedure ready makes one less thing to worry about: how will I do it?© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 93
  • 103. A second very important factor is that even the best recovery plan is not worth a lot when the procedures havent been tested and the plan is not maintained. Testing a recovery plan ensures that the decisions that will be made in case of recovery will be the correct ones. And, since current IT environments are very dynamic, maintaining that plan and testing the updates will ensure that the recovery procedures are up to date. Another advantage of regular recovery testing is that the people involved will not face unknown situations in the event of a disaster or failure. Having run through the tests, they will be more familiar with the procedures.4.2 Business recovery The broadest type of recovery is without doubt business recovery, often referred to as disaster recovery. Its scope is to recover an entire business after a major disaster. While data backup availability is very important, this type of recovery comprises a lot more than just data recovery. Examples of possible steps include: Relocation into new building infrastructure Telecommunication recovery Availability of spare IT hardware Availability of personnel As you can see, this type of recovery is very complex, and happens at all levels of a company. That is why specialized companies, including IBM, offer services to other businesses to help create, test and apply disaster recovery plans. For information on IBM Global Service Business Continuance and Recovery services, please see: http://www-1.ibm.com/services/e-business/brs.html4.3 System recovery System recovery comprises the rebuild of one or more IT systems after failure. This should include the following: Availability of replacement hardware Tools to perform operating system recovery Data recovery While this type of recovery might look like an easy-to-reach goal if daily backups of the data residing on the system are made, there are some pitfalls that make it much more difficult than it seems. This is especially true on Windows systems, mainly because of the lack of recovery options that are contained in the operating system itself, as compared to more advanced operating systems, such as AIX or z/OS. The main problems when recovering Windows systems include: Consistency of the operating systems registry Open file handling A second problem that is very often experienced is that, as backup operations get more and more centralized, the direct link between the system that needs recovery and the tape device is broken. You will need a backup client function and network communications to reach the backup server.94 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 104. These problems lead backup software manufacturers to provide tools or add-on products that allow system recovery.4.3.1 Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager (DRM) assists with disaster recovery of the Tivoli Storage Manager server and its clients. DRM is a separate feature that works with Tivoli Storage Manager to provide: Automated generation of a customized server disaster recovery plan Off-site recovery media management Inventory of machine information required to recover the server and its clients Centralized management of the disaster recovery process The main purpose of DRM is to automatically generate recovery plans containing information about locations of backup tapes, states of the data available, customer specific information, required scripts and client system information. Some of this data is dynamically pulled out of the TSM server database, while other data has to be introduced by the storage administrator. All this data, even the manually entered one, can be centralized on the TSM server, and used to create the plan using a simple command.4.3.2 Bare Metal Restore for TSM OTG Bare Metal Restore (BMR) is an add-on product for Tivoli Storage Manager from OTG. It is completely integrated into TSM, providing system recovery features. When you use BMR, all your clients’ files are backed up normally to their TSM server(s). The addition to this scheduled backup is the execution of a BMR program that automatically discovers and saves the state of the machine configuration. This information allows BMR to completely recover a machine using only the TSM backup. Restoring a machine with Bare Metal Restore is easy and fully automated. The entire recovery process consists of running one command on the BMR server and rebooting the client. Bare Metal Restore uses the existing TSM server and adds a BMR main server, one or more file servers, and a BMR client component on every machine that requires the Bare Metal Restore capability. If you use the network boot capability of BMR, then one or more boot servers are also necessary, as shown in Figure 4-1. Note that the BMR server components may be located on the same physical machine; the exact configuration of servers depends on various factors, including BMR client platforms and network topography. Chapter 4. Recovery 95
  • 105. BMR Server Boot Server File Server TSM Server OS, BMR & TSM code needed at restore time All Backed-up Boot Image client files Figure 4-1 TKG BMR system layout The BMR main server manages the clients supported by the BMR system, the process of preparing for the client restoration, and the post-processing after the client(s) have been restored. It makes the appropriate boot image and file systems available to the client, ensures that the boot server and file server are properly configured, and generates a customized client recovery procedure. The boot server provides the boot image to the client when it performs a network boot prior to restoration. BMR uses standard protocols to network-boot the client from the boot server. The file server provides the client with the programs, libraries, and configuration data it needs to perform the recovery procedure. These include the necessary operating system commands and libraries, the BMR client package and the TSM client package. The BMR client is any machine being protected by BMR. The client continues to back up to its normal TSM server. In order to be able to recover the machine using BMR, all of the client’s files must be backed up on a regular basis.96 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 106. For more information on this product, please see: http://www.tkg.com/products/baremetal/tivoli/baremetal_tivoli.php4.3.3 BrightStor ARCserve Disaster Recovery Option The BrightStor ARCserve Backup Disaster Recovery Option provides a recovery function, without the need for re-installing the operating system or BrightStor ARCserve Backup from a remote location. It supports one-button Disaster Recovery (bootable tape), CD Base Disaster Recovery and Disk Base Disaster Recovery in Windows NT/2000 and Linux environments. One Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) is a technology developed by Hewlett Packard (HP) to allow their tape drives to act as a bootable device and function as a true Disaster Recovery device. Instead of booting from a floppy drive or CD-ROM, your server can now boot from a tape drive. When this feature is used in conjunction with a SCSI Controller that is capable of supporting CD-ROMs as boot devices, the tape drive with loaded tape media can now be used to boot the computer. The disk boot method will use diskettes containing a basic operating system and ARCserve client, enabling the bare system to contact the ARCserve backup server and restore the data.4.3.4 VERITAS Backup Exec Intelligent Disaster Recovery The Intelligent Disaster Recovery (IDR) Option for Backup Exec Windows NT/2000 is an automated disaster recovery solution that allows recovery of Windows NT or 2000 computers after a disaster. It is also possible to protect and recover remote Windows NT and 2000 computers over the network, using the IDR Option. The IDR option will allow the backup administrator to create bootable media, which can be diskette, CD or tape. Using this bootable media, a system can be recovered using the available backups. IDR allows a point-in-time recovery, which means that you can recover the system in a state different from the one it was in at the last backup operation.4.3.5 St. Bernard Open File Manager Open File Manager monitors the file system for read requests coming from a backup software program. It recognizes backup programs running on the same system, as well as backup programs running on a remote system. The remote system recognition is based on the configurable user name the administrator has reserved for backup. When the backup application accesses the first file for backup, Open File Manager determines if there are no partial I/O transactions pending. This to provide a consistent start point. If there are no transactions pending OFM will start monitoring changes for all open files in the system. If a write occurs, OFM will move the original data to a so-called Pre-Write Cache, which is actually a preformatted file on the hard disk. When the backup applications read gets to a part of a file that has been changed during the backup of that file, Open File Manager substitutes the original data to fulfill the read requests. The file, on tape, will then look exactly like it did when the backup application started. Meanwhile, users of the data have normal access to read and write to their files, with the current data. http://www.stbernard.com/products/ofm/products_ofm.asp This product is independent of the actual backup software running. For a detailed list of supported products, please see this Web site. Chapter 4. Recovery 97
  • 107. 4.3.6 BrightStor ARCserve backup agent for open files The backup agent for open files provided for the ARCserve backup product allow a backup of open files. The operation of this application is comparable with St. Bernard’s OFM product (see 4.3.5, “St. Bernard Open File Manager” on page 97). Parts of a file that are changed during backup operations will be written to a cache file, from which they are read when the backup agent performs the actual backup.4.3.7 VERITAS Backup Exec Open File Option Backup Exec’s Open File Option permits you to back up open files on Windows NT and Windows 2000 servers and workstations. When a job is submitted for backup with the Open File Option selected, a static view of the volume is created. Original data is buffered on the static volume when changes are made to the files during a backup. Buffered data is then backed up, not the changed data.4.4 Application recovery Where system recovery concentrated on getting the operating system back on-line, and the supporting applications, application recovery should focus on the recovery of business application server data, like database and mail systems. Where this might seam as simple data recovery (assuming the application servers code is available), there are additional considerations that need to be taken. The reason for this is that application server most likely have more advanced recovery tools than just restoring there data. A example of this is the transaction logging provided by most database applications, and the connected roll-forward capabilities. The main difference between recovering an application system and simply data is that the application server itself will be in control, not the application actually restoring the data from tape to disk. This means that the people involved in recovering these systems are most likely to be the DBA, rather than the storage administration people. One of the most important prerequisites for recovery, is that you have a valid and recent backup available. And this is even more important for application servers, since the data must be complete and comply with the application server recovery schemes. There are basically two routes that can be followed when backing up an application server: Offline backup Online backup An offline backup of an application server means that the backup software will back up a data file, just as it would back up a normal user file. The trick is to know what file needs to be backed up. A database application typically has a set of files, which are linked together. So you need a very good understanding of these files, and how they work together. Also, the database application must be stopped. Otherwise, it is almost impossible to get all the files in a consistent state, and ensure that no data is cached in memory. A second possibility of doing an offline backup, is using the database managers export or dump utilities. This function, available on most databases, allows you to dump the data and control information to one or more files on the hard disk. Once these files are available, the database can be started again, and the backup program can simply back up the dump data98 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 108. files. The advantages of this system over the real offline backup are that the required offline time for the database application is very limited. A disadvantage of this backup method is that it creates a two-phase backup and restore mechanism: first dump the database, then backup it. Or in case of a restore: restore the dump file to disk, and then import it into the database. The online backup method produces the best result when working in an environment where 24X7 availability is required. The backup program will allow to produce a backup while the database is online. Another advantage is the close integration of the backup product and the database application. In some case, this integration even allows the DBA to use the database manager interface to perform backups, restores and check the status of the previous backups (an example of this is the Tivoli Data Protection for SAP/R3 product). A disadvantage compared to the offline backup solution is that you will need additional software in most cases, making the solution more complex and expensive. Most backup software manufacturers provide online database backup tools. Tivoli for example has an entire range of Tivoli Data Protection for Applications products, integrating online application server backups with the Tivoli Storage Manager product. A special application where you would certainly need a recovery scenario is the backup server itself. It is logic that when this component fails, all restores become impossible. That is why most constructors provide clear and easy recovery steps for the backup server. The important part is to check if your installation complies with the prerequisites.4.5 Data recovery A final type of recovery is user data recovery. While this is the most simple type of recovery - restoring files lost by a user - it is probably the most common one. And therefore, this should be the primary goal in any backup implementation. Also, while the comments made in the introduction about the necessity of recovery procedures and testing might look too advanced, experience proves that a lot of data loss could have been prevented if testing and recovery plans were in place. One important part in data recovery, and one that is omitted in a lot of implementations, is a clear understanding and communication of what the actual restore possibilities are. Defined as a Service Level Agreement (SLA), this document should state what users can expect when they restore their data. The SLA should state parameters such as how many versions of a file exist, how long backups are retained, who is responsible in case of restore failure, and what the expected performance is. Chapter 4. Recovery 99
  • 109. 100 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 110. A Appendix A. TSM element numbers This appendix provides information and worksheets to help you plan your tape installation. Recording your configuration information using these worksheets will provide a convenient way to document your backup implementation. For the latest information, please see: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/requirements.html© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 101
  • 111. IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library Table 4-1 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Library element numbers Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 1) Use native Windows name Tape Drive 2 (element 2) Use native Windows name Robot (element 0) lb___.___.___.___ Drive 1 Drive 2 (1) (2) 40 41 Robot (0) 33 48 32 49 31 20 (EE) Notes: 1. Barcode supported 2. When used with 3600-LXU expansion unit(s), the following element addresses apply: Drive 4: Element number 3 Drive 5: Element number 4 Drive 6: Element number 5 Drive 7: Element number 6 Slot element addresses for expansion unit 1 : 51 - 69 Slot element addresses for expansion unit 2 : 71 - 89 3. Entry/Exit (EE) slot is always 20, even with 1 or 2 LXU’s attached, and will be the top right slot.102 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 112. IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader Table 4-2 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Autoloader element numbers Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 1) Use native Windows name Transport (element 0) lb___.___.___.___ Robot (0) 36 Slot 6 35 Slot 5 Drive 1 (1) 34 Slot 4 33 Slot 3 37 Slot 7 32 Slot 2 38 Slot 8 31 Slot 1 39 Slot 9 Notes: 1. Barcode supportedIBM 3502-x14 DLT Library Table 4-3 IBM 3502-x14 DLT Library element numbers Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 3 (element 18) mt___.___.___.___ Robot (element 1) lb___.___.___.___ Notes: The following options should be set during configuration: • Enable Barcode • Autoload Cartridge No • Auto Cleaning No • Random Mode Appendix A. TSM element numbers 103
  • 113. IBM 3502-108 DLT Autoloader Table 4-4 IBM 3502-108 DLT Autoloader element numbers Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape drive 1 (element 16) mt___.___.___.___ Autochanger (element 1) lb___.___.___.___ Notes: 1. Random mode should be selected to run Tivoli Storage Manager. This is the default. Autoload cartridge should be set to NO on the operators panel. 2. Barcode should be enabled on the operators panel. Ensure that the autoloader door is closed. 3. Auto cleaning is supported. Set Auto Cleaning on the operators panel and ensure that there is a cleaning cartridge in physical slot 8 (Next to the drive). 4. Autoloader firmware level should be at 0000F, and the DLT7000 drive level should be at 1E48.IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Autoloader Table 4-5 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Autoloader element numbers Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape drive 1 (element 1) mt___.___.___.___ Autchanger lb___.___.___.___ The tape drive and the autochanger share a SCSI ID, but have different LUNs. Usually the drive is LUN 0 and the autochanger is LUN 1.104 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 114. Related publications The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this Redpaper.IBM Redbooks For information on ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM Redbooks” on page 106. Netfinity Tape Solutions,SG24-5218 The IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Libraries Guide, SG24-5946 IBM Tape Solutions for Storage Area Networks and FICON, SG24-5474 Implementing IBM LTO Tape in Linux and Windows, SG24-6268 Using IBM LTO Ultrium with Open Systems, SG24-6502 IBM Magstar Tape Products Family: A Practical Guide, SG24-4632-03 Tivoli Storage Manager 3.7.3 & 4.1 Technical Guide, SG24-6110 Tivoli Storage Manager Concepts, SG24-4877 Using Tivoli Storage Manager in a SAN Environment, SG24-6132Other resources These publications are also relevant as further information sources: LTO Autoloader User’s Guide LTO Library User’s Guide IBM 3600 Fibre Channel Card User’s Guide IBM 280/560 GB DLT Autoloader User’s Guide IBM 490/980 GB DLT Library User’s Guide IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Autoloader User’s Guide These publictions are found at the following Web site: http://www.ibm.com/support/Referenced Web sites These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources: xSeries tape storage page http://www.pc.ibm.com/ww/eserver/xseries/tape.html Linear Tape Open organization http://www.lto.org DLT tape information http://www.dlttape.com© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 105
  • 115. Tivoli home page (Tivoli Storage Manager) http://www.tivoli.com VERITAS home page (Backup Exec) http://www.veritas.com Computer Associates home page (ARCserve) http://www.ca.comHow to get IBM Redbooks You can order hardcopy Redbooks, as well as view, download, or search for Redbooks at the following Web site: ibm.com/redbooks You can also download additional materials (code samples or diskette/CD-ROM images) from that site.IBM Redbooks collections Redbooks are also available on CD-ROMs. Click the CD-ROMs button on the Redbooks Web site for information about all the CD-ROMs offered, as well as updates and formats.106 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  • 116. Special notices References in this publication to IBM products, programs or services do not imply that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM operates. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only IBMs product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent program that does not infringe any of IBMs intellectual property rights may be used instead of the IBM product, program or service. Information in this book was developed in conjunction with use of the equipment specified, and is limited in application to those specific hardware and software products and levels. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to the IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785. Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose of enabling: (i) the exchange of information between independently created programs and other programs (including this one) and (ii) the mutual use of the information which has been exchanged, should contact IBM Corporation, Dept. 600A, Mail Drop 1329, Somers, NY 10589 USA. Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions, including in some cases, payment of a fee. The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed AS IS. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer responsibility and depends on the customers ability to evaluate and integrate them into the customers operational environment. While each item may have been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere. Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk. Any pointers in this publication to external Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of these Web sites. The following terms are trademarks of other companies: C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. PC Direct is a trademark of Ziff Communications Company in the United States and/or other countries and is used by IBM Corporation under license. ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries licensed exclusively© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 107
  • 117. through The Open Group. SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic Transaction LLC. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.108 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers