Front coverTape Automationwith IBMxSeries ServersSelecting an IBM xSeries automatedtape solution to meet your needsSetting...
International Technical Support OrganizationTape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries ServersDecember 2001
Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Special ...
iii
iv   Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Contents                  Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
3.2.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Preface                  This Redpaper describes the current line of IBM xSeries tape automation products. These          ...
Ron Hevener                xSeries Tape Options test, IBM RaleighNotice                This publication is intended to hel...
1    Chapter 1.    Deciding on a tape library                  This chapter introduces the advantages and disadvantages of...
Uses for tape devices differ, but most of them can be placed in the Storage Management               arena of an enterpris...
1.2 Do I need a tape library?         The information in this section should help you to come to a decision on what type o...
role. If you require capacity that is larger than the one that fits on a single data cartridge, you               will nee...
Sizing with tape rotationWill you use a tape rotation scheme, based on a full/incremental or full/differential pattern? If...
Sizing for online media               A second example is the case of an always online solution for your tape media. This ...
This completes the introduction to the need and selection of a tape library. For additionalinformation, please refer to th...
8   Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
2    Chapter 2.    Library Overview                  This chapter discusses the features of tape automation products. Thes...
Note: Throughout this document we will no longer refer to DAT but instead to Digital Data                Storage Four (DDS...
Table 2-1 provides an overview of possible future enhancements to the Ultrium format.Table 2-1 LTO Ultrium roadmap        ...
Table 2-2 LTO Accelis roadmap                                      Generation 1         Generation 2         Generation 3 ...
New buckler design           Where the buckler design of the DLT IV tapes was a regular source of tape breakdown the      ...
Table 2-4 Overview of 3600 LTO automation products                Model Number             3600 LTO autoloader       3600 ...
The 3600 autoloader option kit includes the following items:              The LTO tape autoloader assembly.              A...
Figure 2-3 The IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library               The library has the following features:              ...
SCSI Cable To Host                                                          T                SCSI       LAN               ...
T                                                                                     360 0-LXU                        S C...
Fibre Channel Cable                                                                   T    T                              ...
Figure 2-7 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader               The IBM 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader has the following features:    ...
Figure 2-8 The 3502-314 DLT Tape Library, tower model          The IBM 3502-314/R14 Tape Library has the following feature...
Table 2-6 Overview of DDS/4 autoloader                Model number                     120/240 GB DDS/4 tape           120...
2.5.1 Performance          The performance of a tape library is normally defined using two parameters:             The per...
2.5.2 Capacity               The capacity of a autoloader or library is dictated by the number of cartridges that it can h...
The problem with this decision is that the investment required is much higher. Another, more           reasonable solution...
2.5.6 Connectivity               The possibilities we have connecting the library to the host system is called connectivit...
For tape devices that don’t support native fiber connections, you will need additional           hardware to provide fiber...
throughput, the 3600 tape library has the capacity to hold an additional tape or additional               tapes if using t...
Table 2-12 Product comparison                                SCSI          Form        Data           No. of        Capaci...
30   Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415

2,088

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,088
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Tape automation with ibm e server xseries servers redp0415"

  1. 1. Front coverTape Automationwith IBMxSeries ServersSelecting an IBM xSeries automatedtape solution to meet your needsSetting up Tivoli Storage Manager,ARCserve, and Backup ExecIncludes the new 3600 LTOautoloader and library series Wim Feyants David Brown Frank Schallmoseribm.com/redbooks Redpaper
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationTape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries ServersDecember 2001
  3. 3. Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Special notices” on page 107.First Edition (December 2001)This edition applies to tape subsystems supported by IBM for connection to IBM ^ xSeries servers.Comments may be addressed to:IBM Corporation, International Technical Support OrganizationDept. HZ8 Building 662P.O. Box 12195Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2195When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information inany way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2001. All rights reserved.Note to U.S Government Users - Documentation related to restricted rights - Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions setforth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. iii
  5. 5. iv Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  6. 6. Contents Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii The team that wrote this Redpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii IBM trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Do I need a tape library? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Tape library selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.1 Tape library capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.2 Number of tape drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter 2. Library Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.1 Linear Tape Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.2 Super Digital Linear Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 IBM 3600 automation products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.1 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2.2 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 IBM 3502 DLT automation products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.2 IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4 IBM 4mm automation product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4.1 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.5 Tape library comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.5.1 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.5.2 Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.3 Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.4 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.5.5 Form factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.5.6 Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5.7 Additional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.5.8 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.6 Supported solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Chapter 3. Software configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.1 Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.1.1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.1.3 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.1.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.1.5 Other tape usages within Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.2 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows 2000 / NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.2.1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.2.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.2.3 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 v
  7. 7. 3.2.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.3 CA BrightStor ARCserve 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 3.3.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.3.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.3.3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Chapter 4. Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.2 Business recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.3 System recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.3.1 Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.3.2 Bare Metal Restore for TSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.3.3 BrightStor ARCserve Disaster Recovery Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.4 VERITAS Backup Exec Intelligent Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.5 St. Bernard Open File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.6 BrightStor ARCserve backup agent for open files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.3.7 VERITAS Backup Exec Open File Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.4 Application recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.5 Data recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Appendix A. TSM element numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 IBM 3502-x14 DLT Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 IBM 3502-108 DLT Autoloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Autoloader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 105 How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 106 IBM Redbooks collections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... ...... 106 Special notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107vi Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  8. 8. Preface This Redpaper describes the current line of IBM xSeries tape automation products. These include the already existent 3502 DLT and DDS/4 series, as well as the new 3600 LTO series. We will discuss the need for tape products and libraries in particular, as well as give you library selection criteria. After describing the current products in details and positioning them to each other, we will provide information on how to use the tape libraries in conjunction with leading backup software. These include IBM’s Tivoli Storage Manager, CA ARCserve and Veritas Backup Exec.The team that wrote this Redpaper This Redpaper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. Wim Feyants is an IT Specialist working for IBM Global Services in Belgium. He is a certified Tivoli Storage Manager consultant and instructor. He has over six years’ experience in supporting and implementing Tivoli Storage Manager solutions, and has in-depth knowledge of tape systems and Storage Area Networks. His previous ITSO publications include the Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5218 and Using Tivoli Storage Manager in a SAN environment, SG24-6132. David Brown is a pre-sales Technical Specialist for xSeries Techline in the UK. His areas of expertise include storage and SAP solutions on xSeries. Before joining Techline, David worked as a Service Engineer with IBM Global Services. He has been with IBM for over five years. David is a Microsoft Certified Professional. Frank Schallmoser is a level 2 support specialist for IBM-Intel based servers and has specialized in tape products and backup software. He holds a degree in applied Physics from the Technical High School of Aachen department Juelich (Germany) and the University of Coventry (UK). Before he joined IBM UK in 1996, he worked for an IT company in Germany, setting up hardware, software and administrating Novell and UNIX networks. He is a co-author of IBM Tape Solutions for Storage Area Networks and FICON, SG24-5474. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Steve Russell ITSO Specialist, xSeries, IBM ITSO Raleigh Center, IBM Gail Christensen ITSO Editor, IBM ITSO Raleigh Center, IBM Paul Chenger xSeries Technology Lab, IBM Raleigh John Gates xSeries Storage Development, IBM Raleigh© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 vii
  9. 9. Ron Hevener xSeries Tape Options test, IBM RaleighNotice This publication is intended to help storage and system administrators who are interested in or installing the current range of xSeries tape automation products.IBM trademarks The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: AFS® Redbooks™ AIX® Redbooks Logo™ DB2® S/390® DFS™ Sequent® e (logo)® Tivoli® Enterprise Storage Server™ WebSphere® FICON™ xSeries™ IBM® z/OS™ Informix™ Lotus® Magstar® Notes® MVS™ Domino™ Netfinity®Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our papers to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this Redpaper or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review Redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an Internet note to: redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to the address on page ii.viii Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  10. 10. 1 Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library This chapter introduces the advantages and disadvantages of tape automation products. We look at the advantages of tape media compared to other removable media, and explain why tape automation products can help in reducing the total cost of ownership of your IT protection environment. In a second part, sizing and selecting a tape library is discussed. Establishing the correct capacity and performance requirements for a tape library can be very challenging. We look at different points that should be take into account, and provide some sizing examples.1.1 Introduction Tape media has a long history of offering high capacity at low cost when it comes to storing data. In the current storage environment, however, tape is becoming increasingly under pressure from other technologies. Storage devices such as CD-ROM drives, optical drives and hard disks have become dramatically cheaper, and these have some potential advantages for delivering reduced hardware costs for a backup solution. For many users, however, tape continues to be the media of choice, since it delivers features that are not available in the alternatives. These include: Lowest cost per bit of storage Tape media has an estimated cost of less than $5 per GB. Highest capacity per unit Comparing tape media to CD-R shows a massively higher capacity. For example an LOT cartridge is capable of holding 100 GB of data. Stored on CD-R media, this would require a total of 170 CDs. In the past, it has been assumed that tape media are unstable and slow. Where this was certainly true a few years ago, new technologies have dramatically improved reliability and performance.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 1
  11. 11. Uses for tape devices differ, but most of them can be placed in the Storage Management arena of an enterprise. Storage management includes several disciplines, including: Data protection Data archiving Space management Data protection is probably the best known and most often implemented part of storage management. It includes backing up data, providing insurance against data loss. In today’s Intel server world there is a lot of information available on how to increase system reliability and availability. There are many solutions that help achieve this, including cluster solutions, RAID array solutions and Storage Area Networks (SAN). However, where these solutions provide assurance for system component failure, they do not protect against data loss due to application failures, human error or viruses. For this reason it is important that you have a backup strategy to provide the possibility to recover your data in the event of a failure. Backups not only secure your current data but also allow you the possibility to recover previous files that have been overwritten by newer versions. Data archiving is used to provide long term storage for important data. Most companies treat data from a legal point of view. Keeping that data in online storage such as disks is not the proper solution, due to high management costs. A better solution would be to place the data in offline storage, such as tapes. Important when implementing archive solutions is media stability. Tape media currently have an estimated life expectancy of 10 to 20 years, depending on the technology and storage conditions. Where this is enough for some documents, others might require longer retention periods. In that case, other data carriers like optical media, microfilm or even paper still need to be considered. A consideration for long-term storage is a factor called technology obsolescence. This indicates the possible problems that might arise when you are required to read a tape that has been created 20 years ago. Will you still have the required hardware available? Will it still work? Short-term archiving on the other hand is much more common, and ideally suited for low-cost storage. Imagine the case where you want to keep project data for a couple of years, but do not want to place it in online storage. In that case, tape media are ideal, especially when combined with archiving management software. Another, less common use of tape media is space management. The main purpose of space management is similar to short-term archiving of data. Both move unused or infrequently used data from disk storage to tape. The main difference is how moved data is handled. In the archiving solution, retrieving the data involves interaction with the storage manager. The user will need to request a retrieve of his archive data in order to consult it. With space management, this process becomes transparent to the user. When he requests his data, the space management software will automatically detect that it concerns migrated data. Next, the software will automatically recall the data from tape storage back to disk, where it can be consulted. The only inconvenience for the user requesting the data will be that it’s a bit slower to get his data. That is why most space management software use certain rules, for example the last access date, before moving data. Space management has been used for years on mainframe systems, such as MVS. In the open world, it has become more and more popular. When considering tape devices as secondary storage for space management, the most important factor is the data access time. This will typically require smaller capacity, but faster tape technology.2 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  12. 12. 1.2 Do I need a tape library? The information in this section should help you to come to a decision on what type of tape product you require, whether this be a single tape drive or automated tape solution. Automated tape products are usually seen in two forms, the autoloader or the library. The autoloader is usually defined by the fact that it has only one tape drive. Another characteristic is the limited number of tape cartridges it can hold. The tape library has the same functionality as the autoloader, but it can host several tape drives and a much larger amount of tape cartridges. To make it easier, in the following discussion we refer to both of them as a tape library. Note: Although this Redpaper describes in detail only the available xSeries tape solutions, IBM offers a wide range of tape products, from entry level LTO, DLT and Magstar products to high-end enterprise libraries (3584 LTO and 3494 Magstar). When looking at the advantages and disadvantages of a tape library compared to manual tape drive implementation, the first topic will be cost. Although a tape library will have a higher initial cost than a single tape drive, it is the overall operational cost that needs to be considered. If you think about single-drive operations, you typically see a manual tape media replacement every day. In the worst case, however, you will outgrow the capacity of a single tape volume, requiring tape media replacements overnight. It is easily understandable that this is a costly operation. A solution without a tape library would be to add a second stand-alone drive, doubling the capacity without human intervention. Where this might look like viable solutions, think about some of the downsides: Where will you install the second tape device? Most current systems do not have the physical space to add a second tape drive, meaning that an external enclosure will be required. The cost of a second tape drive just to add capacity might be high. When comparing prices of tape libraries and tape devices, the additional cost of a tape library is typically around the price of a tape drive (high-end libraries differ from this equation). This means that two stand-alone tape drives would typically cost as much as a library with one drive. The complexity of manually managing two tape devices (times the number of systems equipped with tape devices) might lead to human errors. The tape library will solve this capacity problem by providing a seamless, automatic transition from one tape cartridge to another, without the need for human intervention. Also, the way media are handled is relative to their stability and reliability. Typically, mounting a tape cartridge in a single tape devices stresses the tape (tension, physical contact). With a single tape drive, media will typically be loaded by the end of business hours, allowing a nightly backup, and be unloaded the next morning. By automating this, the time the tape is mounted will be reduced to its required value, thus reducing possible media failures. Another advantage of a library is its scalability. Tape libraries typically offer the possibility to add tape devices, or sometimes cartridge slots, increasing the capacity and performance of the tape library. This leads us to the second major advantage of tape libraries when compared to single tape devices: performance. The number of tape devices is in direct relationship with the possible performance of a tape library. A question that can be asked is: does a tape library with two drives offer higher performance than two stand-alone tape drives? The answer is that there is no difference. But, keep the above discussion in mind: capacity plays an even more important Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 3
  13. 13. role. If you require capacity that is larger than the one that fits on a single data cartridge, you will need two stand-alone drives. If you then need to double your performance, the resulting number of single tape devices is four. The same performance and capacity combination can be obtained by selecting a two-drive tape library, leading to a less expensive solution. A final but very important factor is centralization. As discussed above, tape libraries are the ideal solution for implementations that require high-capacity, high-performance backup devices. This allows to consolidate stand-alone tape backup solutions to a central backup server using a tape library. Advantages include lower operational and maintenance costs, better control and less need for backup skills. Instead of having the system administrators handle their own backup, one central service can manage the entire backup process. One of the disadvantages of a tape library compared to a single drive is its complexity in setup and management. Managing a tape library in an efficient way will call for more advanced software than that available in the operating system. However, these products typically add functions that simplify backup and tape management, making them a requirement for medium to large backup implementations.1.3 Tape library selection In this section, we look at some points that will help you in selecting the appropriate type of tape library or autoloader. These points mainly include the number of slots and the number of drives. There are some other features that might be important in selecting a library. Chapter 2, “Library Overview” on page 9 will provide you with a list of these additional features. They include connectivity possibilities, barcode scanners and input/output slots. Choosing the correct technology for your environment is also a very important step. However, this choice is mainly linked to capacity and performance requirements. The technology will become an additional variable in the capacity and performance calculations below.1.3.1 Tape library capacity Calculating the required capacity of a tape library is very important. It should include several factors, some more easily determined than others. Capacity of a library can be specified using two figures: the number of cartridges and the storage capacity of these cartridges. A first step in determining your capacity is to know which of the above two factors will be the determining one for your environment. An example of a backup that is oriented towards the number of cartridges would be a solution where you want to back up data from one day on one cartridge. If combined with the need to hold one week’s worth of backups in one library, this would mean that you require at least seven cartridges or slots in the library. Solutions more oriented towards total capacity are those where all backup data resides in the library at all times. The sum of the capacity of all cartridges should be greater than the expected amount of data that will be backed up. Unfortunately, sizing isn’t always that easy. It strongly depends on the types of uses of your library, the software product and the type of data that will be backed up. In addition, data tends to grow. This means that when calculating your required capacity, you should include a growth factor. The following sections provide you with some examples on which you can base your calculations. It is, however, advisable that you crosscheck your calculations with backup software and hardware experts before finalizing the decision.4 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  14. 14. Sizing with tape rotationWill you use a tape rotation scheme, based on a full/incremental or full/differential pattern? Ifyes, what is the period between two full backups, and how long do you want to keep yourtapes in the library? The following is an example of calculating required library capacity.You intend to make a daily backup, using separate tapes per day, except for the weekend,where the backup for Saturday and Sunday is placed on the same tape or tapes. You want tokeep this data for two weeks. Next, you must determine if the daily backup fits on one singletape. At this point, the backup strategy becomes very important. You could choose between adaily full backup, a full backup with intermittent differentials or a full backup with intermittentincremental backups. We will use the following assumptions: A full backup requires two tape volumes. This assumption implies that you have decided on a certain tape technology, knowing the capacity of a single cartridge. Daily data change is 15%. This means that an incremental backup would require 10% of the full backup capacity. During the weekend, change is equal to one weekday (meaning 15% for the entire weekend). You base your strategy on a weekly full backup on Monday.The following table gives an overview of the different possibilities.Table 1-1 Calculating library capacity Day Full Full/Incremental Full/Differential Required Number of Required Required Number of Number of capacity tape capacity capacity tape tape cartridges cartridges cartridges Monday 2 2 2 2 2 2 Tuesday 2 2 0.3 1 0.3 1 Wednesday 2 2 0.3 1 0.6 1 Thursday 2 2 0.3 1 0.9 1 Friday 2 2 0.3 1 1.2 2 Saturday 2 2 0.3 1 1.5 2 Sunday Total 12 7 11 Cartridges requiredThe above table leads us to the following results: When you do a daily full backup, you will need to have 12 slots for a weekly change of the tapes. When doing a full/incremental backup, you only need 7 slots. This means that a 14 slot library could hold two weeks of backup.A final step in this example is to take the cleaning cartridge into account. This cartridge willtake up one slot, which needs to be added to the total number of tape slots. Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 5
  15. 15. Sizing for online media A second example is the case of an always online solution for your tape media. This example can typically be used for a Tivoli Storage Manager implementation (see 3.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 31). This solution implies that the software manages your tapes, cleaning them when they become empty. By doing this, tapes become available for overwrite operations. Let’s start from the following backup strategy: A full backup requires one tape. Only the first backup is a full backup. All the other backups will be incremental backups. An incremental backup equals 10% of a full backup. You keep five versions of a file. There is no requirement to place daily incremental backups on separate cartridges, meaning that you can use cartridge to almost 100%. The first approach is the best case scenario: one full backup, plus a daily incremental, which keeps five versions. This means that you need 1 cartridge, and four days of 10% of the full backup, meaning 0.4 cartridges. This totals to 1.4 cartridges in total. There is one factor however that is not taken into account in the previous calculation, namely the fact that the 10%¨daily change may not be equal to the 10% change of previous days. And this leads us to the worst case scenario: what if the 10% daily backup represents different data each day? In that case, the required capacity over time would be equal to two times the total required capacity, totaling two cartridges. The above two examples should indicate the difficulty in sizing a library. There are numerous different variables, each playing their role in the final required capacity. That is why the actual decision on a correct library size should be preceded by a study of the required backup strategy and environmental data.1.3.2 Number of tape drives Where calculating capacity was difficult, and required a lot of assumptions, calculating the number of tape devices required is a bit easier. The required number of tapes depends on two factors: Functional requirements Performance requirements Functional requirements indicate the need for a certain number of drives to perform certain operations. Tivoli Storage Manager, for example, requires at least two tape drives when you need to make tape copies for offline storage. Performance requirements follow out of the available time to perform backup operations. If you need to back up a certain amount of data in a certain amount of time, called the backup window, you can easily calculate the required throughput. Since the potential throughput of a tape library is in direct relation to the number of tape drives, the equation is easily made. There is, however, one important factor that needs to be considered: there is a difference between the streaming mode throughput of a tape drive (the published figure), and the actual throughput when working in combination with backup software. That is why you should again analyze your environment and ask your software supplier for case studies or performance reports, which can be related back to your environment.6 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  16. 16. This completes the introduction to the need and selection of a tape library. For additionalinformation, please refer to the following publications: Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5218 The IBM LTO Ultrium Tape Libraries Guide, SG24-5946 IBM Tape Solutions for Storage Area Networks and FICON, SG24-5474 Implementing IBM LTO Tape in Linux and Windows, SG24-6268 Using IBM LTO Ultrium with Open Systems, SG24-6502 IBM Magstar Tape Products Family: A Practical Guide, SG24-4632-03 Chapter 1. Deciding on a tape library 7
  17. 17. 8 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  18. 18. 2 Chapter 2. Library Overview This chapter discusses the features of tape automation products. These include: Tape drive technology Library capacity Performance information Interfaces Additional features Product comparison Supported solutions In addition, this chapter provides an overview of the current IBM tape automation solutions for IBM xSeries servers. We also describe the hardware installation and configuration. Specifically, the following tape libraries are covered: “IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader” on page 14 “IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library” on page 15 “IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader” on page 19 “IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library” on page 20 “IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader” on page 212.1 Technology As we see more and more tape products appear on the market, some of them using new technologies, it is important to know about these products and understand what each offers in terms of performance, capacity, growth, investment protection and connectivity. This section provides an overview of the technologies that are available from the tape automation products for IBM xSeries range. We discuss the newer tape technologies, mainly the Linear Tape Open (LTO) and the Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT). For other existing technologies, for example Digital Linear Tape (DLT) and Digital Audio Tape (DAT), see Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5216.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2001 9
  19. 19. Note: Throughout this document we will no longer refer to DAT but instead to Digital Data Storage Four (DDS/4). This is the recording format that is currently used on DAT drives and as such indicates the standard of the product.2.1.1 Linear Tape Open LTO (Linear Tape Open) is a joint IBM, HP and Seagate initiative to create new tape standards in the Open System markets. The group developed the formats to serve multiple market areas and to be supported by multiple suppliers. Licenses are available to all manufacturers for the two formats based on the technology: Ultrium, a single-reel implementation, optimized for high capacity, that offers up to 200 GB of capacity assuming a 2:1 compression ratio (100 GB native) Accelis, a dual-reel implementation, designed for fast access, that offers smaller capacity, at 25 GB, but with data retrieval in under 10 seconds. Magstar technologies are at the foundation of the LTO specifications. This includes the extension of the Magstar method of writing data, the linear serpentine Magstar track recording, an enhanced servo tracking mechanism based on the Magstar MP servo system, a compression scheme derived from the same algorithm as the Magstar LZ1 algorithm, error correction code based on the Magstar architecture, magnetically sensitive highly stable metal particle media used in Magstar today, and the implied use of MR heads already in the Magstar products. An important fact regarding SAN implementation is the provision of a native Fibre Channel interface that will be available on products of the LTO format. This lifts the need for SAN data gateways or SCSI to Fibre Channel routers, and enhances connectivity possibilities using direct switch attachment. Note: Native Fibre Channel tape devices still use the arbitrated loop implementation (FC-AL) of the Fibre Channel protocol. Since some switches do not support these loop ports, ensure that your switch is capable of using FC-AL devices before attaching tape devices. If you do not have support, an intermediate switch might be necessary. The LTO Ultrium format The Ultrium tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for high capacity and performance with outstanding reliability, in either a stand-alone or an automated environment. The Ultrium tape format uses a single reel cartridge to maximize capacity. It is ideally suited for backup, restore, and archival applications. The LTO cartridges will load in a manner similar to DLT. Here are the basic specifications of the Ultrium tape format: The first generation of Ultrium allows for 100 GB native capacity in a single compact cartridge. The cartridge is smaller than existing single-reel tape cartridges. Ultrium provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps. Cartridge memory (LTO-CM) enhances functionality by providing a non-contacting passive radio frequency (RF) interface embedded in the cartridge, allowing information retrieval (calibration information, manufacturers data and information about initialization). The advantage is that this information can be retrieved without having to load the tape. Data integrity features include two levels of error correction that can provide recovery from longitudinal media scratches. Read-While-Write (RWW) capability allows real-time verification of written data.10 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  20. 20. Table 2-1 provides an overview of possible future enhancements to the Ultrium format.Table 2-1 LTO Ultrium roadmap Generation 11 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Capacity 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB 800 GB Transfer rate2 10-20 MBps3 20-40 MBps 40-80 MBps 80-160 MBps Recording Format RLL 1,7 PRML PRML PRML Media MP MP MP Thin Film Notes: 1. The current products are first-generation products. 2. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 200 GB capacity and a 20-40 MBps transfer rate for first-generation Ultrium tapes. 3. The LTO standard allows transfer speeds ranging from 10 to 20 MBps in native mode. The currently available products from IBM typically perform at 15 MBps. Note: All the capacity and performance figures given for the LTO Ultrium and Accelis formats suppose the use of 8-head devices. The LTO standard also supports 4-head devices, which are less common on the market. The consequence of using only 4 heads instead of 8 is that the capacity and performance figures must be divided by two.AccelisThe Accelis tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for fast access todata. It uses a two-reel cartridge that loads at the middle of the tape to minimize access time.The Accelis tape format is targeted at automated environments and can enable a wide rangeof online data inquiry and retrieval applications. Data transfer speed is comparable to theUltrium format. At this point, no devices are available that use the Accelis tape format. The first generation of Accelis allows 25 GB native capacity. A self-enclosed tape path in the cartridge eliminates tape threading, which greatly improves time to first data byte. Cartridges are loaded in the middle of the tape rather than at the beginning, reducing average search time for random files. Accelis provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps in the first generation. Accelis is ideal for library use, with high-speed access to relatively short files. Accelis is suited for applications such as data mining and image retrieval, as well as traditional backup/restore. Cartridge memory (LTO-CM) enhances functionality by providing a non-contacting passive radio frequency (RF) interface embedded in the cartridge, allowing information retrieval (calibration information, manufacturers data and information about initialization). The advantage is that this information can be retrieved without having to load the tape. Data integrity features include two levels of error correction that can provide recovery from longitudinal media scratches. Read-While-Write (RWW) capability allows real-time verification of written data. Chapter 2. Library Overview 11
  21. 21. Table 2-2 LTO Accelis roadmap Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Capacity1 25 GB 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB Transfer rate1 10-20 MBps 20-40 MBps 40-80 MBps 80-160 MBps Recording Format RLL 1,7 PRML PRML PRML Media MP MP MP Thin Film Data access time < 10 sec < 8 sec < 7 sec < 7 sec Notes: 1. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 200 GB capacity and 20-40 MBps transfer rate for first-generation Ultrium tapes. For more information on the LTO products and technology, see: http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/lto/lto.htm http://www.lto.org2.1.2 Super Digital Linear Tape Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT) is the next generation of DLT. SDLT offers major advantages over existing DLT in both tape capacity and data transfer rates. It is also backward read-write compatible with all DLT IV tape formats. DLT IV includes DLT7000 (35/70 GB) and DLT 8000 (DLT 40/80 GB) formats. SDLT increases tape capacity to 110 GB per cartridge, doubling that of the DLT8000 format, while data transfer rates have also increased from 6 MBps to around 11 MBps. These figures are applicable for the current available release of the SDLT technology, called SDLT 220. Note: All figures are native, non-compressed mode. Compression rate is 2:1 so capacity and performance will double. Some of the SDLT improvements over existing DLT are explained below: Laser Guided Magnetic Recording (LGMR) Previous magnetic servo tracking methods used some of the recording side of the tape to store the track information, which took up tracks that can now be used for data. By combining optical and magnetic technology, LGMR increases performance and capacity by using the back of the tape for optical servo tracking, leaving the entire media side of the tape free for recording data. Pivoting Optical Servo (POS) The optical servo pivots around a single mounting point which allows the LGMR system to easily align the magnetic heads for reading and writing to the tape. This ensures immunity from vibrations, allowing higher tape speeds. Magneto-Resistive Cluster (MRC) heads Densely packed heads use a thin-film processing technology to increase transfer rates and data capacity. Also the entire head is now used for read/write operations and no longer for servo use since this is done optically.12 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  22. 22. New buckler design Where the buckler design of the DLT IV tapes was a regular source of tape breakdown the SDLT tapes provide a new buckling mechanism that is more reliable. See: http://www.quantum.com/NR/rdonlyres/000001c0lgzhcytizmgzqqio/wptapehandling.pdf As with LTO formats, Quantum has designed a roadmap for its SDLT product line. Table 2-3 provides an overview of the specifications of future SDLT generations. Table 2-3 SDLT product roadmap Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 SDLT 2201 SDLT 320 SDLT 640 SDLT 1280 SDLT 2400 Capacity2 110 GB 320 GB 640 GB 1280 GB 2400 GB Transfer Rate2 11 MBps 16 MBps 32 MBps 50 MBps 100 MBps Media SDLT I SDLT I SDLT II SDLT III SDLT IV Availability date 2001 2002 2004 2005 2007 Note: 1. This is the currently available product. 2. The figures given are native capacity and transfer rate. Compression usually doubles these figures, giving a 220 GB capacity and a 22 MBps transfer rate for SDLT 220 devices. For more information on SDLT technology see: http://www.dlttape.com/Technology/Default.htm http://www.quantum.com/Products/Quantum+l+DLTtape/SDLT+220/Default.htm Currently, IBM does not offer a tape automation product that uses the SDLT 220 drives, but rather the SDLT 220 single tape drive. For more information, see: http://www.pc.ibm.com/ww/eserver/xseries/tape.html2.2 IBM 3600 automation products The 3600 LTO automation products expand the current range of automated tape products for the IBM xSeries Server range and offer improvements in speed, capacity and scalability. The products range from an entry level autoloader for smaller solutions to a scalable library to meet the demands of today’s fast-growing data requirements. The 3600 library also introduces native Fibre Channel connectivity as an option. Chapter 2. Library Overview 13
  23. 23. Table 2-4 Overview of 3600 LTO automation products Model Number 3600 LTO autoloader 3600 LTO tape library 3600 LTO tape library 3600-109 3600-220 (tower) 3600-R20 (rack) Number of drives 1 LTO tape drive 1 LTO tape drive 1 LTO tape drive (2 maximum) (2 maximum) Maximum number of 9 20 20 cartridges Native capacity1 900 GB 2 TB 2 TB Connection type Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Ultra-2 LVD SCSI Optional Fibre NO YES YES Channel connection FC-AL interface FC-AL interface Expandable NO NO YES with up to two 3600-LXU units. Note: 1. The total capacity of the library can double using compression.2.2.1 IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader The IBM 3600 Series 900 GB/1.8 TB LTO Tape Autoloader (product number 3600-109) is a single-drive entry-level LTO automated product for moderate-to-high-sized data requirements. Although it provides no expandability, it is still capable of backing up 1.8TB of data. Figure 2-1 IBM 3600 Series 900GB/1.8TB Tape Autoloader The autoloader has the following features: Up to 900 GB total native capacity, 1.8 TB using 2:1 compression. Data transfer rate of 15 MBps native, 30 MBps with compression. A six-slot removable magazine and three fixed slots in the back of the autoloader. The autoloader is primarily designed as a tower. It can be installed in a rack on a fixed shelf. Each unit occupies 6U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front -anel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup and restore application software.14 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  24. 24. The 3600 autoloader option kit includes the following items: The LTO tape autoloader assembly. A country-specific power cord. An external 4-meter LVD SCSI cable. Publications, including: – Online version of the user manual. – Quick Install Guide (English). One data cartridge. One cleaning cartridge. An external 1-meter LVD SCSI jumper cable. Barcode kit. An LVD external active SCSI terminator. Trial version of the VERITAS Backup Exec software. Trial version of the Computer Associates ARCserve software. Figure 2-2 provides an overview of the required connections for the 3600-109. SCSI Jumper Cable SCSI T Terminator To Host SCSI Cable Figure 2-2 Connecting the 3600-1092.2.2 IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library The IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library exists as both a tower model (product number 3600-220) or as a rack model (product number 3600-R20). Both libraries can be upgraded from the standard one-drive configuration to a two-tape drive library. Each tape drive is capable of providing transfer rates of 15 MBps, giving a total of 108 GB per hour using two tape drives.The native capacity of 2 TB is obtained using 20 cartridges. The rack model, 3600-R20, can be expanded using the 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module (see “3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module” on page 17). With two of these expansion units, the total amount of tape drives can reach up to six, providing a total throughput of 324 GB per hour. The capacity expands to 60 cartridges, providing up to 6TB of data storage. Note: All figures are native, non-compressed mode. Chapter 2. Library Overview 15
  25. 25. Figure 2-3 The IBM 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO Tape Library The library has the following features: Up to 2 TB total native capacity native, 4 TB using 2:1 compression. A data transfer rate of 15 MBps native, 30 MBps with compression. Two drawers, each with two removable magazines that both hold five cartridges. The library comes in two form factors, as a tower model or a rack model that occupies 5U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. A remote management card is included to provide remote manageability and diagnostics. Hot pluggable drives. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. Modular building block architecture for the tower model using the 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module. Up to two tape drives using the 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Option. Native Fibre Channel support using the IBM Fibre Tape Automation Adapter. The 3600 Series 2/4 TB LTO tape library option kit includes the following items: LTO tape library assembly. Country-specific power cord. An external 4-meter LVD SCSI cable. Publications, including: – Online version of the user manual. – Quick Install Guide (English). One data cartridge. One cleaning cartridge. External 1-meter LVD SCSI jumper cable. Barcode kit. An LVD external active SCSI terminator. Trial version of the VERITAS Backup Exec software. Trial version of the Computer Associates ARCserve software. Figure 2-4 provides an overview of the required connections for the 3600-x20:16 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  26. 26. SCSI Cable To Host T SCSI LAN Terminator SCSI Jumper CableFigure 2-4 Connecting the 3600-220 and 3600-R203600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander ModuleThe expander module, 3600-LXU, is only available in combination with the rack model of theIBM 3600 Series LTO Tape Library, or 3600-R20. Each expander module provides twodrawers with 20 cartridge slots, power supply, electronic circuits and picker assemblies. Eachexpander module adds 2 TB native or 4 TB compressed backup storage. A maximum of twoexpander modules are supported.The expander module has no tape drives installed by default. You must order the 3600 SeriesLTO Drive Upgrade Option for each additional drive that you want to install in an expandermodule. A maximum of two tape devices can be installed in each expander module.Figure 2-5 shows a full configuration of the 3600 LTO library, consisting of the followingoptions: The rack model of the 3600 Series LTO Tape Library (3600-R20) Two 3600 Series Expander Modules (3600-LXU) Five times the 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Option (2 for each expander module and one for the library) Chapter 2. Library Overview 17
  27. 27. T 360 0-LXU S C S I C able SC SI To Host Term ina tor T 360 0-LXU LAN T 360 0-R 20 SC SI Jum per C able Figure 2-5 3600-R20 with additional LXU units and tape drives As shown in Figure 2-5, each expander module requires a separate SCSI connection to the host system. The reason for this requirement is that due to the speed of the LTO tape drives, only two devices must be connected on the same SCSI bus. This is mainly to avoid saturation of the SCSI bus. When you add expander modules without additional tape devices, there is no need to add SCSI connections to the host adapter. Figure 2-5 also shows that the LTO 3600 tape library can be connected to the customer’s LAN; this is for systems management purposes. The systems management card enables remote management and diagnostics of the tape library via a Web browser. IBM Fibre Tape Automation Adapter The Fibre Tape Automation Adapter is supported with either of the 3600 Series LTO tape libraries and expander units (when additional tape drives are attached). It acts as a Fibre Channel router to provide direct attachment to supported Fibre Channel host adapters and switches. Figure 2-6 provides a connection example of the library and expander units using the Fibre Tape Automation Adapter. As with the SCSI connector, you can only connect two tape drives per Fibre Channel card.18 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  28. 28. Fibre Channel Cable T T SCSI Terminator T T LAN T T SCSI Jumper Cable Figure 2-6 Fiber cabling diagram With the fiber card now installed you have native fiber connectivity. We will discuss the possible connections to the SAN or host adapters (see “Connectivity” on page 26).2.3 IBM 3502 DLT automation products In this section we will discuss the 3502 DLT Tape Library and Autoloader to provide a brief overview of each product including performance and capacity. Additional information about the 3502 is provided in the redbook Netfinity Tape Solutions, SG24-5216-01. Table 2-5 Overview of 3502 automation products Model number 3502-108 3502-314 and R14 Number of drives 1 DLT 7000 1 DLT 7000 standard 3 DLT 7000 maximum Max. number of cartridges 8 DLT Type IV 14 DLT tape IV Maximum capacity (native/ 280 GB / 560 GB 490 GB / 980 GB compressed) Connection type SCSI-2 single ended SCSI-2 single ended Upgradable No Only with 2 additional tape drives2.3.1 IBM 280/560 GB DLT Tape Autoloader The IBM 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader is a single-drive automated backup device. It has little or no expandability but it is an ideal product for customers looking for an entry-level automated solution using DLT 7000 technology. Chapter 2. Library Overview 19
  29. 29. Figure 2-7 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader The IBM 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader has the following features: Up to 280 GB total capacity native, 560 GB with compression. Data transfer rate of 5 MBps native, 10 MBps using compression. Removable 6-cartridge magazine plus 2 fixed slots. The autoloader is primarily designed as a tower. It can be installed in a rack, however, using a fixed shelf. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. The 3502-108 DLT Tape Autoloader option kit includes the following items: The autoloader assembly. Country-specific power cord. A 3-meter SCSI cable. An 2940U2B SCSI adapter. User Manual. DLT data cartridge. DLT cleaning cartridge. 0.8 mm. (68-pin adapter) A 0.5 meter SCSI jumper cable. A 68-pin SCSI terminator. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.3.2 IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library The IBM 490/980 GB DLT Tape Library offers greater performance and capacity than the DLT autoloader. It is available in both a tower model (product number 3502-314) and a rack model (product number 3502-R14). The tape library can be expanded by adding up to two additional tape drives using the drive upgrade option, potentially tripling the performance. Note: The 3502 DLT library has one tape drive installed by default. To add tape devices, you should order the 3502 tape drive upgrade option. DLT 8000 devices are not supported.20 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  30. 30. Figure 2-8 The 3502-314 DLT Tape Library, tower model The IBM 3502-314/R14 Tape Library has the following features: Up to 560 GB total capacity native, 980 GB using compression. Data transfer rate of 5 MBps native, 10 MBps using compression. Two removable 7-cartridge magazines. The library comes in two form factors, as a tower and a rack that occupies 4U of rack space. Integrated barcode reader for improved media management. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for a wide variety of backup/restore software. The 3502-314/R14 DLT Tape Library option kit includes the following items: The library assembly. Country-specific power cord. A 3-meter SCSI cable. A 2940U2B SCSI adapter. User manual. DLT data cartridge. DLT cleaning cartridge. 0.8-mm (68-pin adapter) A 0.5 meter SCSI jumper cable. A 68-pin SCSI terminator. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.4 IBM 4mm automation product IBM has only one automated product for this format. It is the DDS/4 autoloader.2.4.1 IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 4mm Autoloader The DDS/4 format is backward compatibly with the DDS/3 and DDS/2 formats. This product is primarily designed for low range servers and high end desktops/Intelli Stations who need a reliable backup device. The DDS/4 fits into an internal 5.25 inch media bay or the 3503-B1X external enclosure (Option P/N 09N4047). Chapter 2. Library Overview 21
  31. 31. Table 2-6 Overview of DDS/4 autoloader Model number 120/240 GB DDS/4 tape 120/240 GB DDS/4 tape autoloader autoloader with 3503-B1X Number of drives 1 DDS/4 tape drive 1 DDS/4 tape drive Max. number of cartridges 6 6 Maximum capacity (native / 120 GB / 240 GB 120 GB / 240 GB compressed) Connection type Ultra -2 LVD SCSI Ultra -2 LVD SCSI Upgradable No No Figure 2-9 DDS/4 120/240GB Autoloader The IBM 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader has the following features: Up to 120 GB total capacity native, 240 GB using compression. Data transfer rate of 3 MBps native, 6MBps using compression. A six-cartridge removable magazine. Internal installation in any standard 5.25-inch full-height bay. Front-panel LCD display and operator control panel. Support for industry-leading backup/restore application software. The 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader option kit includes the following items: The 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape Autoloader A user manual. Mounting screws. Five data cartridges. A cleaning cartridge. Two cartridge magazines. A trial version of VERITAS Backup Exec software. A trial version of Computer Associates ARCserve.2.5 Tape library comparison In this section, an overview is provided for all specifications relative to a tape automation product. The current available models will be compared.22 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  32. 32. 2.5.1 Performance The performance of a tape library is normally defined using two parameters: The performance of the tape technology used within the library. The number of tape devices that can be installed in a library. To obtain the overall potential data throughput of a tape library, the throughput of the tape drives should be multiplied by the number of tapes available. Table 2-7 provides an overview of the total library data throughput. The data throughput rates provided describe the native speed. Table 2-7 Library throughput Number of Drive Library drives performance throughput 3600 LTO tape library (tower) Standard 1 15 MBps 15 MBps Maximum 2 15 MBps 30 MBps 3600 LTO tape library (rack) Standard 1 15 MBps 15 MBps Maximum 61 15 MBps 90 MBps 3600 Series tape autoloader 1 15 MBps 15 MBps 3502 DLT tape library Standard 1 5 MBps 5 MBps Maximum 3 5 MBps 15 MBps 3502 DLT tape autoloader 1 5 MBps 5 MBps DDS/4 tape autoloader 1 3 MBps 3 MBps Note: 1. The total of 6 drives can be obtained using 2 3600-LXU expander units. Where the throughput is definitely an indication of the possible transfer speed of a tape drive or library, there are some considerations that need to be taken. When comparing products that will operate in a given condition, the throughput is a valid comparison tool. It is, however, not an indication of what throughput speeds you will obtain in the final setup. Several other factors play a role, including: Search time required to locate data and position a tape. Type of data transferred. Tape devices are typically optimized for data streaming, which means that data will flow continuously from or to the tape drive. If the used environment is characterized by a large number of small files, this streaming will probably not take place. The resulting transfer rate will be smaller. This becomes increasingly more important when trying to use the total throughput of the library. In the case of a fully configured 3600 LTO library for example, the 90 MBps rate can only be obtained if the host is able to stream the data to all six drives at the same time. If multiple tape mounts are required, the time required to mount a tape in a drive becomes an important value. This value is a function of the following points: – Time required to locate a volume and position the picker. – Time to move volume from the slot to the tape devices. – Time required to load and position the tape volume in the tape devices. Chapter 2. Library Overview 23
  33. 33. 2.5.2 Capacity The capacity of a autoloader or library is dictated by the number of cartridges that it can hold and the tape technology used. As with the throughput values, the total capacity can be calculated by multiplying the number of available slots by the capacity of the cartridges used. Table 2-8 provides an overview of the total library capacity. The values provided describe the native capacity. Table 2-8 Library capacity Number of Cartridge Library slots capacity capacity 3600 LTO tape library (tower) 20 100 GB 2 TB 3600 LTO tape library (rack) 20 100 GB 2 TB 3600 LTO tape library (rack) with two 60 100 GB 6 TB 3600-LXU units 3600 Series tape autoloader 9 100 GB 900 GB 3502 DLT tape library 14 35 GB 490 GB 3502 DLT tape autoloader 8 35 GB 280 GB DDS/4 tape autoloader 6 20 GB 120 GB As with the data throughput values, there are some considerations that are important: Since tape libraries typically operate in a low-maintenance environment, you should add a cleaning tape to the library. This means that the number of available slots should bbe lowered by the number of cleaning cartridges (typically 1). In some situations, you will not use the entire capacity of a cartridge. For example, when you want to group all backup data of one client system on a cartridge, you could end up with a large amount of cartridges that are not fully used. Therefore, you should understand the use of your library, and base the decision about capacity on either the total data capacity or the number of available slots.2.5.3 Compression Where compression is not really a tape library factor, but more dependent on the tape technology used, it is commonly used when describing library capacity and performance. The current available tape product in the xSeries range use a compression algorithm that will typically double the capacity and performance. Care should be taken, however, when taking this compression factor into account. This because it strongly depends on the type of data that is written to the tape. Hardware tape compression is basically the same as normal software compression. The only difference is that hardware compression will be performed by the tape’s firmware, rather than by the host sending the data. The result is that files that are already compressed at the origin will not gain from hardware compression.2.5.4 Scalability When selecting a library, a customer is always faced with the problem of data growth. Since the capacity and performance needs will be largely based on the amount of data that needs to be placed on tape media, having a valid figure is very important. However, due to recent surges in data use, determining future needs has become increasingly difficult. A possible solution is to invest in a library that largely exceeds current needs, but is capable of coping with the projected data growth.24 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  34. 34. The problem with this decision is that the investment required is much higher. Another, more reasonable solution would be to choose a library that can grow over time, meaning that there is the possibility to add tape devices (increasing performance) or capacity. Table 2-9 shows the expansion possibilities available for the current libraries. Table 2-9 Library expansion possibilities Capacity Performance expansion Expansion 3600 LTO tape library (tower) No Yes 3600 LTO tape library (rack) Yes Yes 3600 Series tape autoloader No No 3502 DLT tape library No Yes 3502 DLT tape autoloader No No DDS/4 tape autoloader No No2.5.5 Form factor The form factor describes what a library’s physical dimensions and mounting possibilities are. In general, the following types of form factors exist: Tower or desktop models The models are mainly designed to stand close to the host system to which they are attached. They do not require an additional enclosure or rack. If required, most of these models can be integrated into a rack by using a rack shelf. Rack mountable models Rack models are designed to be integrated in a rack environment. The advantage of rack mounting a library is that the required footprint diminishes. In the case of libraries, however, the mounting possibilities are limited due to weight of the devices. Therefore, libraries should always be mounted as close to the bottom of the rack as possible. Internal devices Internal devices are intended to be integrated within the host itself, using 3.5 or 5.25 bays. There are also external enclosures available if required. Table 2-10 shows the form factors and possibilities for physical installation of the tape libraries. Table 2-10 Library form factors Product Form Factor Rack Units Number 3600 LTO tape library (tower) 3600-220 Tower N/A 3600 LTO tape library (rack) 3600-R20 Rack 5 3600 Series tape autoloader 3600-108 Tower N/A 3502 DLT tape library (tower) 3502-314 Tower N/A 3502 DLT tape library (rack) 3502-R14 Rack 4 3502 DLT tape autoloader 3502-108 Tower N/A DDS/4 tape autoloader 5.25 full height N/A Chapter 2. Library Overview 25
  35. 35. 2.5.6 Connectivity The possibilities we have connecting the library to the host system is called connectivity. Besides the standard SCSI connectivity, SAN attachment is becoming more and more important. There are many reasons for this, ranging from offloading network traffic to a SAN with LAN free solutions, sharing the backup device between servers (tape pooling) or distant disaster recovery solutions, to backing up data off ite or to and from other locations. SAN connectivity through the Fibre Channel protocol can be obtained using two methods: Direct attachment of the devices. Attachment through separate components, called gateways or routers. Table 2-11 provides an overview of the connectivity options for the different libraries. Table 2-11 Library connectivity SCSI interface SAN Connectivity 3600 LTO tape library LVD Fibre Channel Tape Automation adapter 3600 Series tape autoloader LVD Not supported 3502 DLT tape library SE IBM SAN Data Gateway SCSI Tape Router (2108-R03 and Feature Code 2840) 3502 DLT tape autoloader SE IBM SAN Data Gateway SCSI Tape Router (2108-R03 and Feature Code 2840) DDS/4 tape autoloader LVD Not supported The following two diagrams provide an overview of connectivity options using Fibre Channel connections. Figure 2-10 shows the connectivity using the integrated Fibre Channel connections available on the 3600 Series tape libraries. Connections can be made using point-to-point mode, or libraries can be directly attached to the SAN fabric. noit aru gifnoC hctiw S & buH revres seireSx lennahC erbiF hctiwS ro buH )troppus LA-CF( )tp 61 & 8( noit aru gifnoC tnio P-ot- tnio P elbaC lennahC erbiF = revres seireSx troppus taht sUXL & seirarbiL retpada rebif Figure 2-10 Native fiber configuration options26 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  36. 36. For tape devices that don’t support native fiber connections, you will need additional hardware to provide fiber connectivity. For this, IBM offers a range of SAN data gateway products. These products will offer some investment protection for customers who don’t wish to purchase new tape products, but require some of the functionality that they provide. noi t ar u gifnoC noi tcennoC tceriD revres seireSx yawetaG ataD epat ISCS yrarbil /redaolotua elbaC lennahC erbiF = noit aru gifnoC hctiw S & bu H elbaC ISCS = revres seireSx lennahC erbiF yawetaG ataD epat ISCS hctiwS ro buH yrarbil /redaolotua )tp 61 & 8( Figure 2-11 SCSI configuration options2.5.7 Additional features Additional features that might help you in determining the correct library are the following: Barcode scanner A barcode scanner allows the use of barcode labels on tapes. The advantage of this is that every library inventory operation will be faster, since the library does not have to read each tape label physically by mounting it in the drive. The current range of xSeries libraries all include barcode readers, except for the 3502-108 DLT autoloader and the 4mm DDS/4 autoloader. Input/output ports I/O ports are predefined slots in a library where volumes are moved when check-in or checkout operations occur. The advantage is that the library does not need to be opened to handle these volumes, ensuring continuity of operations. Other names for I/O slots include entry/exit ports and mail slots. Currently, only the 3600 library (3600-220 and R20) have this functionality.2.5.8 Summary Figure 2-12 on page 28 shows each product and its relative position in comparison to the other automated solutions available for IBM xSeries servers. With the range of products available, there is always going to be an overlap. Let’s look at an example. Although the performance of the 3600 tape autoloader and the 3600 tape library are the same in terms of Chapter 2. Library Overview 27
  37. 37. throughput, the 3600 tape library has the capacity to hold an additional tape or additional tapes if using the Library Expander Module (LXU), which is available for the rack mount library, to provide greater throughput. This is one reason that the library has been positioned above the autoloader. Another reason would be capacity. The figure also shows the market position of each product but this will change as customer requirements change, especially as storage requirements continue to grow, and new products are announced. Here we are only referring to those products offered as options by IBM xSeries servers and how IBM markets those products within this range. One other point to note: when we previously described some of the machines as entry-level products we didn’t necessarily mean that they are low-end solutions. For example, the LTO autoloader is an entry-level solution with regards to LTO tape products, but is not a low-end solution. Entry-level products are generally less complex machines; therefore they make excellent first-time automation products for customers who require greater capacity than a single tape drive can provide. Throughput High 3600-220/R20 Medium 3600-109 Low 3502-314/R14 3502-108 DDS/4 Autoloader Capacity Figure 2-12 Product positioning Table 2-12 provides a summary of all the topics discussed in the above sections.28 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers
  38. 38. Table 2-12 Product comparison SCSI Form Data No. of Capacity Backup Rate1 interface factor cartridges drives (native/ (native/ (max) (std./max compressed) compressed) ) 3600 Series 2/4TB LTO LVD 2 Tower 20 1/2 2/4 TB 15/30 MBps Tape Library (Tower) 3600 Series 2/4TB LTO LVD 2 5U Rack 603,4 1/63,4 6/12 TB 3,4 15/30 MBps Tape Library (Rack) 3600 Series 900GB/1.8TB LVD 2 Tower 9 1/1 900 GB/1.8 15/30 MBps LTO Tape Autoloader TB 3502-314 DLT Tape Library SE Tower 14 1/3 490/980 GB 5/10 MBps (Tower) 3502-R14 DLT Tape Library SE 4U Rack 14 1/3 490/980 GB 5/10 MBps (Rack) 3502-108 DLT Tape SE Tower 6 1/1 280/560GB 5/10 MBps Autoloader 120/240 GB DDS/4 Tape 16 Ultra2 5.25” FH 5 1/1 120/240 GB 3/6 MBps Autoloader LVD Notes: 1. Transfer rates are for single SCSI channel configurations. Tape libraries utilizing split library or dual host configurations may obtain higher rates. Data compression typically provides a 2X improvement in capacity and transfer rate, bur since data compression is affected by many factors, actual improvements may be more or less than 2X. 2. This is the standard connection. However, there is a fiber adapter option. This adapter installs in a 3600 Series Tape Library to allow native fiber connectivity. Each adapter supports up to two LTO drives. 3. Maximum configuration includes two 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Modules and additional LTO tape drive options. 4. The 3600 Series 2-Drive, 20-Cartridge Expander Module must be installed by IBM service. This installation service is included without additional charge. It is supported only with the 3600 Series LTO Tape Library (Rack) P/N 21P99xx. One additional EIA space has to be allowed when installing either one or two units (maximum) to accommodate a filler plate for cable routing. Up to two 3600 Series LTO Drive Upgrade Options can be installed in each module or the module can operate off the LTO drives installed in the LTO tape library.2.6 Supported solutions The final step before selecting your autoloader or library is to make sure it is a certified and supported solution. Up-to-date support information can be found at the following Web sites: For Serverproven for tape backup solutions: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/tmatrix.html For Serverproven for SAN solutions: ftp://ftp.pc.ibm.com/pub/pccbbs/pc_servers/nfsansol5.pdf Serverproven general Web site: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat Chapter 2. Library Overview 29
  39. 39. 30 Tape Automation with IBM ^ xSeries Servers

×