Sowing seeds
                                                       Unexpected journeys
                                  ...
Android                        capacitive displays

           HTML 5                           Twitter
                  ...
...this is all well and good, but is
                                                 any of it trickling down to people
h...
including people close to home...
“The digital divide refers to the gap between
                                people with effective access to digital
     ...
so why is technology
(and more specifically mobile) so important?
social        communication
   relationships
                     mobility



                       life skills
knowledge...
increasing access to mobile technologies
is one thing...but ensuring this technology
     is useful depends on many factors
low cost devices
  infrastructure
  fast networks
    cheap data
     ecosystem
 open platforms
     standards
      brows...
i’m going to look at three of them...
cheaper and more accessible
Access to...                  than a desktop computer

   1. low-cost mobile handsets
   2. a ...
cheaper and more accessible
Access to...                than a desktop computer
                                          ...
cheaper and more accessible
Access to...                 than a desktop computer
                                         ...
Context
 A bit of context...
4,600,000,000
                 number of mobile subscriptions




68% of the population at the beginning of 2010 – source:...
3,400,000,000
                             number of unique users




many people have multiple SIMS--especially in emergi...
which is *roughly 1/2
                                                      the number of people
                         ...
smartphone sales are rising,
   but are still only 17%* of devices worldwide

                                            ...
XHTML MP
                                                   browser
                                                 (hope...
this is still primarily due to cost,
even in developed economies...
American smartphone owners
 are nearly twice as likely to earn...

> $100,000 a year



             source: Nielsen
72%                 percentage of American population
                    with household income < $75,000




 the largest...
1.low cost mobile devices
2.a free standards-compliant browser
3.locally created web services
  and information
Nokia
                          19%                                                      Samsung
                         ...
Nokia
                        19%                                                      Samsung
                        Oth...
China & Taiwan
    India

                  Malaysia
                               Indonesia




most new brands from
  I...
India
                                                         population: 1.17 billion
                                  ...
28 local manufacturers now account for
       14% of local market share
MicroMax




3rd largest market share in India
    (behind Nokia and Samsung)
4
months
         The average time to market for a
         MicroMax handset.




                source: Business Week
Spice
 4 million Indian users
Indian manufacturers primarily compete on retail
     and wholesale price, and the inclusion
           of relevant local ...
Multi-SIM capability is the most common features
      across all small Indian manufacturers.




 (in fact, across all sm...
Features are fine tuned to aggressively compete
                       with larger manufacturers.


                       ...
China
                                                 population: 1.3 billion
                                           ...
G’Five




                                       portfolio of 300 handsets
                                         2 rel...
Egypt
                                                                    Nepal
                                       Sau...
Other Chinese manufacturers such as ZTE and Huawei
are also shipping devices to the America and Europe.
            ZTE se...
China & Taiwan




        Hardware, chips and components for most
Indian-designed devices also come from China and Taiwan.
Rwanda




       To further reduce costs, manufacturers
such as A-Link are now assembling mobiles in Africa.
Shanzhai
                                          “bandit” devices
                                              from Chi...
13%   of global mobile phone supply is
      produced by small unlicensed suppliers
                             i.e. devi...
Indonesia
                                                 population: 242 million
                                       ...
currently selling 2 million
              QWERTY devices per quarter*
                                            nexian

...
Noticed a pattern yet?
it’s now also much easier to make a smartphone
60 devices, 21 OEMs
            as of June 2010
end result...
locally customized

                              user interfaces




OPhone, a custom Android variant by China Mobile inc...
For regional brands, bundling local
                         variants of an app is cheaper than
                         l...
regional models range from £70-£100
   (compared to £200-300 for devices by larger brands such as Samsung)




Huawei IDEO...
So everyone will be buying Android
          devices soon?
Um...no...
While a £70 smartphone is great, devices at the lowest
    end of the market are still very basic, yet remain
            ...
Android may however create interesting
     unintended consequences...
As the freely available and high quality mobile
              operating system becomes workable on most
              phon...
1. low cost mobile devices
2.a free standards-compliant browser
3.locally created web services
   and information
1,802,330,457
     number of internet connections in the world




26% of the world’s population at the beginning of 2010 ...
1,300,000,000
number of mobile internet users




     includes WAP and ‘real web’ browsing
500,000,000
number who access internet only on mobile




        that’s 29% of the world’s internet use of 2009
last year, Nokia did something many
          thought was mad...
they acquired a company called Novarra




                                                                      OMG...   ...
...some background
but proxy servers aren’t all bad...
mobile proxy browsers
proxy browser
                    rendered + optimised
                    on proxy server...




  ...
Advantages of proxy browsers...
  1. dramatically lower data costs*
  2. web pages load 2-3x faster over 2G networks
  3. ...
mobile proxy browsers
Opera Mini




used by over 61 million people
  on more than 1300 handset models
mobile browser market share



                                                                                           ...
UC Browser




                                   60% market share in China

iPhone   Android        Symbian           Bla...
browser adoption with
                          ‘Chinese characteristics’


Source: Statcounter
Bolt




                                      5% market share in India

iPhone   Android        Symbian           Blackbe...
Skyfire




  iPhone              Android             Symbian            Blackberry             Windows
no plans to support...
Ovi Browser




aimed at the 100+ S40 featurephones
a good proxy browser can breathe new life into
          old or lower-spec devices




     HTML 4.01
   poor JavaScript  ...
...or instantly add value to a smaller
                  manufacturer’s product line...




       Micromax embeds Opera M...
...or simply lower data costs on your
         favourite smartphone




                                             devic...
1. low cost mobile devices
2.a free standards-compliant browser
3.locally created web services
   and information
finding examples of locally created content
    and services proved challenging...




       (so I will unfortunately gene...
and varied hugely by region...
     (and particularly by country)
finding content from global brands
         was fairly easy
there were also many local news and marketplace sites




    m.vatgia.com                      m.detik.com
       Vietnam...
...and a growing number of useful services
                            offered by NGOs and philanthropic
                  ...
the most popular services
                                                 however used ‘older’ technologies
             ...
Africa
                                                  mobile services still poor overall
                              ...
Major challenges to the development of services
                   include poor infrastructure, high device and airtime
  ...
There are however many successful initiatives
               around m-payments and m-transactions using
               ubi...
Services such as M-Pesa, initially developed
                   as a mobile money transfer platform have also
            ...
APAC
                                                 very high mobile penetration
                                       ...
In this region, the heavy colonial influence has
              resulted in good infrastructure, early ICT usage,
          ...
Terrestrial telecommunications have however
                   remained poor. In Jakarta, home ADSL costs close
          ...
The proximity to China (and the presence
of large ethnic Chinese communities throughout
the region) means low-cost (and kn...
Use of social media in
http://www.flickr.com/photos/istolethetv/4579844255/
                                               ...
Indonesia’s social media habits are now
                                somewhat legendary.
                              ...
services from more developed regional
   economies also have high usage




       Mig33 is primarily from Singapore
initiatives such as 0.facebook are reducing
         usage costs for consumers



                          • Agreement be...
ok, but what does Facebook have to do
     with improving people’s lives?
High social media use is helping improve
                                      communication during elections, natural
   ...
In the Philippines use of SMS,
                                                     blogging and social media are
        ...
In fact economic migration has been
                                       one reason for the increase in social
         ...
As in Africa, mobile capabilities
                                            in APAC remains lowest in rural areas.

http...
A final perspective
the digital divide affects developed
         economies as well
4%
    iPhone market share in EU5
(U.K., France, Germany, Spain, Italy)




            Source: Comscore
Yet some of our most important services are
    being created for a minority of users




               source: Mashable,...
Targeting only the iPhone (and Android)
                               will miss populations that are most in need.
http:/...
thank you




                     hello@yiibu.com




Photos Creative Commons By Attribution courtesy of Flickr
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Sowing seeds by yiibu

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Presentation for Over the Air 2010 about mobile devices and the digital divide. Presented by Stephanie Rieger

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  1. 1. Sowing seeds Unexpected journeys through the digital divide. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos/2678931029
  2. 2. Android capacitive displays HTML 5 Twitter app store Moore’s Law web 2.0 iPhone It’s been an interesting few years! APIs augmented reality widgets haptics One Web
  3. 3. ...this is all well and good, but is any of it trickling down to people http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3169447879 with more limited resources?
  4. 4. including people close to home...
  5. 5. “The digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology, and those with very limited or no access at all.” - Wikipedia http://www.flickr.com/photos/featheredtar/3081108482
  6. 6. so why is technology (and more specifically mobile) so important?
  7. 7. social communication relationships mobility life skills knowledge learning support expression community empowerment inclusion
  8. 8. increasing access to mobile technologies is one thing...but ensuring this technology is useful depends on many factors
  9. 9. low cost devices infrastructure fast networks cheap data ecosystem open platforms standards browsers regulations usability local skills capacity local content challenges literacy to mobile usage electricity security
  10. 10. i’m going to look at three of them...
  11. 11. cheaper and more accessible Access to... than a desktop computer 1. low-cost mobile handsets 2. a free standards-compliant browser 3. locally-created web services and information
  12. 12. cheaper and more accessible Access to... than a desktop computer web content is simple 1. low-cost mobilehandsets and cheap to create, and update 2. a free standards-compliant browser 3. locally-created web services and information
  13. 13. cheaper and more accessible Access to... than a desktop computer web content is simple 1. low-cost mobile handsets and cheap to create, and update 2. a free standards-compliant browser 3. locally-created web services and information the most relevant content is local and the web is an ideal vehicle to disseminate information
  14. 14. Context A bit of context...
  15. 15. 4,600,000,000 number of mobile subscriptions 68% of the population at the beginning of 2010 – source: U.N. Telecommunications Agency
  16. 16. 3,400,000,000 number of unique users many people have multiple SIMS--especially in emerging economies – source: Tomi Ahonen Consulting
  17. 17. which is *roughly 1/2 the number of people living here... *2009 estimates put the population around 6.79 billion inhabitants...
  18. 18. smartphone sales are rising, but are still only 17%* of devices worldwide 52% Japan 50% 25% N. America 21% W. Europe 23% 20% 8% EEMEA 8% APAC 7% 6% Lat. America 5% 3% 0 15 30 45 60 Market share 09 Market share 08 source: Morgan Stanley, Smartphone shipment share 08-09
  19. 19. XHTML MP browser (hopefully) indirect manipulation ...most people, own a mobile that looks something like this... http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3169478287
  20. 20. this is still primarily due to cost, even in developed economies...
  21. 21. American smartphone owners are nearly twice as likely to earn... > $100,000 a year source: Nielsen
  22. 22. 72% percentage of American population with household income < $75,000 the largest group, at 28% is the $0-$25K category, source: US Census 2005
  23. 23. 1.low cost mobile devices 2.a free standards-compliant browser 3.locally created web services and information
  24. 24. Nokia 19% Samsung Other LG 34% RIM 2% Nokia 2% Sony Ericsson 2% 3% Motorola 3% Apple 3% HTC 3% ZTE 9% 20% G’Five LG Samsung Others mobile market share in 2010 Worldwide Mobile Device Sales to End Users in 2Q10 (Thousands of Units, total: 324,556.8) http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1421013
  25. 25. Nokia 19% Samsung Other LG 34% RIM 2% Nokia 2% Sony Ericsson 2% 3% Motorola 3% Apple 3% HTC 3% ZTE 9% 20% G’Five LG Samsung Others lots of newcomers Worldwide Mobile Device Sales to End Users in 2Q10 (Thousands of Units, total: 324,556.8) http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1421013
  26. 26. China & Taiwan India Malaysia Indonesia most new brands from India, China and the APAC region
  27. 27. India population: 1.17 billion mobile penetration: 53% http://www.flickr.com/photos/dainismatisons/3570435976
  28. 28. 28 local manufacturers now account for 14% of local market share
  29. 29. MicroMax 3rd largest market share in India (behind Nokia and Samsung)
  30. 30. 4 months The average time to market for a MicroMax handset. source: Business Week
  31. 31. Spice 4 million Indian users
  32. 32. Indian manufacturers primarily compete on retail and wholesale price, and the inclusion of relevant local features. • Dual SIM • Radio • Flashlight • 20-30 day standby • Dust resistance • Theft tracking • Preloaded local content
  33. 33. Multi-SIM capability is the most common features across all small Indian manufacturers. (in fact, across all smaller manufacturers regardless of country)
  34. 34. Features are fine tuned to aggressively compete with larger manufacturers. Micromax X1i Nokia C1 €30 €30 • Dual SIM with • Dual SIM with dual standby ‘hot-switch’ • Both SIMs • Press button to available at all swap from one SIM times to another • Enables users to • Enables family save money by members to share using each SIM for one mobile or different easily swap SIMs purposes. when traveling (people love these, (standby time on operators...not so much) this devices is 6 weeks!) (for more on this topic, see “The Economist: Nokia gets dual-sim religion”
  35. 35. China population: 1.3 billion mobile penetration: 59% http://www.flickr.com/photos/kouchi/1002634824
  36. 36. G’Five portfolio of 300 handsets 2 released each month sold in (India, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan, Nepal, Bengal, Peru) , 300 handsets, 2 new models launche per week
  37. 37. Egypt Nepal Saudi Arabia Pakistan India Nigeria Peru Kenya G’Five also sells handsets around the world including India (where it is the #3 brand). (if you’re paying attention...MicroMax is also supposedly the #3 brand :-)
  38. 38. Other Chinese manufacturers such as ZTE and Huawei are also shipping devices to the America and Europe. ZTE sells over a million devices annually in the UK
  39. 39. China & Taiwan Hardware, chips and components for most Indian-designed devices also come from China and Taiwan.
  40. 40. Rwanda To further reduce costs, manufacturers such as A-Link are now assembling mobiles in Africa.
  41. 41. Shanzhai “bandit” devices from China fake Blackberry fake iPhone OS fake Opera Mini fake Vodafone Say hello to the ever stylish and most desirable “Voda-Pod-Berry”
  42. 42. 13% of global mobile phone supply is produced by small unlicensed suppliers i.e. devices with no IMEI source: Nielsen
  43. 43. Indonesia population: 242 million mobile penetration: 80% http://www.flickr.com/photos/beggs/1506486001
  44. 44. currently selling 2 million QWERTY devices per quarter* nexian 25% market share, handsets price range £20-£70
  45. 45. Noticed a pattern yet?
  46. 46. it’s now also much easier to make a smartphone
  47. 47. 60 devices, 21 OEMs as of June 2010
  48. 48. end result...
  49. 49. locally customized user interfaces OPhone, a custom Android variant by China Mobile including handwriting recognition for Chinese characters.
  50. 50. For regional brands, bundling local variants of an app is cheaper than licensing Google’s alternatives, and provides more opportunities for inclusion of local content Local Android store and mapping local ‘Blueberry’ service app store shipping with Spice Mi300 Malaysia local applications
  51. 51. regional models range from £70-£100 (compared to £200-300 for devices by larger brands such as Samsung) Huawei IDEOS Spice Mi300 Nexian A890 worldwide* India, Malaysia Indonesia and lower price points *IDEOS designed with Google especially for low-cost market.
  52. 52. So everyone will be buying Android devices soon?
  53. 53. Um...no...
  54. 54. While a £70 smartphone is great, devices at the lowest end of the market are still very basic, yet remain unaffordable to many consumers. Vodafone 150 Nokia 1280 USED Nokia 3210 $15 $30 ~$4 Cheap and functional for voice, SMS, some include a flashlight...but no browser.
  55. 55. Android may however create interesting unintended consequences...
  56. 56. As the freely available and high quality mobile operating system becomes workable on most phones, the Chinese knock-off phones are now much more likely to be using Android/OPhone. ” It is the low-hanging fruit option.... ...those knock off phones are the present reality of many targetable markets today, including East Africa’s. Android fragmentation is replacing complete fragmentation. - ICTWorks.org http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3170269018
  57. 57. 1. low cost mobile devices 2.a free standards-compliant browser 3.locally created web services and information
  58. 58. 1,802,330,457 number of internet connections in the world 26% of the world’s population at the beginning of 2010 – http://www.internetworldstats.com
  59. 59. 1,300,000,000 number of mobile internet users includes WAP and ‘real web’ browsing
  60. 60. 500,000,000 number who access internet only on mobile that’s 29% of the world’s internet use of 2009
  61. 61. last year, Nokia did something many thought was mad...
  62. 62. they acquired a company called Novarra OMG... ” http://www.flickr.com/photos/richardmoross/1413692087
  63. 63. ...some background
  64. 64. but proxy servers aren’t all bad...
  65. 65. mobile proxy browsers proxy browser rendered + optimised on proxy server... limited + costly data free + unlimited data proxy server bbc.co.uk
  66. 66. Advantages of proxy browsers... 1. dramatically lower data costs* 2. web pages load 2-3x faster over 2G networks 3. can instantly provide support for modern web technologies (e.g. HTML 5) on older devices *Opera Mini for example compresses data up to 90 percent.
  67. 67. mobile proxy browsers
  68. 68. Opera Mini used by over 61 million people on more than 1300 handset models
  69. 69. mobile browser market share wow! wow! Data Source: http://gs.statcounter.com Published Under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work and to adapt the work providing it is attributed to www.icrossing.co.uk http://www.flickr.com/photos/icrossing_uk/4342659861
  70. 70. UC Browser 60% market share in China iPhone Android Symbian Blackberry Windows or any JAVA MIDP 2 and CLDC 1.0+ device
  71. 71. browser adoption with ‘Chinese characteristics’ Source: Statcounter
  72. 72. Bolt 5% market share in India iPhone Android Symbian Blackberry Windows or any JAVA MIDP 2 and CLDC 1.0+ device
  73. 73. Skyfire iPhone Android Symbian Blackberry Windows no plans to support S60 3rd Edition, S40, Java or featurephones in general, BlackBerry support postponed
  74. 74. Ovi Browser aimed at the 100+ S40 featurephones
  75. 75. a good proxy browser can breathe new life into old or lower-spec devices HTML 4.01 poor JavaScript XHTML MP one of the first support 1.1 HTML 4.01 browsers BlackBerry 8520 5130 Xpress Music Nokia N70 circa 2009 circa 2007 circa 2005 one of the top selling devices in the world today* *based on review of Opera Mini and AdMob usage statistics
  76. 76. ...or instantly add value to a smaller manufacturer’s product line... Micromax embeds Opera Mini on many devices. UC has recently signed a deal with Indonesian manufacturers and operators to pre-install its browser on their local devices.
  77. 77. ...or simply lower data costs on your favourite smartphone device with highest Opera Mini traffic in UK and US for July 2010 source: Opera State of the Mobile Web July 2010
  78. 78. 1. low cost mobile devices 2.a free standards-compliant browser 3.locally created web services and information
  79. 79. finding examples of locally created content and services proved challenging... (so I will unfortunately generalise quite a bit in this section...)
  80. 80. and varied hugely by region... (and particularly by country)
  81. 81. finding content from global brands was fairly easy
  82. 82. there were also many local news and marketplace sites m.vatgia.com m.detik.com Vietnam Indonesia
  83. 83. ...and a growing number of useful services offered by NGOs and philanthropic commercial organisations in the area of education, agriculture, health and commerce. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos/2679180720
  84. 84. the most popular services however used ‘older’ technologies such as voice or SMS http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3169449583
  85. 85. Africa mobile services still poor overall but lots of informal innovation http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3169413435
  86. 86. Major challenges to the development of services include poor infrastructure, high device and airtime costs, and lack of ecosystem maturity (e.g. number portability, taxation, standards, policy.) http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3170244160
  87. 87. There are however many successful initiatives around m-payments and m-transactions using ubiquitous technologies such as SMS and USSD. Unstructured Supplementary http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwarby/2404556325 Service Data.
  88. 88. Services such as M-Pesa, initially developed as a mobile money transfer platform have also been ‘adapted’ by consumers for other uses such as saving money, paying bills and buying goods. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3169409467
  89. 89. APAC very high mobile penetration vibrant market with local content and services http://www.flickr.com/photos/gianvc/3544721938
  90. 90. In this region, the heavy colonial influence has resulted in good infrastructure, early ICT usage, and a strong level of brand and marketing awareness. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gianvc/3543932785
  91. 91. Terrestrial telecommunications have however remained poor. In Jakarta, home ADSL costs close to $100/mth. By comparison unlimited mobile data on a pay as you go Blackberry costs only ~$17/mth. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gianvc/3544738106
  92. 92. The proximity to China (and the presence of large ethnic Chinese communities throughout the region) means low-cost (and knock-off) devices have been available from the very start.
  93. 93. Use of social media in http://www.flickr.com/photos/istolethetv/4579844255/ APAC is huge....
  94. 94. Indonesia’s social media habits are now somewhat legendary. #1 Twitter and MyGamma user base #2 Opera Mini user base #3 Yahoo Go, Taptu and Facebook user base http://www.flickr.com/photos/basibanget/3726248376
  95. 95. services from more developed regional economies also have high usage Mig33 is primarily from Singapore
  96. 96. initiatives such as 0.facebook are reducing usage costs for consumers • Agreement between Facebook and >50 operators worldwide. • Available in 70 languages. • Specifically optimised to render on low-end devices. • No data charges when browsing the site itself. 0.facebook.com 100 million people browse Facebook on mobile, source: Facebook
  97. 97. ok, but what does Facebook have to do with improving people’s lives?
  98. 98. High social media use is helping improve communication during elections, natural disasters and social initiatives. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos/2679727722
  99. 99. In the Philippines use of SMS, blogging and social media are extensive and often used to keep in touch with family http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos/2679751654/ members working overseas.
  100. 100. In fact economic migration has been one reason for the increase in social media usage worldwide. http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulk/307442120
  101. 101. As in Africa, mobile capabilities in APAC remains lowest in rural areas. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos/2679061676
  102. 102. A final perspective
  103. 103. the digital divide affects developed economies as well
  104. 104. 4% iPhone market share in EU5 (U.K., France, Germany, Spain, Italy) Source: Comscore
  105. 105. Yet some of our most important services are being created for a minority of users source: Mashable, mocoNews
  106. 106. Targeting only the iPhone (and Android) will miss populations that are most in need. http://www.flickr.com/photos/maveric2003/145867209
  107. 107. thank you hello@yiibu.com Photos Creative Commons By Attribution courtesy of Flickr
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