Human Factors

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I created this presentation to deliver to prospective Afghani Fire Crew leaders as a further stage in advancing their knowledge in health and safety and in dealing with emergencies.

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  • Many books and theories have been written on human factors, it is a subject that is very complex and one that a person can spend many hours studying. However in this session, we shall only look at an overview of the subject.
  • It is helpful to use a model to aid in the understanding of HumanFactors, as this allows a gradual approach to comprehension. One practical diagram to illustrate this conceptual model uses blocks to represent the different components of Human Factors. The model can then be built up one block at a time, with a pictorial impression being given of the need for matching the components.
  • 2 x bulletsOnce information is processed, messages are sent to the muscles to initiate the desired response, whether it be a physical control movement or the initiation of some form of communication. Acceptable control forces and direction of movement have to be known, and biomechanics, physiology and psychology provide such knowledge.
  • Kerosene is not designed to be burnt in Jet engines, however, the reply he received from his aviation administration office was more complex than was required to deliver the vital information for the Jet pilot to process.
  • Information processing is only as good as the actual content of the information you receive.Think about what information you supply to others, and indeed about what information others supply you.
  • Any Questions
  • Thank everyone and look forward to future understanding and improvements in working with Human Factors.
  • Human Factors

    1. 1. An Introduction to Human Factors<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />Interaction between humans, the task, the equipment and the environment<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Aim<br />To give an introduction into what Human Factors are and what can affect them.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Objectives<br />At the end of this presentation you will be aware of:<br />The need for Human Factors<br />What are Human Factors<br />Understanding Human Factors<br />The errors that can occur with the interaction of the interfaces.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />4<br />The need for<br />Human Factors ?<br />
    5. 5. Need for Human Factors?<br />Human factors when understood can greatly benefit the person in a system. These benefits include:<br />• Effectiveness of the system<br />• Safety<br />• Efficiency<br />• Well-being of crew members.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />6<br />Effectiveness <br />of the System<br />
    7. 7. 4 key elements in understanding Human Factors<br />Liveware – the person, you and I <br />Hardware – physical, e.g. your chair<br />Software – non-physical, e.g. SOP<br />Environment – situation in which the L-H-S system interact. <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />7<br />What are Human Factors?<br />
    8. 8. 8<br />Human Factors Model<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />
    9. 9. Liveware – the person, you and I <br />In centre of the model is the person - L<br />The critical and most flexible component in the model. <br />We are subject to variation in performance <br />Edges of the blocks H-S-E are ragged<br />Blocks in model must be carefully matched if breakdown is to be avoided.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />9<br />What are Human Factors?<br />
    10. 10. Physical size and shape <br />Physical needs<br />Input characteristics<br />Information processing <br />Output characteristics<br />Environmental tolerances<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />10<br />6. Characteristics of Liveware<br />
    11. 11. Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />1. Physical size and shape<br /><ul><li>Design of a workplaces and equipment, vital role played by physical size & movement
    12. 12. These vary in age, ethnicity and gender
    13. 13. Decisions made early stage of design process
    14. 14. Data for these decisions are available from anthropometry and biomechanics.</li></ul>11<br />
    15. 15. 2. Physical needs<br />People’s requirements for essential items: <br />Food<br />Water<br />Oxygen<br />Depending on physiology and biology.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />12<br />
    16. 16. 3. Input characteristics<br />We have sensory system for collecting information<br />Enables us to respond to external events and to carry out a required task<br />All senses are subject to degradation<br />Sources of sensory knowledge are<br />Physiology<br />Sensory psychology<br />Biology<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />13<br />
    17. 17. 4. Information processing<br />Human capabilities have severe limitations. <br />Failure to account for human limitations can lead to poor system design. <br />Short and long-term memory are involved, as well as motivation and stress. <br />Psychology is the source of background knowledge here.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />14<br />
    18. 18. 5. Output characteristics<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />15<br />Information processed<br />Muscles<br />Desired response<br />Communication<br />Physical movement<br /><ul><li>Acceptable control forces and direction of movement have to be known.
    19. 19. Biomechanics, physiology and psychology provide such knowledge.</li></li></ul><li>6. Environmental tolerances<br />Environmental factors such as:<br />Temperature<br />Pressure<br />Humidity<br />Noise<br />Time of day<br />Light and darkness<br />Can be reflected in performance and well-being and can influence behaviour and performance. <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />16<br />
    20. 20. Liveware – Hardware:<br />This interface is the one most commonly considered when speaking of human-machine systems<br />Liveware – Software:<br />This covers humans and the non-physical aspects of the system such as SOP’s <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />17<br />Liveware interaction<br />
    21. 21. Liveware – Environment<br /><ul><li>This interface was one of the earliest recognized in flying.
    22. 22. Later, the trend was to reverse this process
    23. 23. Today, new challenges have arisen</li></ul>Liveware – Liveware<br /><ul><li>Fire Dept training carried on an team basis.
    24. 24. If each individual is competent, the team is competent
    25. 25. This is not always true
    26. 26. Fire crews function as groups, group influences play a role in performance. </li></ul>Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />18<br />Liveware interaction<br />
    27. 27. Safety<br />Illustration of incident due to Liveware-Liveware failing<br />A Fire fighter awaiting “water on” is injured by the discharge from a monitor.<br />Failures can include:<br />The interaction of the pump operator and the pump controls, and their apparent unclear labelling. <br />Command being given being outweighed by the pump operator being preoccupied with establishing side line supply to operative. <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />19<br />
    28. 28. Efficiency<br />Efficiency is also radically influenced by the application of, or the lack of, Human Factors<br />The following paragraphs are intended as an overview of particular applications of Human Factors knowledge which relate to efficiency. <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />20<br />
    29. 29. Well-being of Crew Members<br />Some factors influencing the mental & physical well-being of Crew members include :<br />Fatigue<br />Sleep deprivation or disturbance<br />Temperature<br />Noise<br />Stress<br />Workstation design<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />21<br />
    30. 30. Control of Human Error<br />Some factors affecting Human Error:<br />Carelessness<br />Negligence or poor judgement <br />Poorly designed equipment or may result from <br />A normal reaction of a person to a particular situation<br />The latter kind of error is likely to be repeated and its occurrence can be anticipated.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />22<br />
    31. 31. Errors at Model Interface<br />Each of the interfaces in the SHEL model has a potential of error where there is a mismatch between its components.<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />23<br />
    32. 32. Information Processing<br />Before a person can react to information, it must first be sensed; there is potential for error here because the sensory systems function within a narrow range. <br />After conclusions have been formed about the meaning of a message, decision-making begins. <br />Many factors may lead to erroneous decisions: <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />24<br />
    33. 33. Example of poor Information Processing<br />Because of the high cost of aviation gasoline, a private Jet pilot once wrote to his aviation administration and asked if he could mix kerosene in his aircraft fuel. <br />He received the following reply:<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />25<br />
    34. 34. ”Regrettably decision involves uncertainties. Kerosene utilization consequences questionable, with respect to metalloferrous components and power production.”<br />The Jet pilot did not process the information he had just received efficiently and replied:<br />”Thanks. This will sure cut my fuel bill.”<br />He then received this urgent, and far clearer, communication from his aviation administration office:<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />26<br />
    35. 35. ”DON’T USE KEROSENE. IT COULD KILL THE ENGINE – AND YOU TOO!”<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />27<br />
    36. 36. Controlling Human Error<br />The control of human error requires two different<br />approaches:<br />Minimize occurrence of errors by: <br />High levels of staff competence<br />Design controls to match human characteristics<br />Provide proper checklists, procedures, SOP’s etc.<br />Reduce stressful conditions<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />28<br />2. Reduce consequences of remaining errors by:<br /><ul><li>Cross-monitoring Crews
    37. 37. Close Crew co-operation.</li></li></ul><li>SUMMARY<br />We have now been introduced into the complex subject of Human factors. We covered:<br />What are Human Factors<br />Which interfaces play a part in Human Factors<br />The errors that can occur with the interaction of the interfaces <br />Name the 4 key elements of Human Factors:<br />L – H – S – E <br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport Fire Department<br />29<br />
    38. 38. Questions<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />30<br />
    39. 39. Thank you and look forward<br />Kabul Afghanistan International Airport <br />Fire Department<br />31<br />

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