EMBRYOLOGY H IN O L Y Q U R’ A NAJIYA.C BA ENGLISH N
INTRODUCTIONEmbryology, the science which dealswith the development of an embryo isone of the many miracles in the holyquran. It is evident that quranic versesgives an accurate description of themain stages the embryo encountersduring creation and formation untildelivery.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Scientists at that time of prophet (PBUH) believed that man was created from menstrual blood Until the 18th century there were two theories: 1- It was assumed by Aristotle that a full dwarf embryo exists in mans semen 2- full dwarf embryo created out of the woman’s menstrual blood coagulation
The dwarf embryo as imagined by Leonardo da Vinci from the 15th century (on the left) The sperm as miniature human being by Hartsoeker from the 17th century (on the right)
In 1775 Spallanzani suggested that man’s sperm and woman’s ovum participate in the creation of the embryo. In 1783, Van Beneden was able to confirm this statement, and thus the idea of the dwarf embryo had been discarded
THE QURANThe Quran is the divine guidance for mankind,and it is the final divine revelation of God. TheQuran was revealed to Muhammad (570 - 632) bythe angel Gabriel over a period of 23 years.
EMBRYOLOGY IN THE HOLY QURAN ( 14-13 ) مرا لكم ل ترجون لِل وقرار ا .وقد خلقكم أطو ار ا () نوح ًَّ راَ ْمُ َوْ راَ راَ َوْ ْمُ راَ َّ راَ راَ اً راَ راَ َوْ راَ راَ راَ ْمُ َوْ راَ َوْ راَ ا ِهَّل “What is the matter with you, that ye are not conscious of Allah’s majesty,- Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages" (71: 13-14)
TESTICLES AND SPERMS The testicles, begin their development near the kidney. Later they descend before birth to reach the scrotum through the inguinal canal. Testicles form The mans fluid (semen ). Semen contains hundred million sperms (500- 600). Sperms should gushing in order to enter through the vagina and uterine cervix Only one sperm fertilizes the ovum of woman. The sperm and not the ovum decides the sex of the embryo
In QURAN () خلق من مراء د افق( )يخرج من بين الصلب و التر ائبHe is created from a drop emitted proceeding frombetween the backbone and the ribs خلق النسران من النطفة فأذ ا هو خصيم مبينHe has created man from a sperm(fluid-drop)andbeholds this same(man)becomes an opendisputer(16:4)
( 6-5 ) فليظنظر الاَسنسان مم خلق . خلق م ن ماء دافقا)الطارق ٍ)اَ إْ اَ لُ قِ قِإْ اَ لُ قِ اَ لُقِ اَ لُقِ اَ قِ َّ اَ قِ ا“SO, LET MAN CONSIDER OF WHATHE WAS CREATED . HE WASCREATED OF GUSHING WATER” (86:5-6)
NUTFAH إن ا خلقن ا اإلنس ان من نطفة أمش اج نبتليه فجعلن اه سميع ا ًعيِ اَّ مَمَ َنْ مَ عيِ مَ مَ عيِ َنْ ُ َنْ مَ ٍ مَ َنْ مَ ٍ مَ َنْ مَعيِ عيِ مَ مَ مَ َنْ مَ ُ مَ عيِ ا ))بصير ًمَ عيِ ا ) 2:)اإلنس ان“Verily We created man from a drop of a mingled fluid-drop (nutfa amshaj), in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight.” (76:2). “Nutfa” in Arabic means “very little water” “Amshaj” means “mingling ” as man’s water mingles with that of the woman ”
CLINGING OF EMBRYO IN THE UTERUS ALAQA This starts on the 15th day and ends on the 23rd or 24th day, the embryo looks like a leech. Blood is formed in the vessels at the shape of closed islands, having the image of clotted blood.
Four cell embryo Two cell oFertilized ovum embryo
THE ZYGOTE DIVIDES QUICKLY WITHOUTA CHANGE IN SIZE AND MOVE FROM THEFALLOPIAN TUBE (CONNECTING THEOVARY AND THE UTERUS) TOWARDS THEUTERUS, WHERE IT IS IMPLANTED.
QURA’NIC DESCRIPTION OF THIS STAGE ( 14)ثم خلقن ا النطفة علقة ( )سورة المؤمنون ً ُ اَّ مَ مَ َنْ مَ ُّ َنْ مَ مَ مَ مَ مَ ا “then of that fluid-drop (nutfa) We created a leech-like clot" (23:14) . Alaqa, in Arabic, has several meanings: 1- A leech that lives in ponds and sucks the blood of other creatures.2- A thing attached or clings to something else.3- Clotted or coagulated blood.
()أقرأ براسم ربك الذي خلق( )خلق النسران من علقProclaim!(or read!) In the name of thy lordand cherisher , who created-created man ,outof a (mere)clot of congealed blood (96:1-2)
THE LEECH AS IT APPEARS ON THE UTERINE SURFACE
MUDGHA STAGESCIENTIFICALLY THE EMBRYO IS TRANSFORMEDFROM THE STAGE OF ALAQA TO THE STAGE OFMUDGHA ON THE 24TH DAY TO THE 26TH DAY. (14 :)فخلقن ا العلقة مضغة ( )المؤمنون ًمَ مَ مَ َنْ مَ َنْ مَ مَ مَ مَ ُ َنْ مَ ا“then We changed the Alaqa (leech-like clot) into a Mudgha (chewed-like lump) ” (23: 14). Five weeks human embryo which looks like a piece of a chewed gum
BONESA CARTILAGINOUS SKELETON STARTSTO SPREAD IN THE BODY.TRANSFORMATION FROM THEMUDGHA FORM TO THE BEGINNING OFTHE SKELETON FORM OCCURS IN AVERY SHORT PERIOD OF TIME AT THEEND OF THE 6TH WEEK AND THEBEGINNING OF THE 7TH WEEK. In Quran“then we made out of that mudgha(chewed-like lump)bones”(23:14)
Muscle stageThis stage, which starts at the end of the 7th week and ends at the end of the 8th week IN QURAN “AND CLOTHED THE BONES WITH FLESH”(23:14)
Until very recently, embryologists assumed thatthe bones and muscles in an embryo develope atthe same time. Yet, advanced microscopicresearch has revealed that first, the cartilagetissue of the embryo ossifies. Then muscular cellsthat are selected from amongst the tissue aroundthe bones come together and wrap around thebones
EMBRYO STAGE AND FOETUS STAGEScientific facts: By the end of the 8th week, a new stage starts. The rate of developing accelerates compared with the previous one. Between the 9th and 12th week, the embryo starts to transform into another creature, as the sizes of head, body and limbs start to be balanced and regular. By the 16th week , it becomes a Foetus.
مَ مَ مَ َنْ مَ َنْ عيِ مَ مَ مَ َنْ اً ُ اَّ مَ مَ َنْ مَ ُ مَ َنْ اً مَ مَ مَ مَ مَ مَ مَ ُ مَ َنْ مَ ُ ) فكسون ا العظ ام لحم ا ثم أنشأن اه خلق ا آخر فتب ارك ال أحسن اَّ الخ القين ))المؤمنون: 41 ( َنْ مَ عيِ عيِ مَ“And clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best )41 :32( ”.to create
EMBRYONIC STAGETHE IMAGE OF EMBRYO DOES NOT LOOK LIKE HUMANS Foetus stage( another creature’ ) 16th week ( 112 days) Eyebrows, eyelashes and fine hair appear. The foetus can grasp with his hands, kick, or even somersault. here the unborn baby is sucking his thumb
CONCLUSION it is evident that these Quranic verses give an accurate description of the main stages the embryo encounters during creation and formation until delivery. It is noticed that these changes coincide with the remarks of modern embryology, and truly expresses the external phenomena of changes that result from the internal changes. This proves the miraculous nature of the Quran, which cannot be revealed except from the Almighty Allah
IN QUR’AN ) سنريهم آياتنا في الفاق و في أنفسهم (53 حتى يتبين لهم أنه الحق ( ) فصلت “Soon will We show them our signs in the furthest horizons, and in their selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth” (41: 53).
Thank you for your attention and may Allah guide us to what pleases Himو آخر دعوان ا أن الحمد ل رب الع المين